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PROPOSED HOUSING PROJECT FOR GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES AT BORELLA 25

STORIED
LIGHTNING STUDY (RISK ASSESSMENT) REPORT ON LIGHTNING PROTECTION

1. Introduction
Lightning protection study is a highly site specific, with many design unique to individual
facilities and structures. Mitigation of the effects of lightning strike is attempted through the
deployment of a combination of exterior and interior defenses. The dangerous effects of
strikes to a housing scheme building can include damage in sophisticated electronic
equipment and life loss.
There are no devices and methods capable of preventing for lightning discharges. The type
of damage depends on the position of the point of the strike, on its characteristic and
systems involved. The occurrences, which are caused by lightning, can threat people, critical
structures, and internal electrical and electronic systems due to electromagnetic effects of
lightning current, so that the selection of adequate protection measures has a high priority.
2. Objectives
The objective of this lightning protection study is to;
Risk assessment to the site to identify required protection level.

3. Standards
This document refers to the following standards:
EN 62305-1: "Protection against lightning. Part 1: General principles";
EN 62305-2: "Protection against lightning. Part 2: Risk assessment";
EN 62305-3: "Protection against lightning. Part 3: Physical damage to structures and
life hazards";
EN 62305-4: "Protection against lightning. Part 4: Electrical and electronic systems
within structures";
4. Parameters of lightning current
The most important parameters for the purpose of designing protection systems are peak
value of the strike and the lighting density of the area. In the area of Borella (Colombo), the
isokeraounic level is well above 90 and nearly 100 days (fig:01). The peak current is at
average of 36kA. [The data is from Activity of cloud-to-ground lightning observed in Sri
Lanka and in surrounding area of the Indian Ocean by A. B. Weerasekera, D. U. J.
Sonnadara, I. M. K. Fernando, J.P. Liyanage, R. Lelwala and T. R. Ariyaratne]

Fig 01: Isokeraounic Map Sri Lanka [The map is based on the findings of the study
Lightning conditions in Ceylon, and measures to reduce damage to electrical equipment by
Dr Gi-ichi Ikeda in 1968 (Asian Productivity organization report, May 1969 AP) Project
TES/68)]

5. Risks of lightning strikes


Since this apartment building is a high populated location in Sri Lankas capital city,
Colombo, and damages due to event like lightning cannot be underestimated.
Cloud-to-ground lightning strokes present a clear and immediate danger for ground
personnel involved in outdoor operations. When this danger presents, people outside
operations are suspended until the threat has passed.
Direct and nearby cloud-to-ground discharges can be hazardous to structures, persons,
installations and other systems within or on structures. So, the application of lightning
protection measures must be considered. The decision for the need for protection and the
selection of protection measures should be determined in terms of risk; it means that these
measures should be adequate to reduce the risk to a tolerable level.
The modern approach is that of risk management which integrates the need for protection
and the selection of adequate protection measures taking into account the efficiency of the
measures. In the risk management approach, the lightning threats that create risk are
identified, the frequencies of all risk events are estimated, the consequences of the risk
events are determined and, if these are above a tolerable level of risk, protection measures
are applied to reduce the risk (R) to below the tolerable level (RT).
The criteria for design, installation and maintenance of lightning protection measures may
be distinguished as protection measures to reduce mechanical damages, fire, explosion
danger and life hazard due to direct lightning flashes to the structure; protection measures
against the electromagnetic effects of lightning on electrical and electronic systems within a
structure; protection measure to reduce the loss of services entering the structure, power,
telecommunication and data lines.
It should be stressed that the selection of adequate protection measures aim to reduce not
only the risk by direct flashes to the structure but even the risk for low- voltage and
electronic systems against indirect flashes, it means the risk due to flashes to ground near
the structure, flashes direct to the lines or flashes to ground near the lines entering the
building.
6. Risk analysis results and conclusions
A LPS shall be designed in accordance with BS EN 62305 parts 3 and 4 based on these
conclusions discussed under the annexures and chapter 7 to reduce the risk level to a
tolerable value. This LPS shall be implement to mitigate the lightning effects to the site and
thereby minimizes the risk of failure of building.
7. Recommendations
The risk analysis was done to the site covering the structure. The annexure 01 contains the
risk analysis done as per the BS EN 62305 part 2 and the collection area drawing of the
structure using Autocad application was attached under the annexure 02. The result and
required protection level is discussed and are included in the annexures 01. It is generally
observed from the results that there is a risk in direct hit of lightning to the considered
3

structure and also LPS, equipotential bonding and Coordinated SPD protection is proposed
to bring down the level of risk below the tolerable value.

Basnayaka D.S.K.
Director
B.Sc. (Eng), C. Eng, M.Sc. (Power), MIESL, APGBCSL

Annexure 01

RISK ANALYSIS - BS EN 62305 2010

Borella Housing Complex for Government Servants

Table 01 - Environment and Globle Structure Characteristics


INPUT PARAMETER
Ground flash density (1/ km2 / year)

COMMENT

SYMBOL

VALUE

REFERENCE

NG = 0.1 X TD, TD = 80

NG

EQ A.1

Structure dimentions (m)

Location factor

Isolated

113

73

82

CD

Table A.1

LPS

PB

Table B.2

Equipotential bonding

PEB

Table B.7

External spatial Shield

None

KS1

EQ B.5

COMMENT

SYMBOL

VALUE
500

REFERENCE

LL
Burried

CI

0.5

Table A.2

With HV/LV Transformer

CT

0.2

Table A.3

Urban

CE

0.1

Table A.4

Unshielded

RS

Table B.8

CLD

CLI

Table 02 - Power Line


INPUT PARAMETER

Length (m)
Installation factor
Line type Factor
Environmental factor
Shield of line ((/km)
Shielding, grounding, isolation

Adjacent structure (m)

Location factor of adjacent Structure

Burried line

yes

Surrounded by higher objects

Withstand voltage of internal system (kV)

CDJ

0.25

UW

2.5

Table B.4

Table A.1

KS4

0.4

EQ B.7

Resulting parameters

PLD
PLI

1
0.3

Table B.8
Table B.9

COMMENT

SYMBOL

VALUE
500

REFERENCE

0.5

Table A.2

Table A.3

0.1

Table A.4

Table B.8

Table 02 - Telecom Line


INPUT PARAMETER

Length (m)
Installation factor

Burried

Line type Factor

LV Line

Environmental factor

Urban

Shield of line ((/km)

Unshielded

Shielding, grounding, isolation

Adjacent structure (m)


Location factor of adjacent Structure
Withstand voltage of internal system (kV)

Burried

None

LL
CI
CT
CE
RS
CLD
CLI
L
W

1
1

Table B.4

0
0
0

H
CDJ
UW
KS4
PLD
PLI

1.5
0.67
1
0.5

Comment & Reference


Ceramic tile

Symbol
rt

Values
0.001

REFERENCE

None

PTA

Table B.1

None

PTU

Table B.6

Low

rf

0.001

Table C.5

Variable

rp

0.2

Table C.4

None

Resulting parameters

Table A.1
EQ B.7
Table B.8
Table B.9

Zone 2 (Z2) - Inside Building


Parameter
Type of floor
Protection against shock (flash to
structrue)
Protection against shock (flash to
line)
Risk of fire
Fire protection

Table C.3

Internal Spacial shield

KS2

None

EQ B.6

Power
Unshielded

KS3

0.2

Table B.5

PSPD

Table B.3

Unshielded

KS3

Table B.5

None

PSPD

Table B.3

No special hazard

hZ

Table C.6

D1: Due to touch and step voltage

LT

0.01

D2: Due to physical damage

LF

0.1

D3: Failure of internal systems

LO

Number of persons IN ZONE

nZ

1500

Total in the structure

nt

1500

time in hours per year in zone

tZ

8760

LA

0.00001

Internal wiring
Coordinated SPDs

Telecom
Internal wiring
Coordinated SPDs

L1: Loss of humen life

Factor for persons in Zone


Type of loss D1

nZ / nt x tZ / 8760

LA = rt x LT x nZ / nt x tZ / 8760
LU = rt x LT x nZ / nt x tZ / 8760

LU

0.00001

Type of loss D2

LB = LV = rp x rf x hZ x LF X nZ / nt x tZ / 8760

LB = LV

0.00002

Type of loss D3

LC =LM = LW = LZ = LO X nZ / nt x tZ / 8760

LC = LM = LW
= LZ

Collection areas

Comment

Power line

Telecom line

Structure

Result m2

Reference

AD = L x W + 6H(L+W) + 9H or graphical

2.63E+05

EQ A.2

AM= 2 X 500 X (L+W) + X 5002


AL/P = 40 X LL
AI/P = 4000 X LL
ADJ/P = L x W + 6H(L+W) + 9H2
AL/T = 40 X LL
AI/T = 4000 X LL
ADJ/T = L x W + 6H(L+W) + 9H2

AM
AL/P
AI/P
ADJ/P
AL/T
AI/T
ADJ/T

9.72E+05

EQ A.7

Comment
ND=NG X AD/B X CD/B X 10
NM = NG X AM X 10

-6

-6

EQ A.9

2.00E+06

EQ A.11

4.60E+02

EQ A2

2.00E+04

EQ A.9

2.00E+06

EQ A.11

0.00E+00

EQ A2

Symbol
ND

Result m2

Reference

2.11E+00

EQ A.4

NM

7.77E+00

EQ A.6

NL/P

0.0016

EQ A.8

NIP=NG X AI/P X CI/P X CE/P X CT/P X 10-6


NDJ/P = NG X ADJ/P X CDJ/P X CT/P X 10-6

NI/P
NDJ/P
NL/T

1.60E-01

EQ A.10

NL/T=NG X AL/T X CI/T X CE/T X CT/T X 10


Telecom line

2.00E+04

-6

NLP=NG X AL/P X CI/P X CE/P X CT/P X 10


Power line

Table C.1

Symbol
AD

Structure

Table C.2

-6

1.84E-04

EQ A5

8.00E-03

EQ A.8

NI/T = NG X AI/T X CI/T X CE/T X CTT X 10-6


NDJ/T = NG X ADJ/T X CDJ/T X CT/T X 10-6

NI/T
NDJ/T

8.00E-01

EQ A.10

0.00E+00

EQ A5

PA = PTA X PB
PC = PSPD X CLD , PC = 1-(1-PC1)X(1-PC2)
PM = PSPD X PMS , PM = 1-(1-PM1)X(1-PM2)

PA
PC
PM

1
1
0.448

PMS = (KS1 X KS2 X KS3 X KS4) 2


PUP = PTU X PEB X PLDP X CLDP
PUT = PTU X PEB X PLDT X CLDT
PVP =PEB X PLDP X CLDP
PVT = PEB X PLDT X CLDT
PWP = PSPDP X PLDP X CLDP
PWT = PSPDT X PLDT X CLDT
PZP =PSPDP X PLIP X CLIP
PZT =PSPDT X PLIT X CLIT

PUP
PUT
PVP
PVT
PWP
PWT
PZP
PZT

1
1
1
1
1
1
0.3
0.5

PROBABILITIES - Z2

Evaluation of Risk R1
TYPE OF DAMAGE
D1
D2

D3

SYMBOL

EQUIATION

Z1

Z2

TOTAL

RA

RA = ND X PA X LA

2.11E-05

2.11E-05

RU = RU/P +RU/T

RU = (NL + NDJ) X PU X LU

2.11E-05

2.11E-05

RB

RB = ND X PB X LB

4.21E-05

4.21E-05

RV = RV/P +RV/T

RV = (NL + NDJ) X PV X LV

1.92E-07

0.000000192

RC

RC = ND X PC X LC

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

RM

RM = NM X PM X LM

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

RW = RW/P + RW/T

RW = (NL +NDJ) X PW X LW

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

RZ = RZ/P + RZ/T

RZ = NI X PZ X LZ

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

24.92%
25.01%
49.84%
0.23%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

8.45E-05
8.45E-05
RT < R1 NEED PROTECTION

1. R1 is greter that Rt hence the protection for structure is required.


2. the risk for structure is mainly due to physical damages caused by lightning to the structure.
Solution:
1. Provide the whole building with a class III LPS confirming to BS EN 62305-3 and redusing
component RB via PB (PB = 0.2) and equipotential bonding with coordinated SPD system.
Values of Risk after LPS

Evaluation of Risk R1
TYPE OF DAMAGE

SYMBOL

EQUIATION

D1

RA

RA = ND X PA X LA

RU = RU/P +RU/T RU = (NL + NDJ) X PU X LU


D2

RB

RB = ND X PB X LB

RV = RV/P +RV/T RV = (NL + NDJ) X PV X LV


D3

Z1

Z2

TOTAL

2.02919E-06

2.02919E-06 0.28516822

1.0186E-06

1.0186E-06 0.14314624

4.05838E-06

4.05838E-06 0.57033643

9.6E-09

9.6E-09 0.00134912

RC

RC = ND X PC X LC

RM

RM = NM X PM X LM

RW = RW/P + RW/T
RW = (NL +NDJ) X PW X LW

RZ = RZ/P + RZ/T RZ = NI X PZ X LZ

7.11577E-06
7.11577E-06

Annexure 02