Anda di halaman 1dari 39

TEAM CODE:

IN THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE


LA COUR INTERNATIONALE DE JUSTICE

AT THE PEACE PALACE,


THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS

GENERAL LIST NO
YEAR 2016
CASE CONCERNING RIGHT OF SELF-DETERMINATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF
DEMOCRATIC SETUP

6TH JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI


INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS
2016

STATE OF SOREMON &


REPRESENTATIVES OF BOLR

(THE APPLICANT STATES)

STATE OF BOREMON

(THE RESPONDENT STATE)

ON SUBMISSION TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

-MEMORIAL ON BEHALF OF APPLICANTWRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF AUTHORITIES .......................................................................................................... VI


STATEMENT OF JURISDICTION .......................................................................................... X
STATEMENT OF FACTS ......................................................................................................... XI
ISSUES RAISED ...................................................................................................................... XVI
SUMMARY OF ARGUEMENTS ........................................................................................ XVII
ARGUMENTS ADVANCED ....................................................................................................... 1
1. THE STATE OF BOREMON HAS VIOLATED THE INTERNATIONAL TREATY WHICH WAS SIGNED
ON 16TH SEPTEMBER, 2015 AT ROMIA ........................................................................................... 1

2. BOLR HAS EXERCISED ITS RIGHT TO SELF DETERMINATION AND IS A FREE NATION......... 3
2.1.THAT SELF-DETERMINATION IS A LEGAL RIGHT UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW ..................... 3
2.2. THAT RIGHT TO SELF- DETERMINATION IS A PEREMPTORY NORM .......................................... 3
2.3. THE PEOPLE OF BOLR ARE ENTITLED TO THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION....................... 5
3. THE

STATE OF BOREMON HAS VIOLATED HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE CIVILIANS BY INDULGING

ITSELF IN THE KILLINGS OF MANY INNOCENTS SPECIALLY IN THE BOLR REGION ....................... 5

3.1. STATE OF BOREMON HAS VIOLATED INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS ............ 6
3.2. THAT THE BOREMONIAN ARMY KILLED INNOCENT PROTESTORS OF THE REGION ................... 6

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


II

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

3.2.1. CIVILIANS WERE ATTACKED BY THE BOREMON FORCES IN CONTRAVENTION OF AP-I .. 6


3.3.THAT THE STATE OF BOREMON HAS VIOLATED AGREEMENT FOR THE RIGHT OF SELFDETERMINATION AND TO ESTABLISH A DEMOCRATIC SET UP IN BOLR ........................................... 7

3.3.1.

THAT THE UNREST IN BOLR REGION IS WIDELY REPORTED............................................ 8

3.3.2. THAT THE STATE OF BOREMON HAS FUELLED SECTARIAN DIVIDE IN THE REGION ....... 8
4. THE

STATE OF BOREMON ILLEGALLY POSSESS THE TERRITORY OF BOLR INCLUDING AZAD

LOLA AND RAMOLA (ALR) AND GILLY BUKET ................................................................................ 9

4.1.BREACH OF THE PRINCIPLE OF TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY ...................................................... 9


4.1.1. ARTICLE 5 OF DECLARATION ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT ................................. 9
4.1.2. WORLD SUMMIT OUTCOME 2005 ................................................................................... 9
4.2. FORCES OF BOREMON VIOLATED THE RESOLUTIONS OF GENERAL ASSEMBLY ................. 10
4.2.1. RESOLUTION 42/22 OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY ....................................................... 10
4.2.2.BOREMIAN FORCES HAVE VIOLATED THE MANILA RESOLUTION ................................ 10
4.3. THAT THE STATE OF LOLA AND RAMOLA INCLUDING THE BOLR REGION IS AN INTERGRAL
PART OF SOREMON ...................................................................................................................... 11

5.

THE PRINCIPLE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW WARRANTS SOME STRINGENT ACTIONS TO BE

TAKEN UP BY THE ICJ AGAINST BOREMON ................................................................................... 12

5.1. A NON-INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICT HAS ARISEN INTERNALLY WITHIN BOREMON .... 12

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


III

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

5.2 THERE EXISTS INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT BETWEEN BOREMON AND SOREMON


5.2.1. THE

CONFLICT FALLS WITHIN THE AMBIT OF ARTICLE

1(4)

OF THE

ADDITIONAL

PROTOCOL 1 OF 1977 ............................................................................................................. 12


5.2.2. IN ARGUENDO,

THE

SOREMONION

INTERVENTION INTERNATIONALIZED THE ARMED

CONFLICT ............................................................................................................................... 13

6.

THE STATE OF BOREMON HAS REPEATEDLY VIOLATED A SERIES OF INTERNATIONAL

CONVENTIONS OF HIGH VALUE AND DIGNITY WHILE DEFENDING ITS STANCE IN BOLR ............. 14

6.1. BOREMON HAS VIOLATED THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS
(ICCPR) ....................................................................................................................................... 14
6.1.1. BOREMON IS BOUND TO COMPLY WITH THE PROVISIONS OF ICCPR ............................... 14
6.1.2. VARIOUS PROVISIONS OF THE ICCPR HAVE BEEN VIOLATED......................................... 14
6.2. BOREMON IS ACTING AGAINST ITS OBLIGATION UNDER CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW
NOT TO INTERVENE IN THE AFFAIRS OF ANOTHER STATE ........................................................ 15
6.2.1. ACTIONS OF BOREMON AMOUNT TO BREACH OF INTERNATIONAL LAW ...................... 15
6.3. VIOLATION UNDER UDHR, 1948 ........................................................................................ 17
7. THAT THE STATE OF DEMOCRACY, IN THE TERRITORY OF BOLR MUST BE INSTATED BY THE
ICJ BY ALLOWING BOLR TO MERGE WITH SOREMON ................................................................. 17

7.1. BOREMON HAS VIOLATED THE PRINCIPLE OF PROHIBITION OF USE OF FORCE ....................... 17
7.1.1.THE OBLIGATION TO REFRAIN FROM THE USE OF FORCE IS OBLIGATION ERGA OMNES 17

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


IV

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

7.1.2. THERE EXISTS NO RIGHT OF UNILATERAL HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION .............. 18


7.2. THIS COURT SHOULD ORDER IMMEDIATE CESSATION OF BOREMONS WRONGFUL ACTS ..... 18
7.2.1. THAT THE USE OF FORCE BY BOREMON WAS AN INTERNATIONALLY WRONGFUL ACT. 18
7.2.2. CESSATION AS A CONSEQUENCE OF AN INTERNATIONALLY WRONGFUL ACT ............... 19
PRAYER .....................................................................................................................................XX

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


V

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

LIST OF AUTHORITIES

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES, AGREEMENTS AND CHARTERS


International Covenants on Human Rights, Common Article 1, December 16, 1966.
The United Nations Charter, 1945
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, December 16, 1966.
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966
Universal Declaration on Human Rights, 1948.
The Agreement for the Right of Self-Determination and to establish a Democratic set up
in BoLR (ARSDB)
UN Security Resolution 47, Kashmir
General Assembly Resolution 2625 (XXV) of 24th October, 1970.
The Geneva Conventions of 1949.

RESOLUTIONS
SC Res. 163 (XVI), Question Relating to Angola, June 9, 1961, S/4835 (1961).
GA Res. 421(V), Draft International Covenant on Human Rights and Measures of
Implementation, December 4, 1950, A/RES/421.
The General Assembly Resolution 2625 (XXV), Declaration on Principles of
International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in
accordance with the Charter of the United Nations: A/RES/25/2625 (24 October 1970)
G.A. Res.1514 (XV), Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial
Territories and Peoples at 75, Dec. 14 1960
WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT
VI

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

U.N. Doc.A/RES/1514(XV) (1960)[ hereinafter Colonial Declaration];


GA Res. 1541(XV), Principles which should guide Members in determining whether or
not an obligation exists to transmit the information called for under Article 73e of the
Charter, December 15, 1960, A/4684 (1960)

ACTS & REPORTS


Indian Independence Act, 1947.
International Status of South-West Africa, ICJ Reports, 1950, p.131.
ICJ Reports 1950, p.132.
A.J.I.L, Vol. 22 (1968), pp. 867-912
Permanent Court of International Justice (1993) A/B No.53 (3 W.C.R. 151)
I.C.J. Reports 1953, p.47
UN SC Res. 1373, on threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts,
September 28, 2001, S/RES/1373.
Friendly Relations Declaration, supra note 12,:The Resolution provides the state to
respect territorial integrity of a state and provides the states from refraining itself from
any of the acts which may breach the territorial integrity of the other state.
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 31(3) (b) reads: any subsequent
practice in the application of the treaty which establishes the agreement of the parties
regarding its interpretation, May 23, 1969, 1155 U.N.T.S. 331. [hereinafter VCLT]

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


VII

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

CASES
Case concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), (1995) 102 I.C.J. Rep. 90
Case Concerning the Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Limited (Belgium
v. Spain), (1970) 304 I.C.J.
Fisheries Jurisdiction Case (Second Phase) 2 February 1973.
United Kingdom v. Iceland, (1974) 162 I.C.J. Rep. 3.
Prosecutor v. Kupreki, (2000) 521 Case No. IT-95-16-T.
Blaski Case, IT-95-14-T, 3 March 2000.
Kordi & erkez Case, July 18 2008.
Abella v. Argentina, (1997) Case No 11.137 Report No 55/97
Palestinian Territory Case, Advisory Opinion, I. C. J. Reports 2004.
Sergio Euben Lopez Burgos v. Uruguay, (1981) U.N. Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/36/40) at
176 (1981).

ADVISORY OPINION
Western Sahara, Advisory Opinion, (1975) 31-33 I.C.J. Rep. 12
Advisory Opinion Concerning Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the
Occupied Palestinian Territory, (2004) 136 I.C.J. Rep. 9 July 2004. [hereinafter
Palestinian Territory Case]
Advisory Opinion on Nuclear Weapons, supra note 90, at 25.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


VIII

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

BOOKS & ARTICLES


Antonia Cassese, Self Determination of Peoples- A Legal Appraisal (1996).
R. Provost, International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (2002)
Patrick Bascio (2007). Defeating Islamic Terrorism: An Alternative Strategy. Branden
Books.
"Pakistan: Rampant Killings of Shia by Extremists". Human Rights Watch. June 30,
2014.
Astrid J. M. Delissen, Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict: Challenges Ahead1 08
(1991).
Kashmir Across LoC, Debidatta Aurobindo Mahapatra, Gyan Publications, 2003, Pg. 14.
S.R.S. Bedi, The Development of Human Rights Law by the Judges of the International
Court of Justice, Hart Publishing, Oxford, 2007.
J.G. Starke Introduction to International Law, Tenth Edition.
L. Oppenheim, International Law, Vol. 1, Eighth Edition.
J.E.S. Fawcett, The Law of Nations, OUP Oxford, 2008.
Rigo Sureda, The Evolution of the Right of Self-Determination.
Louis B. John, The Development of the Charter of the United Nations: The Present
State.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


IX

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

STATEMENT OF JURISDICTION

The State of Soremon, representatives of BoLR and State of Boremon submit their dispute
concerning Right of Self-determination and establishment of democratic setup of BoLR to the
International Court of Justice by Special Agreement pursuant to article 40(1) of the Statute of
the International Court of Justice. The parties have agreed to the contents of the Compromis
submitted as part of the Special Agreement. The State of Soremon, representatives of BoLR and
State of Boremon have accepted the compulsory jurisdiction of the Court in accordance with
article 40(1) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice.1 The State of Soremon, and
representatives of BoLR, undertake to accept the judgment of this Court as final and binding and
shall execute it in good faith in its entirety.

Article 40(1) - Cases are brought before the Court, as the case may be, either by the notification of the special
agreement or by a written application addressed to the Registrar. In either case the subject of the dispute and the
parties shall be indicated.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


X

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

STATEMENT OF FACTS

Soremon- An Introduction
Soremon was once a Golden Bird which was looted and plundered by the Great Kritish and
reduced to one third of its original pride. They gained Independence in 1947. Over the centuries,
there has been significant integration of Soreism and Bislam cultures across Soremon and the
Bismils have played a prominent role in Soremon's economic rise and cultural influence. Though
united by the cause of national freedom struggle movement, the believers of both these religions
were different in opinion and culture. This diversity along with the major religious differences
led to the unwanted and unwarranted unrest among both the factions which in turn led to some
violent activities from members of both factions.
The Divide
The concerns of these two great leaders who greatly contributed in the national freedom
movement paved a way to the larger disputes among these two factions both demanding a
separate nation. Upon the unprecedented violent activities and riots between these two factions,
high level talks between the two group leaders started which ultimately resulted in the Partition
of Soremon into two nations. By virtue of one of the bloodiest partition movement, The
Dominion of Boremon, largely consisting of Bismil Population was created on 14th August,
1947. The Partition of Soremon and Boremon is recorded as one of the bloodiest partitions in the
history of mankind. As a result of the partition, a choice was given to the people those were
living in both Soremon and Boremon regions to select their own countries. The World witnessed
a mass exodus and exchange of people from every region like never before in the history which
was also followed by brutal riots among both factions.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


XI

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

Independent States
The Lola and Ramola was initially a state in northern Soremon. It is located mostly in the great
Cheema Mountains, and shares a border with the states of HP and Dunjab to the south. The Great
King Tintumon had ascended the throne of the Lola and Ramola in 1925 and was the reigning
monarch at the conclusion of Kritish rule in the subcontinent in 1947. One of the conditions of
the partition of Soremon imposed by Great Kritain was that the rulers of princely states would
have the right to opt for either Soremon or Boremon or remain independent.
Lola and Ramola
Due to intense fighting over the state by both Soremon and Boremon, the United Nations
Military Observer Group in Soremon and Boremon (UNMOGSB) was deployed to supervise the
ceasefire between Soremon and Boremon. UNMOGIP's functions were to investigate complaints
of ceasefire violations and submit findings to each party and to the U.N. secretary-general. Under
the terms of the ceasefire, it was decided that both armies would withdraw and a plebiscite would
be held in Lola and Ramola to give their people the right to self-determination. Soremon
introduced a number of special provisions to ensure sufficient autonomy in L & R. The Lola and
Ramola became the only state in Soremon which enjoyed special autonomy under Article 370 of
the Constitution of Soremon. Subsequently, jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Soremon over
Lola & Ramola has been extended
BoLR
Boremon occupied Lola & Ramola (BoLR) is a land consists of the so called 'Azad Lola &
Ramola (ALR)' and Gilly Buket also popularly referred to as the 'Northern Areas'. BoLR is part
of the state of Lola & Ramola (L&R), and hence, Soremon considers it as an integral part of
Soremon. Soremon contends that BoLR has been under the illegitimate control of Boremon since

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


XII

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

October 22, 1947. Soremon succeeded in repulsing the invaders from the valley but, when the
Soremon army sought to clear the state of these lashkars, it was confronted with regulars from
the Boremon army. The matter was referred by Soremon to the United Nations in the hope of a
fair and legitimate solution, which would put an end to external aggression and armed
confrontation between the two states. The Soremons part of L&R followed the democratic path
as per Article 370 of the Soremonian constitution while the area under Boremons occupation
was bifurcated into two - 'Azad Lola and Ramola' (ALR) and the 'Northern Areas', which
consisted of Gilly Buket. . The leaders of ALR surrendered the Northern Areas to Boremon
under the Timbey Agreement of April 28, 1949. The 'Azad Lola & Ramola government was
established in BoLR, on October 24, 1947, which worked like a 'war council'.
Discontentment
The continuing subjugation by Boremon over the decades has led to an acute sense of alienation
amongst the people. The growing discontent has led groups to demand freedom from Boremon
control and abolition of the Interim Constitution. Furthermore, the people of the Gilly Buket did
not enjoy the constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights that people in the rest of Boremon
did. In March 1993, on being petitioned about the status of the Northern Areas, the ALR High
Court in its verdict took serious note of the unrepresentative and arbitrary administrative system
and denial of fundamental rights in the 'Northern Areas'. It directed the ALR government to
immediately assume charge of the region and asked the government of Boremon to assist the
ALR government in this task. The Boremon government appealed against this judgment in the
Supreme Court, which in its verdict on 14 September 1994, stated that: the Northern Areas are
part of Lola & Ramola state but are not part of "Azad Lola & Ramola" as defined in the Interim
Constitution Act, 1974. The demographic composition of the Gilly Buket region of the BoLR,

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


XIII

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

has undergone a sea change since 1947 as a result of a deliberate strategy of the Boremon
government to turn the original inhabitants of the region, mostly Shias, into a minority. The issue
of the large scale migration of Khatoons into BoLR has not been given its due attention by
Soremon and the international community. The Northern Light Infantry (NLI) deployed in the
Targil war by Boremon was originally made up of recruits from the region but has of late been
increasingly staffed by non-locals, as the local Shias are not trusted anymore. This shows the
level of prejudice against the very people belonging to the place.
Reports
The sectarian divide in BoLR is well-documented in an ICG, an NGOs report entitled, The
State of Sectarianism in Pakistan published in April 2005 which stated that the Shias in the
region were alienated by state's continued sponsorship of Sunni orthodoxy. The report reveals
how Mr. Fawad Khan, the Prime Minister of Boremon has manipulated sectarianism to settle
political scores with the another political party which was suspected to have some hold over the
local population. According to the report, riots claimed 700 lives. The International Media also
published reports which revealed that the Boremon has been draining BoLR of its resources over
decades and it is ironic that no benefits from these projects accrue to the local people. In 2013,
the World Human Rights Observatory, (WHRO) an acclaimed international organization,
published a full-fledged report in a global newspaper which stated :
Bad as the situation is in BoLR, it is infinitely worse in Gilly Buket, the people are kept in
poverty, illiteracy and backwardness the people of BoLR indeed are very unfortunate to be
living under the brutal regime of Boremon.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


XIV

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

The Press
The Soremonian Prime Minister, Mr. MANO Shah convened a Press Conference to deal with the
growing discontentment in BoLR to which the Mr. Fawad Khan, the Boremonians Prime
Minister issued a Statement saying they would not hestitate to use the growing Nuclear power
that lies within their reserve.
Result of UN Intervention
Upon these developments, the UN Secretariat advised both the countries to remain calm as
aggressions will not help in reaching any diplomatic solution. By virtue of the UN Secretariats
mediation, both the countries decided to conclude The Agreement for the Right of SelfDetermination and to establish a Democratic set up in BoLR (ARSDB- See Annexure No.1) in
September, 2015 to which Boremon agreed that it shall release Mr. Kamaal Khan and provided
opportunity to the people of BoLR to establish a democracy which will be free from interference
from the State of Boremon and in turn, the State of Soremon shall not indulge in any deployment
of its forces in BoLR or Boremonian region. Elections were held in BoLR and Mr. Zakeer Sakia,
the President of the Boremon United Mission was declared to have won the elections. Everything
was appearing normal and now in perfect order when, on November, 2015, the dead-body of Mr.
Kamaal Khan was found in come deserted regions of East Sufighanistan.
The Dispute
The Secretariat of the UN once again intervened in the matter to request both the parties to
resolve the matter peacefully. The negotiations were held between the Soremon, Boremon and
some representatives of BoLR region and filed an Application on December, 15th 2015,
invoking Article 40(1) of the Courts Statute.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


XV

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

ISSUES RAISED

The parties have placed before this Honble Court, the following Questions for its consideration:
A)

THE STATE OF BOREMON HAS VIOLATED THE INTERNATIONAL TREATY WHICH WAS SIGNED ON

16TH SEPTEMBER, 2015 AT ROMIA


B)

THE STATE OF BOREMON HAS DECLINED

TO ITS PEOPLE WHO ARE LIVING IN

BOLR

THE BASIC

MINIMAL RIGHT OF SELF-DETERMINATION

C) THE STATE OF BOREMON HAS VIOLATED HUMAN RIGHTS BY INDULGING ITSELF IN THE KILLINGS
OF MANY INNOCENTS SPECIALLY IN THE BOLR REGION

D) THE STATE OF BOREMON ILLEGALLY POSSESS THE TERRITORY OF BOLR INCLUDING AZZAD AND

GILLY BUKET
E) THE PRINCIPAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW WARRANTS SOME STRINGENT ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN BY
THE ICJ IN THIS REGARD

F)

THE STATE

OF

BOREMON

HAS REPEATEDLY VIOLATED A SERIES OF INTERNATIONAL

CONVENTIONS OF HIGH VALUE AND DIGNITY WHILE DEFENDING ITS STANCE IN BOLR

G)

THE STATE

OF

DEMOCRACY,

EITHER BY ALLOWING

BOLR

IN THE TERRITORY OF

TO MERGE WITH

SOREMON

BOLR

MUST BE INSTATED BY THE

ICJ

OR BY ESTABLISHING A FULL-FLEDGED

DEMOCRACY IN THE REGION.

The Applicant has duly addressed all the aforementioned in the form of seven substantive
arguments advanced summarized under.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


XVI

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

SUMMARY OF ARGUEMENTS

a) The State of Boremon has violated the international treaty which was signed on 16th
September, 2015 at Romia
The Agreement for the Right of Self-Determination and to establish a Democratic set up in
BoLR (ARSDB) was violated by the State of Boremon when it failed to follow the Agreement
that it was instrumental in making and signing by committing atrocities upon the people of BoLR
as elaborated in submissions below.
b) The State of Boremon has declined to its people who are living in BoLR the basic
minimal right of Self-determination
International treaties and covenants such as the ICCPR, the UN charter, the ICHR, all accept the
right to self-determination to be a jus cogens norm binding on all States. It is a legal right under
International Law. The people of BoLR are entitled to the right of self-determination according
to the current state practices and the essential principles of self-determination.
c) The State of Boremon has violated human rights by indulging itself in the killings of
many innocents especially in the BoLR region
The State of Boremon has violated different human rights conventions and instruments by killing
innocent protestors of the region and repeatedly violating the agreement for the right of selfdetermination. The UDHR as well as the other agreements that both states are a party to, prohibit
the killing of innocent people. In the instant case, innocent civilians were killed because of the
negligence of the State of Boremon.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


XVII

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

d) The State of Boremon illegally possess the territory of BoLR including Azad and Gilly
Buket
The State of Boremon has been in illegal occupation of Azad Lola and Ramola (ALR) and Gilly
Buket since October 22, 1947 as a result of which the status of the said territory has remained in
dispute and the people have been in poverty due to continued suppression and oppression.
e) The principal of international law warrants some stringent actions to be taken by the
ICJ in this regard
Since the State of Boremon has flagrantly violated different principles and provisions of
International Law from time to time in administering the territory of BoLR by illegally
occupation and violating the surmount principle of non-intervention, they are in clear
contravention of the said law.
f) The State of Boremon has repeatedly violated a series of international conventions of
high value and dignity while defending its stance in BoLR
The State of Boremon has flagrantly violated numerous international conventions primarily the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and Universal Declaration of
Human Rights (UDHR), 1948 while illegally occupying the territory of BoLR and oppressing the
people of BoLR.
g) The State of Democracy, in the territory of BoLR must be instated by the ICJ by
allowing BoLR to merge with Soremon.
It is humbly submitted before the Honble Court that restoration of peace and harmony in the
territory of BoLR can be brought by establishing the state of democracy and merging it with
Soremon. The reason for this move is because the people have been in poverty and illiteracy for
far too long and deserve a chance to be developed and live life in a democracy.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


XVIII

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

ARGUMENTS ADVANCED

1. THE STATE OF BOREMON HAS VIOLATED THE INTERNATIONAL TREATY WHICH WAS SIGNED
ON 16TH SEPTEMBER, 2015 AT ROMIA

It is humbly submitted before the Honble Court that the Agreement for the Right of SelfDetermination and to establish a Democratic set up in BoLR (ARSDB) was violated by the State
of Boremon when it committed atrocities upon the people of BoLR and did not give it a fair
chance to become a democracy.
The ARSDB clearly states in its preamble that violence was wrong, that democracy was utmost,
that the use of weapons was a threat and that peace is the way forward. 2 Despite the words that
were etched on the paper by the Nation of Boremon, they chose to violate the agreement by not
only going against the spirit of the treaty but also violating a majority of the Articles stated
specifically as are enumerated below.
Article 1 of the ARSDB states that it is the obligation to establish peace in the territory of BoLR
and in adherence to the principle of Non-intervention but that has not happened in the instant
case as Boremon failed to withdraw its troops from Lola and Ramola.3
Soremon maintains that BoLR has been under the illegitimate control of Boremon since October
22, 1947.4 The continuing subjugation by Boremon over the decades had led to an acute sense of
alienation amongst the people.5

Annexure No. 1, Preamble.


Compromis 14, Line 8.
4
Compromis 14., Line 4.
3

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


1

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

Article 2 states that the people of BoLR and the whole Northern region have a right of SelfDetermination. Every state inherently has the right to demand for self-determination. It is an
internal right, not dependent on external approval or any other state. Hence, the people of BoLR
are within their right to ask for the same.
Article 3 of the Agreement states that human Rights must be promoted but in the instant
scenario, there has been continuous violation of Human Rights such as open fire at the innocent
public killing 45 people6, riots claiming 700 lives7, and also a Report published by WHRO which
gave an overview of the situation of BoLR.8
Article 4 states that Boremon will conduct free & fair elections in BoLR and shall ensure the
transparency in the process .The ALR High Court had directed the ALR government to assume
charge of the region and bring in a rudimentary form of government.9 Instead, their political
leader was abducted and found killed which fell conveniently at the time of elections. The only
hope of a democratic government, a voice of truth for the people was quashed by the
Boremonian government.
Article 5 states that the State of Soremon will withdraw of its Army from the BoLR regions and
not indulge in any further Army deployment in the region in an effort to establish peace in the
region. The violence that is occurring in the region due to the non-democratic activities of the
people at power in Boremon has made it difficult for such a move to be made and the State of
Soremon, cares about the number of people who are being affected by the rule and suffering at
the hands of an unjust nation that has for its own benefit, given away land to another nation that
5

Compromis 14, Line 14.


Compromis 16, Line 14.
7
Compromis 12, Line 18.
8
Compromis 14. Line 7.
9
Compromis 14. Line 24.
6

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


2

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

will benefit its own nation while unjustly depriving the people of BoLR of their land and its
produce.
The continuing acts of violence and threats10 by the State of Boremon has made it difficult for
the State of Soremon to continue honoring the Agreement made and therefore have approached
the Honble Court to seek a resolution.

2. BOLR HAS EXERCISED ITS RIGHT TO SELF DETERMINATION AND IS A FREE NATION

2.1. That Self-Determination is an Inherent Right under International Law


Self-determination is the right of peoples to freely determine their political status and freely
pursue their economic, social and cultural development11. The UN Charter12 recognizes this
right as a prerequisite to enjoyment of other rights. The Security Councils work relating to nonself-governing territories13 and the General Assemblys recognition14 of self-determination
reaffirm this principle. The right is also incorporated in the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights15 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights16, to
which Boremon is a party17.
2.2. That right to self- determination is a peremptory norm
It is humbly submitted that this Court has recognized the customary nature of the right to self-

10

Compromis 18.
International Covenants on Human Rights, Common Article 1, December 16, 1966, U.N.T.S., vol. 999.
12
Article 1(2), 55, 73(b) and76(b) of the United Nations Charter, 1945. [ hereinafter The Charter]
13
SC Res. 163 (XVI), Question Relating to Angola, June 9, 1961, S/4835 (1961).
14
GA Res. 421(V), Draft International Covenant on Human Rights and Measures of Implementation, December 4,
1950, A/RES/421.
15
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, December 16, 1966, 999 U.N.T.S.171. [hereinafter ICCPR].
16
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966, 993 U.N.T.S. 3.[hereinafter
ICESR].
17
Compromis 23.
11

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


3

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

determination18. Many eminent publicists consider it to be a jus cogens norm19. The obligation to
facilitate and respect self-determination is an erga omnes obligation20, binding on all states21.
Every State has the duty to promote, through joint and separate action, realization of the
principle of equal rights and self-determination of people22. Right to Remedial succession also
exists for the people.

A number of General Assembly Resolutions23 on self-determination reflect binding customary


norms, as they intend to declare law and were adopted by genuine consensus24.The Court moved
one step further in the East Timor case25 when it declared that

Portugals assertion that the right of peoples to self-determination, as it evolved


from the Charter and from United Nations practice, has an erga omnes character,
is irreproachable.
The Court emphasized that the right of peoples to self-determination was one of the essential
principles of contemporary international law26.These propositions were all reaffirmed by the
International Court in the Construction of a Wall advisory opinion27.

18

Western Sahara, Advisory Opinion, (1975) 31-33 I.C.J. Rep. 12 [hereinafter Western Sahara Case]; Case
concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), (1995) 102 I.C.J. Rep. 90. [hereinafter East Timor Case].
19
Case Concerning the Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Limited (Belgium v. Spain), (1970) 304
I.C.J. Rep. 3. [hereinafter Barcelona Traction Case].
20
East Timor Case, supra note 8.
21
Barcelona Traction Case, supra note 9.
22
The General Assembly Resolution 2625 (XXV), Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning
Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations:
A/RES/25/2625 (24 October 1970). [hereinafter Friendly Relations Declaration]
23
Id., at n76; G.A. Res.1514 (XV), Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Territories and
Peoples at no. 75, Dec. 14 1960 U.N. Doc.A/RES/1514(XV) (1960)[ hereinafter Colonial Declaration]; GA Res.
1541(XV), Principles which should guide Members in determining whether or not an obligation exists to transmit
the information called for under Article 73e of the Charter, December 15, 1960, A/4684 (1960).
24
Fisheries Jurisdiction Case (Second Phase) (United Kingdom v. Iceland), (1974) 162 I.C.J. Rep. 3.
25
East Timor Case, supra note 8, at 90.
26
Id.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


4

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

2.3. The people of BoLR are entitled to the right to self-determination


According to current principles of state practice recently used to analyze Bosnia-Herzegovina,
Croatia and Macedonia, minorities within existing states can secede as a means to gain selfdetermination only when they meet the following six criteria of self-determination28: (1) the
existence of a distinct, self-defined group within a state that overwhelmingly supports
separatism; (2) a legitimate claim to the territory; (3) a pattern of systematic discrimination or
exploitation against a sizable, self-defined minority; (4) the central government's rejection of
compromise solutions; (5) the prospect of the territory and people concerned becoming a viable
state; and (6) the effect of granting or refusing self-determination on regional and international
peace, the effectuation of authoritative governmental processes and respect for human rights, and
the impact on both regional and global value processes.29 These prerequisites are met by people
of BoLR who faced colonial subjugation and oppression by Boremon. They confiscated their
grazing lands and fragmented of BoLR societies through drawing of arbitrary boundaries
between BoLR and its neighbors.

3. THE STATE OF BOREMON HAS VIOLATED HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE CIVILIANS BY INDULGING
ITSELF IN THE KILLINGS OF MANY INNOCENTS SPECIALLY IN THE BOLR REGION

The distinction between the combatant and the non-combatant elements of a community is the
essential condition precedent of the humanizing of war.30 The latter category includes civilians.31

27

Advisory Opinion Concerning Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian
Territory, (2004) 136 I.C.J. Rep. 9 July 2004. [hereinafter Palestinian Territory Case]
28
Antonia Cassese, Self Determination of Peoples- A Legal Appraisal (1996).
29
Ibid
30
Astrid J. M. Delissen, Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict: Challenges Ahead1 08 (1991).
31
Prosecutor v. Kupreki, (2000) 521 Case No. IT-95-16-T.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


5

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

The importance of ensuring that civilians were not targeted was echoed by the ICTY in Blaskic32,
and Kordic and Cerkez case.33 In the case of Abella v. Argentina,34 the Inter-American
Commission on Human Rights also affirmed the principle of distinction.
3.1. State of boremon has violated international human rights instruments
Article 6 of the ICCPR and Article 3 of UDHR35 confers the right to life.36 The killing of
innocent protestors by the Boremonian army is a clear violation of ICCPR and UDHR which
guarantees right to life to civilians. Article 9 provides for the right against arbitrary arrest or
detention.37 Innocent people were taken as prisoners and detained illegally, in turn, violating the
Article 9. In 2013, the World Human Rights Observatory (WHRO) an acclaimed international
organization, published a full-fledged report in a global newspaper which stated that the people
are being oppressed and not being given an optimum chance to live their life.38
3.2. That the Boremonian army killed Innocent Protestors of the region
3.2.1. Civilians were attacked by the Boremon armed forces in contravention of AP-I
It is to be noted that the various attacks by the Boremon armed forces led to forty five civilians
losing their lives,39 Article 50(1)40 of Additional protocol defines population as a civilian under
the meaning of International Law.41

32

Blaski Case, supra note 78.


Kordi & erkez Case, supra note 80.
34
Abella v. Argentina, (1997) Case No 11.137 Report No 55/97
35
Article 3, Universal Declaration on Human Rights, Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
36
ICCPR, Art. 6.
37
ICCPR, Art. 9.
38
Compromis 14.
39
Compormis 16..
40
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of
Armed Conflicts (Protocol I) Art. 50(1) reads: A civilian is any person who does not belong to one of the
categories of persons referred to in Article 4, June 8, 1977, 1125 UNTS 3. [hereinafter Additional Protocol I]
41
Article 4, Fouth Geneva Convention of 1949.
33

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


6

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

3.2.2. There is a duty to demarcate between civilians and combatants


Article 4842 of the Additional Protocol I appears under the heading 'Basic Rule' and thus, is an
important element of the context in which all of the subsequent rules should be interpreted. The
principle of distinction has been characterized by the International Court of Justice as a
fundamental and intransgressible principle of customary international law.43
3.2.3. There is a duty to protect civilians during an armed conflict
By way of Article 51(1),44 Article 51(2)45 and Article 51(3),46 the Additional Protocol I aims to
protect the civilians during an armed conflict. The ICTY, in the case of Stanislav Galic,47 held
that in case of armed conflict attacks should not be directed towards the civilians.
3.3. That the state of boremon has violated agreement for the right of self-determination
and to establish a democratic set up in BoLR
Article 4 of the ARSBD48 which states the commitment of the state of Boremon is violated by
the killing of Mr. Kamaal Khan and other human rights violation in the region. It is to be noted
that on November, 2015, the dead-body of Mr. Kamaal Khan was found in some deserted

42

Id.
Advisory Opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, (1996) 78-79 I.C.J. Rep. 66.
[hereinafter Advisory Opinion on Nuclear Weapons]
44
Additional Protocol I, supra note 88, at Art. 51 (1) reads: The civilian population and individual civilians shall
enjoy general protection against dangers arising from military operations. To give effect to this protection, the
following rules, which are additional to other applicable rules of international law, shall be observed in all
circumstances.
45
Id., at Art. 51 (2) reads: The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of
attack. Acts or threats of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population
are prohibited.
46
Id., at Art. 51 (3) reads: Civilians shall enjoy the protection afforded by this Section, unless and for such time as
they take a direct part in hostilities.
47
Prosecutor v. Stanislav Galic, (2003) 54 Case No. IT-98-29-A
48
The Agreement for the Right of Self-Determination and to establish a Democratic set up in BoLR, Article 4:The
State of Boremon agrees that its shall conduct the free and fair elections in the BoLR and shall ensure the
transparency in the process.
43

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


7

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

regions of East Sufighanistan.49


3.3.1. That the atrocities in BoLR Region have come to light in the International community
The BB-BBN is a leading international News Channel of Soremon carried detailed news
covering the unrest in BoLR and particularly, it showed footage where the Boremian Army
massacred many people in BoLR. The video was soon being telecasted the world over. The UN
Secretary General sent a letter to the prime minister of Boremon condemning and reprimanding
the acts of Boremon and pleaded for the negotiation along with the Prime Minister of Soremon to
which Mr. Fawad Khan replied negatively.50
3.3.2. That the State Of Boremon Has Fuelled Sectarian Divide in The Region
Boremon has been seeing a surge in violence against Shia Muslims in the country in recent
decades.51 And since 1947 "thousands of Shia" has been killed by Sunni extremists according to
the human rights group Human Rights Watch.52 Sectarian divide has plagued BoLR for long and
much of this has to do with the Boremon state which has time and again played the sectarian card
to fulfill its sinister designs in BoLR.53
The sectarian divide in BoLR is well-documented in an ICG, an NGOs report entitled, The
State of Sectarianism in Pakistan published in April 2005 which stated that the Shias in the
region were alienated by state's continued sponsorship of Sunni orthodoxy.54 According to the
report, riots claimed 700 lives. Sectarian elements from neighboring provinces actively
patronized by the state have unleashed a reign of terror in the region from time to time. They
49

Compromis 14.
Compromis 17.
51
Patrick Bascio, (2007). Defeating Islamic Terrorism: An Alternative Strategy. Branden Books. p. 60.
52
"Pakistan: Rampant Killings of Shia by Extremists". Human Rights Watch. June 30, 2014. Retrieved 16
November 2014
53
Compromis 12.
54
Compromis 13.
50

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


8

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

looted and burnt villages and did not even spare the livestock in their state-sponsored rampage.55

4. THE STATE OF BOREMON ILLEGALLY POSSESS THE TERRITORY OF BOLR INCLUDING AZAD
LOLA AND RAMOLA (ALR) AND GILLY BUKET

The Applicant submits before the Honble Court that 'Azad Lola & Ramola (ALR)' and Gilly
Buket are integral parts of the State of Soremon and the state of Boremon has had illegitimate
control over the region since October 22, 1947.56
4.1. Breach of The Principle Of Territorial Integrity
Every state shall refrain from any action aimed at the partial or total disruption of the national
unity and territorial integrity of any other state or country. 57 In Lotus Case, the court observed
that the first and foremost restriction imposed by international law upon a state is that a state may
not exercise its power in any form in the territory of another state.58
4.1.1. Article 5 oOf Declaration On The Right To Development
The Declaration on the Right to Development59 adopted by the General Assembly in resolution
41/128 called in for states to take resolute action to eliminate threats against national
sovereignty, national unity and territorial integrity.
4.1.2. World Summit Outcome 2005
In this summit, the world leaders reaffirmed to support all efforts to uphold the sovereign

55

Compromis 14.
Compromis 9.
57
Friendly Relations Declaration, supra note 12.
58
S.S. Lotus Case (France v. Turkey), (1927) 18 PCIJ Series A/No. 10.
59
Declaration on the Right to Development, UN GA Res. 41/128, UN Doc. A/RES/41/12b (1986).
56

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


9

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

equality of all states, and respect their territorial integrity and political independence.60
4.2. Forces Of Boremon Violated The Resolutions Of General Assembly
The Boremon Army forces by way of killing protesters in BoLR and Azad Lola and Ramola in
the territory of Soremon, and other military operations of Soremon61 have acted in contravention
to the recognized principle of United Nations which prohibits the use of force by one state in
others territory. Such an aggressive approach by Boremon has resulted in a blatant violation of
the following resolutions of the UN General Assembly.
4.2.1 Resolution 42/22 of the General Assembly
Every State has the duty to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity
or political independence of any State. Such an action constitutes a violation of international law
and of the United Nations Charter and entails international responsibility. The principle of
refraining from the threat or use of force in international relations is universal in character. 62
4.2.2. Boremian Forces have Violated The Manila Resolution
As per the Manila declaration63 all States shall refrain in their international relations from the
threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State. This
was blatantly violated when The Prime Minister of Boremon made the statement that all affairs
are the internal affairs and outside interference is not welcome. He also made the statement Boremon is a also a Nuclear Country and if needed, we shall not hesitate to show our power.64

60

UN GA Res. 60/1, World Summit Outcome, 5, October 24, 2005, UN Doc. No. A/RES/60/1 (2005).
Compromis 16.
62
Declaration on the Enhancement of the Effectiveness of the Principle of Refraining from the Threat or Use of
Force in International Relations, UN GA Res.42/22, UN Doc. S/RES/42/22 (1987).
63
UN GA Res.37/10, Manila Declaration on the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes, November 15, 1982,
UN Doc. S/RES/37/10 (1982).
64
Compromis 19.
61

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


10

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

4.3. That the State Of Lola and Ramola Including the BoLR Region Is An Integral
Part Of Soremon
The provision for accession made in the Government of India Act of 1935 as adopted under the
Independence Act of 1947, read: An Indian State shall be deemed to have acceded to the
Dominion if the Governor General has signified the acceptance of an Instrument of Accession
executed by Ruler thereof.65Neither the law had any provision that the accession for consulting
the people of the princely states nor there was any provision that the accession had to be ratified
by the people.66 Further the U.N resolution of August 13, 1948 clearly stated that Pakistan was to
vacate its troops from the whole of the state.67
It is to be noted that Tribal Lashkars supported by Boremon invaded the princely state of L&R
and soon afterwards the ruler of the state acceded to Soremon.68 Soremon succeeded in repulsing
the invaders from the valley but, when the Soremon army sought to clear the state of these
Lashkars, it was confronted with regulars from the Boremon army.69

The republic of Soremon maintains that the United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 on
Lola and Ramola was passed by UNSC under chapter VI of UN Charter, which are non-binding
and have no mandatory enforceability.70 In March 2001,the then Secretary-General of the United
Nations, Jofrey Anna during his visit to Soremon and Boremon ,remarked that the Lola-Ramola
resolutions are only advisory recommendations and comparing with those on East Limor and
Firaq was like comparing apples and oranges, since those resolutions were passed under chapter

65

Indian Independence Act, 1947.


Kashmir Across LoC, Debidatta Aurobindo Mahapatra, Gyan Publications, 2003, Pg. 14.
67
UN Security Council Resolion, 47, Kashmir.
68
Compromis 7.
69
Ibid.
70
Compromis 9.
66

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


11

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

VII, which make it enforceable by UNSC.71 Therefore, this Northern Region needs to be rid of
the oppression that is plaguing them in the form of the Boremon government.

5.

THE PRINCIPLE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW WARRANTS SOME STRINGENT ACTIONS TO BE

TAKEN UP BY THE ICJ AGAINST BOREMON

5.1. A Non-international armed conflict has arisen internally within Boremon


A non-international armed conflict exists when the violence has protracted and produced
intensity within one territory.72. It is humbly contended that the threshold has been met in the
instant scenario as in order to deal with the Kama Khan situation, the Boremion army was
especially deployed, which did not hesitate in opening fire, in which 45 citizens were killed
instantly.73
5.2. There exists international conflict between Boremon and Soremon
5.2.1. The conflict falls within the ambit of article 1(4) of the Additional Protocol 1 of 1977
Article 1(4) provides that armed conflicts in which peoples are fighting against colonial
domination, alien occupation or racist regimes are to be considered international conflicts 74. The
expression alien occupation covers cases of partial or total occupation of a territory which has
not yet been fully formed as a State.75 There must be an armed conflict in which people are
struggling against colonial domination, alien occupation or a racist regime; and the struggle of

71

Compromis 9.
Prosecutor v. Duko Tadi, (1997) 70 Case No. IT-94-1-T. [hereinafter Tadi Case]; Prosecutor v. Ramush
Haradinaj etal, (2008) 36 Case No. IT-04-84-T.
73
Compromis 16.Article 3 of Geneva Convention of 1949.
74
Article 2 of the Geneva Convention of 1949.
75
Jean Pictet, Commentary on the Additional rotocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August
1949 54 (1987).
72

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


12

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

that people must be in order to exercise its right to self-determination.76 The fact that the Shias
are being discriminated against, as well as the People of the Northern region were feeling a sense
of alienation under the tyrannical rule of the Boremon government.77
5.3. In Arguendo, the Soremonion intervention internationalized the armed conflict
An influential current of legal scholarship argues that a foreign military intervention into
conflicts taking place in the territory of another State has an internationalizing effect on the noninternational armed conflict taking place in another country, transforms or contaminates them,
therefore all conflicts will have to be deemed as international armed conflicts.78

In the Tadi case, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavvia (ICTY)
clearly stated that: An armed conflict may become international if (i) another State intervenes in
that conflict through its troops, or alternatively if (ii) some of the participants in the internal
armed conflict act on behalf of that other State.79

The chamber relied on it determining that foreign involvement internationalized the internal
conflict in the Blaski,80 Aleksovski,81 Kordi & erkez,82 & Naleliti83 cases.

76

William H. Boothby, The Law of Targeting 47 (2012).


Compromis 11.
78
T.J. Farer, The Humanitarian Laws of War in Civil Strife: Towards a Definition of International Armed Conflict,
15-50 7 Rev. Belge de Droit Int. 20 (1971).
79
Tadi Case, supra note 71, at 84.
80
Prosecutor v. Blaski, (2000) 76-94 Case No. IT-95-14-T. [hereinafter Blaski Case]
81
Prosecutor v. Aleksovski, (2000) 137 Case No. IT-95-14/1-A.
82
Prosecutor v. Dario Kordi & Mario erkez, (2001) Case No. IT-95-14/2-T. [hereinafter Kordi & erkez Case]
83
Prosecutor v Naleliti, (2003) 182: Indeed, the doctrine has become so accepted in the ICTY jurisprudence that
in the Naleliti case, the Defence itself agreed with it Case No. IT-98-34-T.
77

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


13

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

6. THE STATE OF BOREMON HAS REPEATEDLY VIOLATED A SERIES OF INTERNATIONAL


CONVENTIONS OF HIGH VALUE AND DIGNITY WHILE DEFENDING ITS STANCE IN BOLR

6.1. Boremon Has Violated The International Covenant On Civil And Political
Rights (ICCPR)
6.1.1. Boremon is bound to comply with the provisions of ICCPR
In the Wall case, this Court clearly stated that:
While the jurisdiction of States is primarily territorial, it may sometimes be
exercised outside the national territory. Considering the object and purpose of the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, it would seem natural that,
even when such is the case, States parties to the Covenant should be bound to
comply with its provisions.84
In addition, the activities by the armed forces over which the state has effective control are
under the jurisdiction of the State.85
6.1.2. Various provisions of the ICCPR have been violated
Article 6 of the ICCPR confers the right to life.86 The blatant violation of Human Rights by the
Boremon forces that resulted in death of seven hundred civilians 87 violated the article 6 and
deprived innocent civilians of their right to life. Article 9 provides for the right against arbitrary
arrest or detention.88 Certain non-combatants were captured by the Boremon forces as prisoners

84

Palestinian Territory Case, supra note 17, at 178-179.


Sergio Euben Lopez Burgos v. Uruguay, (1981) U.N. Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/36/40) at 176 (1981).
86
ICCPR, supra note 5, at Art. 6.
87
Compromis 17.
88
ICCPR, supra note 5, at Art. 9.
85

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


14

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

of war, were ignored and were not even provided food for several days.89 Hence, innocent people
were taken as prisoners and detained illegally, in turn, violating the Article 9.

6.2. Boremon is Acting against Its Obligation under Customary International Law Not to
Intervene in the Affairs of another State
6.2.1. Actions of Boremon amount to Breach of International Law
It is noted that since Boremon was exercising effective control over the attacks conducted in the
State of Soremon, the state of Boremon is liable for the breaches of International law provisions.
The prohibition on intervention between states has its foundation in customary law and is based
on the principle of sovereignty of the states.90 International law prohibits intervention in conflict
with civil war like characteristics within another country and the organization, supports
incitement to subversive, terrorist or armed activities intended to lead to overthrowing power
relationships.91 The state of Soremon claims for the mentioned violations of customary laws.
6.2.1.1. Breaches of UN recognized principles
Boremon committed the breaches of the recognized principles of United Nation including the
Charter and resolution adopted by General Assembly and Security Council. Article 2(4) of the
Charter authoritatively declares modern customary law regarding threat or use of force92.
Security Council Resolution 137393 and General Assembly Resolution 262594 constitute
subsequent practice for interpreting UN Charter provisions95.

89

Clarifications, no. 1.
The Charter, supra note 2.
91
The DARIO, supra note 61.
92
The Charter, supra note 2, Art. 2(4).
93
UN SC Res. 1373, on threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, September 28,
2001, S/RES/1373.
90

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


15

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

6.2.2.2. Breach of other customary principles of international law


Boremon committed breaches of the recognized principles of customary international law. 1
and 3 of the Resolution 78 adopted by the General Assembly of the Organization of American
States makes a clear statement for states to strictly observe the principle of non-intervention to
ensure peaceful coexistence and provides with an obligation not to support or promote any armed
activities against another state.
In accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of
the inherent dignity and of the equal and in alien able rights of all members of the human family
is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. The ideal of free human beings
enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if
conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his
economic, social and cultural rights.
Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to
promote

universal

respect

for,

and

observance

of,

human

rights

and

freedoms,

Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which
he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights
recognized in the present Covenant.

94

Friendly Relations Declaration, supra note 12,The Resolution provides the state to respect territorial integrity of a
state and provides the states from refraining itself from any of the acts which may breach the territorial integrity of
the other state.
95
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 31(3) (b) reads: any subsequent practice in the application of
the treaty which establishes the agreement of the parties regarding its interpretation, May 23, 1969, 1155 U.N.T.S.
331. [hereinafter VCLT]

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


16

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

6.3. Violation under UDHR, 1948


Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have
outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall
enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the
highest aspiration of the common people.

7. THAT THE STATE OF DEMOCRACY, IN THE TERRITORY OF BOLR MUST BE INSTATED BY THE
ICJ BY ALLOWING BOLR TO MERGE WITH SOREMON

7.1. Boremon has violated the principle of prohibition of use of force


7.1.1. The obligation to refrain from the use of force is an obligation erga omnes
Article 2(4) of the UN charter prohibits States from the threat or use of force against the
territorial integrity or political independence of any state. Threat or use of force includes a
series of the strikes and invasion against another States territory.96 The UN Charter adopts a
clear-cut approach to force by distinguishing three types: armed, economic and political.97 All
can lead to a violation of international law, namely the principle of non-intervention,98 but only
force of an armed nature can violate the norm enshrined in article 2(4) and therefore constitute a
use of force in the technical sense.99

96

I. Brownlie, International Law and the Use of Force by States 366 (1963); A. Randelzhofer, Article 2(4), in The
Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary 112, 123(B. Simma et al ed. 2002).
97
M. N. Schmitt, Computer Network Attack and Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative
Framework, 37 Colum. J. Transnatl L., (1999) 3, 909 (1999).
98
Marco Benatar, The Use of Cyber Force: Need for Legal Justification? GoJIL 1 (2009) 3, 375-396 (2009).
99
M. S. McDougal & F. P. Feliciano, The International Law of War: Transnational Coercion and World Public
Order 28-30 (1994).

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


17

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

7.1.2. There Exists No Right of Unilateral Humanitarian Intervention


Rougier rejected the idea of unilateral intervention as that states would rarely intervene unless
they would derive benefits from such an intervention.100 In 1965, the General Assembly adopted
a Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention101 which forbids all forms of intervention in
the internal or external affairs of other states. The concept of unilateral humanitarian intervention
has been almost universally condemned by all states.102
7.2. This Court should order the immediate cessation of Boremons wrongful acts
7.2.1. That the use of force by Boremon was an Internationally Wrongful Act
According to article 12, 'there is a breach of an international obligation by a state when an act of
that State is not in conformity with what is required of it by that obligation'.103 Whatever may
have been the subjective intention of the perpetrator of the internationally wrongful act is
irrelevant. In other words, the idea of fault is not a necessary element in the commission of an
internationally-wrongful act in international law.104 The PCIJ in Phosphates in Morocco case
explicitly linked the creation of international responsibility with the existence of an act bearing
attributable to the State and described as contrary to the treaty rights of another State.105 This
view has later been crystallized in the article 2 of the ILCs Articles on State Responsibility. In
the instant case, since the use of force by Boremon was sanctioned by its own President.106

100

Jean-Pierre L. Fonteyne, The Customary International Law Doctrine of Humanitarian Intervention: Its Current
Validity Under the U.N. Charter, 4 Cal. W. Intl L.J. 223 (1973). [hereinafter Fonteyne]
101
UN GA Res. 2131 (XX), Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States and
the Protection of their Independence and Sovereignty, 1965, A/48/535.
102
T. Modibo Ocran, The Doctrine of Humanitarian Intervention in Light of Robust Peacekeeping, 25 B.C. Intl &
Comp.18 (2002).
103
ILC Draft Articles, supra note 62.
104
James Crawford et al, The Law of International Responsibility 209 (2010)
105
Phosphates in Morocco (Italy v. France) Preliminary Objections, 28 (1938), P.C.I.J., Series A/B No. 74.
106
Compromis 15.

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


18

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

7.2.2. Cessation as a consequence of an Internationally Wrongful Act


Article 30107 deals with two separate but linked issues raised by the breach of an international
obligation. The function of cessation is to put an end to a violation of international law and to
safeguard the continuing validity and effectiveness of the underlying primary rule.108 The
obligation of cessation is really a formulation of the principle pacta sunt servanda: it is an
expression of the fact that States must respect their international obligations.109 The Arbitration
Tribunal in the Rainbow Warrior arbitration stressed upon two essential conditions intimately
linked for the requirement of cessation of wrongful conduct to arise, namely that the wrongful
act has a continuing character and that the violated rule is still in force at the time in which the
order is issued.110 In the instant case, both these requirements are being fulfilled.

It is humbly submitted before the honorable court that the territory of BoLR has already suffered
a lot of chaos and turmoil over the last 68 years due to the neglected and ruthless attitude of the
State of Boremon as a result of which the territory is in shambles and on the possible verge of
devastation. The illegal occupation of the territory of BoLR by the State of Boremon is for
obvious reasons a purpose to fulfill the vested interests for its government as the geographical
location of the territory is a haven for developing relations with the Central Prasian republics and
thereby expanding their markets. Moreover, the recent reports of emergence of militant
organizations in the territory of BoLR such as Jammat-ul-Hawa have also come to light.111

107

ILC Draft Articles, supra note 62, at Art. 30.


James Crawford, The International Law Commissions Articles On State Responsibility: Introduction, Text And
Commentaries 197 ( 2003).
109
Id at 546.
110
Rainbow Warrior (New Zealand v. France), (1990) 270 114 82 ILR 499.
111
Compromis 13
108

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


19

JUSTICE P.N. BHAGWATI 6TH INTERNATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 2016

On the other hand, the State of Soremon is the most populous democracy of the world and the
seventh-largest country of the world by area. The state is a federal constitutional republic
governed under a parliamentary system having room for pluralistic, multi-lingual and multiethnic society.112 If the territory of BoLR is merged with the State of Boremon it would allow the
inhabitants of the territory to come out of the obscurity of helplessness and re-invent themselves
at least for basic human sustenance which they have been deprived since infancy. The
geographically gifted territory which has unfortunately been exploited by the State of Boremon
will be able to utilize its natural resources and other assets productively.

112

Compromis 1

WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT


20

PRAYER

In light of the questions presented, arguments advanced and authorities cited the agent for
the Applicant State most humbly and respectfully pray before this Honble Court, that it
may be pleased to adjudge and declare that:

a) The State of Boremon has violated the international treaty which was signed on 16th
September, 2015 at Romia
b) The State of Boremon has declined to its people who are living in BoLR the basic minimal
right of Self-determination
c) The State of Boremon has violated human rights by indulging itself in the killings of many
innocents especially in the BoLR region
d) The State of Boremon illegally possess the territory of BoLR including Azzad and Gilly Buket
e) The State of Boremon has repeatedly violated a series of international conventions of high
value and dignity while defending its stance in BoLR
f) The State of Democracy, in the territory of BoLR must be instated by the ICJ by allowing
BoLR to merge with Soremon.

The Applicant State additionally prays that the Court may make any such order as it may
deem fit in terms of equity, justice and due conscience. And for this act of kindness the
Applicant State shall as duty bound ever humbly pray.

(Respectfully Submitted)
- Agents on behalf of the Applicant State.
WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE APPLICANT
XVIII