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METHODS

NORTH-HOLLAND

SHEAR

IN APPLIED

AND MEMBRANE

Henryk

Department

MECHANICS

LOCKING

STOLARSKI*

of Civil Engineering,

Technological

Revised

AND

ENGINEERING

IN CURVED

41 (1983) 279-296

c ELEMENTS*

Institute, Northwestern

U.S.A.

University,

Evanston,

IL 60201,

manuscript

received 8 July 1983

Locking phenomena

in Co curved finite elements are studied for displacement,

hybrid-stress

and

mixed formulations.

It is shown that for a curved beam element,

shear and membrane

locking are

interrelated

and either shear or membrane

underintegration

can alleviate it. However,

reduced shear

integration

tends to diminish the membrane-flexural

coupling which characterizes

curved elements.

Locking can also be expected in certain types of mixed formulations,

the hybrid-stress

formulations

avoids locking for beams (but not for shells). Methods

for avoiding

locking are explored

and

alternatives

evaluated.

1. Introduction

In [l] a phenomenon

called membrane

locking was identified and analyzed for curved C

beam elements with linear axial and cubic transverse

displacement

fields. Membrane

locking

results from the inability of an element

to bend without

stretching:

since any bending

deformation

of the element is then accompanied

by stretching

of the midline, membrane

energy is always generated

in bending, thus increasing the bending stiffness. Although

the

study employed a very simple beam model, it is clear that membrane

locking must also appear

in shells (compare [2-91). The need for membrane

underintegration

was noted in [13].

However,

the success of widely employed

Co elements

[lo-151 with reduced shear integration

and the claims for hybrid and mixed elements

[16-191 led to the conjecture

that

membrane

locking may be circumvented

in these elements.

Therefore,

a similar study has

been made of these elements.

It has been found that reduced

shear integration

in curved Co elements does mitigate the

effects of membrane

locking. Indeed, a complex interdependence

was found between shear

reduced

integration

in either the shear or membrane

and membrane

underintegration:

energies leads to improved accuracy in the bending response. In fact curved c elements with

full membrane

integration

perform quite well if reduced shear integration

is used. However,

reduced shear integration

is accompanied

by a deterioration

of membrane-flexural

coupling,

which is one of the essential features of a curved element; it also leads to the appearance

of

kinematic modes.

* The support of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant F49620-82-K-0013 under the direction

of Dr. A. Amos is gratefully acknowledged.

**On leave from Institute

of Fundamental

Technological

Research

of Polish Academy

of Sciences,

ul.

Swietokrzyka

21, 00-049 Warsaw, Poland.

00457825/83/$3.00

@ 1983, Elsevier

Science

Publishers

B.V. (North-Holland)

280

H. Stolarski,

T. Belytschko,

locking in Co elements

and shear locking; in view of the

equivalence

theorems [20,21], this is not surprising. However, for a beam, hybrid methods are

not subject to membrane

locking because the general solution to the equilibrium

equations

can be constructed.

This cannot be accomplished

for arbitrary shells, but it may provide the

insight needed for a rational construction

of reduced-integration

displacement

elements which

avoid locking. We are convinced

such displacement

elements provide the most viable approach to practical computations;

the extra calculations

associated

with hybrid and mixed

elements are hard to justify when displacement

elements yield the same results.

In Section 2, the governing equations

for a beam based on shallow shell theory and the

variational

formulations

which pertain in this context to displacement,

hybrid, and mixed

elements are presented.

Using a specific beam element, the interrelationship

of membrane

and

shear locking is demonstrated

in both mixed and displacement

elements in Section 3. Both

analytical methods and numerical results are used. In Section 4, isoparametric

beam elements

are examined;

it appears that the cubic element

avoids locking,

though

the cost of its

counterpart

in shell analysis is quite daunting. Conclusions

are presented

in Section 5.

2. Governing

forms

by a sequence of

chords, parametrized

by X; in each chord the shape of the beam is described by a function

w(x) as shown in Fig. 1. If w(x) is small, the behavior of the beam can be described by the

theory of shallow structures wherein the following equations apply:

(i) Kinematic

relations

[22-251

(14

E =

u,, +

K =

-4.x)

(lb)

y = -4 + fJ,x

(14

w,x21,x,

of the displacement

field and 4 is the rotation of

the cross-section;

E, K, and y are the membrane

(midplane) strain, change of curvature

and

shear deformation,

respectively;

commas denote derivatives.

(ii) Constitutive

equations

281

(elastic)

n = DlS,

Dl= Eh,

(24

m = D2~,

D2=&Eh3,

(24

q=

D3= KGh,

PC)

DRY,

U=DE

(24

where

uf = 16 m, 41,

Et = [c, 4

D=[s;;

:zi,l

Y],

and n, m and q are the membrane (azial) force, moment and shear on the cross-section

beam K is the shear correction factor, E and G the elastic and shear moduli.

(iii) Equations

(24

of the

of equilibrium

mSX-q=o,

n,, = 0,

(iv) Boundary

(3)

9.x + (nYx),x - p = 0 .

conditions

n = n*v,

or

(u=u*

and 6u=O),

m =

or

($=4*

and S$=O),

or

(u=u*

-m*v,

q + nzw,, = q*vx

(4)

and Su=O)

where asterisks denote prescribed values, the prefix S a variation, and v, is the unit normal to

the end, which takes on values of -1 and +l at the left- and right-hand ends. The conditions in

the left column of the above (which are on the forces) are the natural boundary conditions, the

ones on the right the essential boundary conditions.

2.1. Hu-Washizu

functional

The Hu-Washizu

H=

U-

I

c

Cpodx-~(n*u+m*~+q*v)l,=,i

[n(&

i=l

~,a,~)

(K

d,x)

q(Y

n,x)ldx

(54

where x1 and x2 are the two ends of the beam and U the internal energy, which is given by

U = f

I C

(Dle2 + D2~

D,y)dx

WI

H. Stolarski,

282

T. Belytschko,

locking in Co elements

(n, m, s); (u, 4, II) must be Co functions; (E, K, y, n, m, q) must be C-, C- functions are

piecewise continuous functions which are allowed to be discontinuous across element interfaces.

For the finite element formulation, these independent variables are approximated by shape

functions S, N and E as follows

(6)

(7)

where d is the matrix of nodal displacements and B and e are the discrete variables for the stress

and strain fields, respectively.

We also introduce the strains associated with the displacement field

where the kinematic relations (1) are used in the first equality and the elements of the B

matrix are obtained by evaluating the expressions in the second term with the displacements

approximated (7).

Substitution of (6)-(9) into (5) provides the discrete form of the Hu-Washizu functional

H=

U-dtf+/3(Bd--~e),

U = letBe,

fi=

EDE dx ,

WC)

(10d)

i=l

(i) Strain-displacement

W)

i.id=&;

283

(11)

(ii) co~stitutive

(iii) equilibrium

Bpf.

(13)

Since the parameters e and 0 are associated with C- functions, the corresponding element

matrices e, and & can be local to each element. The procedure for obtaining the governing

equations is then the following. Using (12), it follows that

e, = I)-l@pe

which, when introduced

(14)

into (ll), gives

& = (l?kE)-%d,

Kd=r,

(15)

K = 2 LXeLe

e

(16)

The heart of this stiffness lies in the term & see (lob), which corresponds

stiffness except that E has replaced B.

In the displacement

formulation

(18)

which leads to the following identities (compare (6), (8) (9))

Ee = Bd,

&I?= DBd

(19)

to give

284

Hd

= @lyd

- &j=

(ZOa:

and

BDB dx

Ke =

(20b:

The stiffness matrix for an element can be written (see (9) and (2e))

K, =

(D,B:B,

membrane

+ L),B,B, + D,sB;B,)dx .

flexural

(211

shear

Here the membrane, flexural and shear terms are identified. The crucial feature of a curved

beam is that w,, does not vanish, so transverse displacements V(X) may contribute to the

membrane energy; see (9). Moreover, for many combinations

of shape functions, an)

transverse deflection will contribute to the membrane energy; consequently pure bending

deformations, which are often called inextensional modes of deformation, cannot be replicated by the finite element. The concomitant increased stiffness is called membrane locking

[Il.

equations are

combined so that the independent fields are the stresses and displacements. Thus (2d), (6) and

(8) are combined

Ee = D-Sfl ,

(22)

(lOa), which gives

HF is obtained

by substituting

(23b)

The stationary conditions

iid, =

Bff&

&& ,

are

(244

= f:

(24b)

where

jj=

IG

SB dx

obtained between fe and de, which yields that

Ke = ii%,@.

(24~)

(24a) and (24b) so that a relationship

is

(25)

28.5

(26)

Substituting into (25), we obtain a lu, which is identical to the displacement formulation

stiffness (20b). This result, which was obtained in a more sophisticated way in [ZO], shows that

the mixed method is equivalent to the displacement method when the shape functions for the

stresses are obtained by (26); compare the conditions for equivalence in [19]. Hence locking

should occur in mixed models (contrary to the implications of [19]), and reduced integration

may be necessary; this will be shown later.

The counterpart of (21), which is obtained from (24a) and (24b) is that for a mixed model

Kc = &I),%.

Reduced

exactly.

quadrature,

(271

if needed,

In the hybrid method, all

equilibrium equations, which

integral. We will not consider

from (23a). Details are given

3. Cubic-linear

allows the second term in (23a) to be replaced by a boundary

this form explicitly but instead derive the hybrid method directly

in the next section.

element

This element, shown in Fig. 1, employs cubic shape functions for the transverse deflection v,

quadratic shape functions for the rotations of the cross-section c$, and linear shape functions for

the axial displacements U.This type of element isoften used in explicit time integration because its

maximum frequency for commonly used element dimensions is lower than if a cubic is used for U,

thus providing a larger stable time step 191.

The study of the element is facilitated by considering only the nodal degrees of freedom which

are associated with deformational modes, thus excluding ail rigid body modes. The d~formational

degrees of freedom are

l.42, =

u2-

l.41

(28b)

where uzl is the axial displacement of the right end relative to the left one, 4; are rotations of

the nodal cross-sections and ai are the rotations of the tangents to the middle line at nodal

points. The shape functions and the initial shape w(x) are:

286

N=

3(12 - !9

L([ - 212 + 5)

3(F - 4)

L(C3 - 5)

(28c)

w = LcuY(l - 26 + 5) + Lcyo2(13- 5) .

(28d;

Note that these shape functions exclude rigid body motion and are expressed in a corotational

system. The B matrix resulting from (9), is

I - -E01

01

-(1

-t0 1

wJ3J2- ; l-5

(2l-45 1)

+ 1)

W,X(3L2

- ?(255 - 25)

1) ~

(29)

S)

where L is the length of the element and y E 10,11is the dimensionless parameter of its chord.

The orders of the membrane and shear terms for this element are given in Table 1, along with

the number of Gauss quadrature points required for exact integration of these polynomials.

3.2. Analysis of reduced integration in C displacement element

Here an analysis of the element stiffness will be presented to demonstrate the effects of

reduced membrane and shear integration. Of the rotational degrees of freedom, only C$must

be continuous across interelement boundaries, so ai is local to each element and can be

eliminated on the element level. The elimination results in a 3 x 3 corotational stiffness matrix

ri

Table

Order

1

of approximations

Element

Linearcubic

Quadratic

isoparametric

Cubic

isoparametric

See equation

Order

of approximation

required

Order

of shear

412

Order

for etement

of membrane

(u,x + w.xu,x)2

exact integration

(29).

(v., -

shear

membrane

287

This matrix completely defines the axial and flexural properties of the element. All other nodal

forces are found through global equilibrium of the element. The entries I&, kz3, &32, &33

coupreflect bending properties of the element while R12, k,, represent membrane-bending

ling; in the absence of this coupling, RI, = k,, = 0. To make the analysis tractable, it is

assumed that Poissions ratio Y = f and

Of:= IX,

Ldh = O(l),

(31a)

we assume that

Q2 = O(E)

(31b)

and only terms of order g are retained in the final expressions. These assumptions are satisfied

in many practical applications were h/L - 0.1 and cy- 0.1. Within this accuracy we obtain

The coefficients I& and I& for various reduced integration schemes are given in Tables 2 and

3, respectively.

For & = 0, these stiffness terms are shown in Figs. 2 and 3 as a function of the element

slenderness h/L. As expected, for a fixed value of cy, the bending stiffness of the curved beam

approaches that of the straight beam as h/L increases. For reduced membrane integration, the

stiffness is very close to the Euler-Bernoulli

theory. At the same time, a clear difference

between curved and straight beams is retained.

Reduced shear integration, on the other hand, shifts the stiffness towards that of a straight

beam. The effects of curvature appear only for very slender elements, and from Fig. 3, it it

apparent that this is also true for other values of cy. Thus reduced integration of either shear or

membrane terms reduces the bending stiffness and yields acceptable results whenever bending

is the predominant mode.

-tiM

(STRAIGHT

BEAM)

%;I.?

1.0

Fig. 2. Bending stiffness of the curved beam element as a function of aspect ratio normalized with respect to

straight beam; F and R designate full and reduced quadrature of membrane (M) and shear terms (S); EB/

designates an analyticai result for the Euler-Bernoulli

beam.

288

H. Stolarski,

T. Belytschko,

locking in Co elements

1.3FM-FS

,-FS-RM

EBA~RvED,

FM-RS

1.2.

Fig. 3. Bending

nomenclature).

stiffness

of the

curved

beam

element

as a function

of the

initial

curvature

(see

Fig. 2 for

REMARK

3.1. For the case a? = a:, reduced shear integration leads to singularity of the

submatrix which has to be inverted to eliminate (Y;.Consequently, ai cannot be uniquely

expressed in terms of the remaining degrees of freedom. The nodal forces however, in this case

depend only on the mean value of ai which is defined uniquely, To avoid this difficulty (which

indicates the presence of a zero energy mode) this submatrix has been integrated exactly in this

analysis; reduced integration is used for all other shear contributions.

REMARK

Table 2

Bending stiffness

&

i&z = &Eh3/L{4.0

(eq. (30))

+ Ala2 + Az(~IL)

Type of

integration

-41

A2

EBA

FNI

FS-RM

FM-RS

0.0

-0.8381

- 1.7984

-0.8381

0.0

-8.0

-2.6667

-8.0

A3

0.5829

0.9144

0.6744

0.3143

A4

0.0

0.8316

0.0

-0.0878

A5

0.0

1.8288

0.0

-0.8381

Notation. EBA:

Euler-Bernoulli

analytic

solution;

FWI: full integration;

FS-RM: full shear and reduced membrane

(2 Gauss points)

integration;

FM-RS: full membrane

and reduced shear (1 Gauss point)

integration.

289

Table 3

Bending stiffness 2~3 (eq. (30)),

& = &Eh3/L{2.0 + C& + C*(h/~) + (Ltulh)2[C~ + C4a2 + Cr;(h/L)]}

Type of

integrationa

EBA

FNI

FS-RM

FM-RS

0.0

-0.8381

- 1.7984

-0.8381

0.0

-8.0

-2.6667

-8.0

-0.2500

-0.2856

-0.6744

0.3143

0.0

-0.8724

0.0

-0.0878

0.0

-0.8376

0.0

-0.8381

The general solution of the homogeneous

n = PI,

9 = -PIW,X +

P2,

form of (3) is

m

-p,w

of (33) results in

p2x

as -n:,

+ 83.

(33)

(34)

Note that the development of a general equilibrium solution such as (33), while feasible for

curved beams, would be impossible for curved shells,

The parameters /II, &, & can be obtained from one of the stationary conditions of the

functional (23), namely (24a), which gives

(35)

The right-hand side of the above equation can, in this case, be evaluated

any approximation for the displacement field, giving

without

assuming

(36)

where Ui, Vi, 4i are translations and rotations at the nodal points. Since the right-hand side of

(35) is independent of the approximation of the displacement field, we may claim that the field

resulting from the exact analytic solution of the problem has been selected and that the

element will not lock.

290

The equations relating the nodal forces and the nodal displacements

(35) for &, &, & and then making use of the following relationships

n *I-

-#%,

n*2= /A,

m T = p3,

&=-IL

m : = --/AL - p3,

4:=pz.

(37)

For the cubic-linear element, the following internal force distributions were considered.

(i) nQ - qC: this distribution conforms with the guideline of [19] that the internal force

distribution be one order lower than that obtained from (26):

m = PL(l - 5) + P&3

n

p*

P2(1-

5)

PY?,

pw

6)

q = P6*

+

P&S

(39)

q=P6+P7(1-2&

(iii) nD - qC: this element has a normal force distribution

n = PI + &(-6t3

+ 11t2 - 65 + 1) + /33(-6t3

m = P&(1 - 5) + PSLS,

+ 75 -

25) ,

(40)

q = Ph.

(iv) nC- qL: this element has the simplest normal force and shear dist~bution

with a S-parameter stress model:

n = P1,

(38)

q=P4+Psw-25).

consistent

(41)

In all the above elements, the displacement shape functions are given in (28~) and the B

matrix needed to evaluate (24~) is given in (29). In reduced membrane integration, the rows of

B associated with the axial force y1(e.g. rows 1 to 3 for nQ - qL) are underintegrated, while in

the reduced shear integration, the rows of B associated with the shear q (i.e. rows 6 and 7 for

nQ - qL) are underintegrated.

3.5. Numerical results

Results were obtained for the deep arch shown in Fig. 4. The results for various integration

schemes in displacement, mixed and hybrid formulations are summarized in Table 4.

The displacement method with full integration of both membrane and shear terms, it is

apparent, is far too stiff. Reduced integration of either the membrane or shear terms leads to

reasonable agreement with the analytic solution; this contrasts with the behavior of curved C

elements of this type, where reduced membrane integration is always necessary [l]. However,

reduced membrane integration with full shear integration gives the best results. The reason for

E-

291

1.06x10'ps1

5'0.3

Z-1.0

this is apparent from examining the membrane-flexural

coupling terms i12, which vanish for

shear underintegration,

thus providing behavior similar to that of a straight element; this also

is borne out by comparing Cases 3 and 5.

The hybrid element does not lock and is in good agreement

with the analytic solution. This

was expected in view of the fact that for this element, the stiffness matrix is independent

of the

shape functions used; see comments following (36).

Table 4

Numerical results for a deep circular arch with cubic-linear

Case

no.

Method

Exact analytic

Displacement

method

Hybrid

stress

Element

used

8 curved

shear

flexible

el.

8 straight

EB el.

8 curved shear

8el. nQ-qC

8 el.

nQ-qL

10

11

12

13

Mixed

method

8el. nD-qC

8 el. nC-qL

8 el. nC-qL

element

Further specifications

of the element

(number of integration

points

in parentheses)

Force

Displ.

lb

0in

Ku

EBA

full integration

942.2

1389.8

1.25

1.10

975.6

1.00

946.6

1.01

1.12

964.2

0.9

946.6

969.0

1380.6

946.6

1.00

0.94

1.19

1.01

1.00

0

1.11

1.13

970.4

0.94

974.0

946.8

964.2

1.00

1.02

0.87

0

1.13

0

FM-R&

shear int. (1)

FS-RM full shear (2),

red. mem. int. (2)

full int.

curved;

curved;

curved;

red.

curved;

red.

curved;

curved;

straight;

full int. (4, 2)

full shear (2),

mem. (2)

full mem. (4),

shear (1)

full int. (4, 1)

full int. (3, 2)

full int. (1,2)

r

Abbreviations. EB Euler-Bernoulli; int. = integration; mem. = membrane; red. = reduced.

bNormalized with respect to & and &, for hybrid stress method, respectively.

The results in Table 4 of [l] are mistakenly divided by 2.

Stiffness

termsb

K12

292

The mixed elements, as can be seen from Table 4, also exhibit locking when full integrated

except for the constant membrane, linear shear element (nC - @). In the quadratic membrane, linear shear element (nQ - qL), various reduced integration schemes were tried. The

best accuracy was attained for reduced membrane and full shear integration. Reduced shear

integration yields results similar to that of the quadratic membrane, constant shear (nQ - qC)

curved and straight elements, supporting the hypothesis that reduced shear integration

diminishes flexural-membrane coupling.

This conjecture is also supported by the effects of reduced integration on the stiffness term

J?,, which is given for the various elements in Table 4. It is apparent that reduced membrane

integration provides a good estimate of this stiffness term, while for reduced shear integration

it often vanishes, as in a straight beam.

Examining the results and their implications in more detail provides some interesting insight

into the relationship between reduced integration and shear/membrane

locking. The element

nQ - qC (quadratic II, constant 4) was designed according to the recommendation

of [19]; see

Section 2. As can be seen from Table 4, nQ - qC possesses no flexural-membrane

coupling

and behaves like a straight element (compare with Case 13); this reflects the shear flexibility

brought about by the constant shear approximation. The element with constant n, linear 4

(Case 12) in fact performs better, for by reducing the order of n and increasing the order of Q,

an effect similar to membrane underintegration

is brought about.

These results (Cases 7 and 12; 9 and 10) again illustrate the interrelationship of membrane

and shear underintegration

in curved elements, and that it also occurs in the framework of

mixed elements.

It is worth noting that when continuous distributions were used for the stress functions

[18,19], no locking was observed despite the fact that the order of S was one order higher

than that given by (26). We attribute this to the fact that using continuous shape functions S

diminishes the number of independent

parameters, and is thus in a sense equivalent to

reducing its order.

4. Curved isoparametric elements

The element studied in Section 3 employed a linear axial and cubic transverse displacement.

The purpose of this Section is to examine whether the behavior of isoparametric elements,

where the axial and transverse displacements are of the same order, is similar.

Two elements were studied:

(1) a quadratic isoparametric with 3 nodes;

(2) a cubic isoparametric with 4 nodes.

In the quadratic and cubic elements, U, u, 4 and w were approximated by quadratic and cubic

shape functions, respectively. Because the curvature is treated by shallow-shell theory, cf. (l),

all terms were integrated over the straight x-axis. Only displacement formulations with

selective reduced integration were considered. The number of Gauss points required for exact

quadrature of the relevent terms is given in Table 1.

Some of the reduced quadrature schemes introduced kinematic modes; wherever this

occurred, the element was stabilized by exactly integrating entries of the stiffness corresponding

293

to the transverse displacements of the interior nodes. Although this scheme is not suitable for

practical applications, it provided a convenient means to study low order quadrature. All

results obtained in this manner have been identified.

4.2. Numerical results

Results for the curved isoparametric elements are presented in Tables 5 and 6. It can be seen

from Table 5 that the quadratic element exhibits severe locking when full quadrature is

employed; see Table 1 for the quadrature which is exact. Reduced membrane integration

alone makes a big difference between 3 and 2 Gauss points but, still, some locking is present.

Further reduction to one integration point practically introduces no additional change. If only

shear terms are underintegrated,

the big difference is between 2 and 1, with almost no

difference between 3 and 2 Gauss points.

For one-point integration of the shear terms, the results are independent of the membrane

integration. This suggests that bending of the elements midline is not involved in the

deformation process and the membrane-bending

coupling is almost eliminated. To verify this,

the terms K, and kz2 are given in Table 7 (see (30)). It is clear that gL2, which represents the

membrane-bending

coupling, vanishes for one point shear integration. It also vanishes if one

point membrane integration is used; this stems from the fact that the initial shape of the

element is symmetric and w,, in (la) vanishes at the center of the element. Obviously, neither

one point shear nor one point membrane integration is desirable.

The results for the cubic element are given in Table 6. The difference between full and

reduced integration is quite small. This element is only mildly susceptible to membrane or

shear locking, apparently, deformation modes which eliminate excessive membrane and shear

energy are always possible. However, the accuracy is best for 3 point quadrature of both

terms, which represents underintegration.

4.3. Recommended

~aadrature scheme

From the numerical results, it appears that quadrature schemes which in a sense filter out

the higher order terms in (la) and (lb), are most accurate. For an isoparametric element, these

terms are w,,z),, and 4, respectively. The number of quadrature points would then be

Table 5

Ratio of numerical to analytic results for a circular arch solution with

quadratic

isoparametric

elements for reduced membrane

and shear

quadrature

Curved

3

2

1

element

1.575

1.449

0.939

1.063

1.004

0.940

1.084

1.023

0.940

stabilize kinematic modes.

8 elements were used for half of the arch of Fig. 4.

Straight

element

l.OS4

1.023

0.940

exactly

to

294

Table 6

Ratio of numerical to analytic stiffness for

a deep circular arch with cubic isoparametric element for reduced integration

Gauss

quadrature

points for

membrane

Gauss

quadrature

points for

shear

Ratio

1.010

1.007

1.004

0.957

1.010

1.004

1.004

1.023

1.004

Table 7

Stiffness &

and kr, for quadratic isoparametric

element

(normalized with respect to hybrid element in Table 3)

3

nG (memb.)

Ito (shear)

\

3

2

1

IL,

k,,

R,

E2,2

&2

rz,*

3.25

1.11

0.52

1.09

1.09

0.00

3.15

1.01

0.52

1.12

1.12

0.00

3.00

0.87

0.52

0.00

0.00

0.00

b8 element for half-arch were used.

estimated by requiring exact quadrature of the energies associated with the lower order terms

in (la) and (lb), namely uTXand t):, respectively.

For the quadratic isoparametric, this guideline suggests 2 point quadrature for the shear and

membrane terms, while for the cubic isoparametric, it suggests 3 points. Tables 5 and 6 indicate

that these quadrature schemes give the best results, these quadrature rules have also been

recommended in [26].

REMARK 4.2. Both 2 x 2 quadrature in the quadratic element and 3 x 3 quadrature in the

cubic element are associated with kinematic modes in the three dimensional shell element,

These modes would require stabilization.

5. Conclusions

(1) Shear membrane locking are interrelated in curved C? elements. In beam elements with

linear in-plane and cubic transverse displacement fields, reduced integration of either the shear or

membrane terms can alleviate locking, but shear underintegration

eliminates the membraneflexural coupling which characterizes curved elements and thus results in elements whose

performance closely approximates that of straight elements.

(2) Mixed finite element formulations, when used with generalized stress fields local to the

element, also exhibit membrane and shear locking.

(3) In cubic isoparametric beam elements, almost no locking of either a membrane or shear

type is detectable with full integration,

(4) In quadratic isoparametric beam elements, both membrane and shear locking are

295

between these types of locking described in the first

conclusion is apparent.

(5) Hybrid curved beam elements do not exhibit locking. This is probably a consequence of

the fact that a general equilibrium solution can be obtained for this element; it is doubtful that

this could be achieved for a curved shell element.

It is worth noting that these locking phenomena will occur regardless of the type of

structural or continuum theory which is used. A shallow beam theory has been used here

because it enables the order of the membrane terms to be easily identified. In a continuum

formulation, these terms appear through the variations in the Jacobian which are brought

about by the curvature, and are not as easily identified. Nevertheless, the mechanical behavior

of a slightly curved element will be identical. Thus in either context, the use of higher order

integration, which incidentally, is often recommended for plastic problems, will result in poor

element performance because of locking.

References

[1] H. Stolarski and T. Beiytschko,

Membrane

locking and reduced integration

for curved elements,

J. Appt.

Mech. 49 (1982) 172-176.

[2] D.G. Ashwell and A.B. Sabir, Limitations

of certain curved finite elements when applied to arches, Internat. J.

Mech. Sci. 13 (1971) 133-139.

[3] D.G. Ashwell, A.B. Sabir and T.M. Roberts, Further studies in the application

of curved finite elements to

circular arches, Internat. J. Mech. Sci. 13 (1971) 507-517.

[4] A.B. Sabir and D.G. Ashwell, A comparison

of curved beam finite elements when used in vibration problems,

J. Sound Vibr. 18 (1971) 555.

[S] A.B. Sabir and A.C. Lock, Large deflection,

geometrically

nonlinear analysis of circular arches, Internat. J.

Mech. Sci. 15 (1973) 37-47.

[6] D.J. Dawe, Curved finite elements for the analysis of shallow and deep arches, Comput. & Structures 4 (1974)

559-580.

[7] D.J. Dawe, Numericat studies using circular arch finite elements, Comput. CprStructures 4 (1974) 729-740.

[S] D.G. Ashwell and R.H. Gallagher,

eds., Finite Elements

for Thin Shells and Curved Members

(Wiley,

London, 1976).

[9] T. Belytschko,

Explicit time integration

of structure-mechanical

systems,

in: J. Donea,

ed., Advanced

Structural Dynamics (Applied Science Publishers,

Barking, 1980) 97-122.

[lo] O.C. Zienkiewicz,

R.L. Taylor and J.M. Too, Reduced integration

techniques in general analysis of plates and

shells, Internat. J. Numer. Meths. Engrg. 3 (1971) 275-290.

fll] G.A. Wempner,

J.T. Oden and D. Kross, Finite element

analysis of thin shells, Journal of Engineering

Mechanics Division, ASCE 94 (EM@ (1968) 1273-1294.

[12] T.J.R. Hughes, R.L. Taylor and W. Kanoknukulchai,

A simple and efficient element

for plate bending,

Internat. J. Numer. Meths. Engrg. 11 (1977) 1529-1543.

[13] H. Parish, A critical survey of the 9-node degenerated

shell element with special emphasis on thin shell

application

and reduced integration,

Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg. 20 (1979) 323-350.

1141 T.J.R. Hughes and T.E. Tezduyar, Finite elements based upon Mindlin plate theory with particular reference

to the four-node bilinear isoparametric

element, J. Appl. Mech. 48 (1981) 587-596.

[15] G. Prathap

and G.R. Bhashyam,

Reduced

integration

and the shear flexible beam element,

Internat.

J.

Numer. Meths. Engrg. 18 (1982) 195-210.

[16] S.W. Lee and T.H.H. Pian, Improvement

of plate and shell finite elements by mixed formulations,

AIAA J. 16

(1) (1978) 29-34.

296

H. Stolarski,

T. Belytschko,

locking in C elements

finite element

analysis of curved beams, Comput.

Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg. 12 (1977) 289-307.

[18] A.K. Noor and N.F. Knight, Nonlinear

dynamic analysis of curved beams, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech.

Engrg. 23 (1980) 225-252.

[19] A.K. Noor and J.M. Peters, Mixed models and reduced/selective

integration

displacement

models for

nonlinear analysis of curved beams, Internat. J. Numer. Meths. Engrg. 17 (1981) 615-631.

1201 J.T. Oden and J.N. Reddy, Some observations

on properties

of certain mixed finite element approximations,

Internat. J. Numer. Meths. Engrg. 9 (1975) 933-938.

[21] D.S. Malkus and T.J.R. Hughes, Mixed finite element methods-reduced

and selective integration

techniques:

A unification of concepts, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech. Engrg. 15 (1) (1978) 63-81.

[22] K. Marguerre,

Zur Theorie der gekrummten

Platte grosser Formenderung,

Proc. 5th Internat.

Congress of

Applied Mechanics (1938) 9%701.

[23] T. Belytschko and B.J. Hsieh, Nonlinear transient finite element analysis with convected coordinates,

Internat.

J. Numer. Meths. Engrg. 3 (1973) 255-272.

[24] T. Belytschko

and L.W. Glaum, Application

of higher order corotational

stretch theories to nonlinear finite

element analysis, Comput. & Structures

10 (1979) 175-182.

[25] J.L. Batoz, Curved finite elements and shell theories with particular reference

to the buckling of a circular

arch, Internat. J. Numer. Meths. Engrg. 14 (1979) 774-779.

[26] T.J.R. Hughes. Recent developments

in computer methods for structural analysis, Nucl. Engrg. Design 57 (1980)

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