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Ordinary Portland Cement:

Definition of OPC
Cement can be defined as the bonding material having cohesive & adhesive properties which
makes it capable to unite the different construction materials and form the compacted
Ordinary/Normal Portland cement is one of the most widely used type ofPortland Cement.
The name Portland cement was given by Joseph Aspdin in 1824 due to its similarity in colour
and its quality when it hardens like Portland stone.Portland stone is white grey limestone in
island of Portland, Dorset.

Composition of OPC
The chief chemical components of ordinary Portland cement are:


Calcium is usually derived from limestone, marl or chalk while silica, alumina and iron come from
the sands, clays & iron ores. Other raw materials may include shale, shells and industrial
Basic Composition:















The chief compound which usually form in process of mixing:

1-triclcium silicate (3CaO.SiO2)

2-Dicalcium silicate (2CaO.SiO2)

3-tricalcium aluminates (3CaO.Al2O3)

4-tetracalcium aluminoferrite (4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3)

Production & Manufacturing:
Raw Materials

Calcareous (material having content of lime)

Argillaceous (material having contents of silica & alumina)

Cement is usually manufactured by two processes:

Wet process
Dry process

These two processes differ in operation but fundamentals of both these processes are same.
There are five stages in manufacturing of cement by wet process:

Crushing and grinding of raw material

Mixing the material in proportion
Heating the prepared mixture in rotary kiln
Grinding the heated product known as clinker
Mixing and grinding of cement clinker with gypsum

Crushing and Grinding:

In this phase, soft raw materials are first crushed into suitable size. This is done usually in
cylindrical ball or tube mills containing the charge of steel balls
Mixing the Material:
In this part, the powdered limestone is mixed with the clay paste in proper proportion (75%=lime
stone; clay=25%)
The mixture is then grounded and made homogeneous by mean of compressed gas. The
resulting material is known as slurry having 35-40% water.
Heating the slurry in rotary kiln:
Slurry is then introduced in rotary kiln with help of conveyor. The rotary kiln consists of large
cylinders 8 to 15 feet in diameter & height of 300-500 feet. It is made with steel & is usually
lined inside with firebricks.

Kiln rotates at the rate of 1-2 revolution per minute. In rotary kiln, slurry is passed through
different zones of temperature. This whole process in kiln usually covers 2 to 3 hours.
Different temperature zones are as under:
Preheating Zone
In this zone, temperature is kept at 500 degree Celsius & usually the moisture is removed & clay
is broken into silica, aluminum oxide, iron oxide.
Decomposition Zone
Temperature is raised up to 800 degree Celsius. In this zone lime stone decomposes into lime
and CO2.
Burning Zone
In this zone temperature is maintained up to 1500 degree Celsius and the oxides formed in
above zones combine together and form respective silicate, aluminates & ferrite.
Cooling Zone
This is last stage where the whole assembly cooled is up to 150 to 200 degree Celsius.
Clinker Formation
The product which is obtained from the rotary kiln is known as the cement Clinker. Clinker is
usually in the form of greenish black or grey colored balls.
Grinding the Clinker with Gypsum
The Cement Clinker is then air cooled. The required amount of Gypsum (5 %) is ground to the
fine powder, and then mixed with the Clinker. Finally cement is packed in bags and then
transported to the required site.

Setting and Hardening:

When ordinary Portland cement is mixed with water its chemical compound constituents undergo
a series of chemical reactions that cause it to set. These chemical reactions all involve the
addition of water to the basic chemical compounds. This chemical reaction with water is called
"hydration". Each one of these reactions occurs at a different time and with different rates.
Addition of all these reactions gives the knowledge about how Ordinary Portland cement hardens
and gains strength. Those compounds and their role in hardening of cement are as under:

Tricalcium silicate (C3S): Hydrates and hardens rapidly and is largely responsible for
initial set and early strength. Ordinary Portland cements with higher percentages of C3S will
exhibit higher early strength.
Dicalcium silicate (C2S): Hydrates and hardens slowly and is largely responsible for
strength increases beyond one week.
Tricalcium aluminate (C3A): Hydrates and hardens the quickest. It liberates a large
amount of heat almost immediately and contributes somewhat to early strength. Gypsum is
added to Ordinary Portland cement to retard C3A hydration. Without gypsum, C3A hydration
would cause ordinary Portland cement to set almost immediately after adding water.
Tetracalcium aluminoferrite (C4AF): Hydrates rapidly but contributes very little to
strength. Most ordinaryPortland cement color effects are due to C4AF.
Uses of OPC (Ordinary Portland cement):
It is used for general construction purposes where special properties are not required. It is
normally used for the reinforced concrete buildings, bridges, pavements, and where soil
conditions are normal. It is also used for most of concrete masonry units and for all uses where
the concrete is not subject to special sulfate hazard or where the heat generated by the
hydration of cement is not objectionable. It has great resistance to cracking and shrinkage but
has less resistance to chemical attacks.
Tests on Ordinary Portland cement

Fineness test
Soundness test
Setting time test
Strength tests
Compressive strength test


Tensile strength test
Flexural strength test
Specific gravity test
Consistency test
Heat of hydration test
Loss of ignition test

Types of Cement
In addition to ordinary cement, the following are the other varieties of cement.
The main types cements are
i) Acid resistance cement
ii) Blast furnace cement
iii) Coloured cement
iv) Expanding cement
v) High alumina cement
vi) Hydrophobic cement
vii) Low heat cement
viii) Pozzolona cement
ix) Quick setting cement
x) Rapid hardening cement
xi) Sulphate resistance cement
xii) White resistance cement
a. Acid Resistance Cement: This is consists of acid resistance aggregates such as quartz,
quartzites, etc,
additive such as sodium fluro silicate (Na2SiO6) and aqueous solution of sodium silicate. This is
used for acid resistant and heat resistant coating of installations of chemical Industry. By adding
0.5 percent of linseed oil or
2 percent of ceresil, its resistance to water is increased and known as acid water resistant
b. Blast Furnace Cement: For this cement slag as obtained from blast furnace in the
manufacture of pig iron and it contains basic elements of cement, namely alumina, lime and
silica. The properties of this cement are more or less the same as those of ordinary cement and
prove to be economical as the slag, which is waste product, is used in its manufacture.
c. Coloured Cement: Cement of desired colour may be obtained by intimately mixing mineral
pigments with
ordinary cement. The amount of colouring may vary from 5 to 10 percent and strength of
cement if it is exceeds 10 percent. Chromium oxide gives brown, red or yellow for different
proportions. Coloured cements are used for finishing of floors, external surfaces, artificial marble,
and windows.
d. Expanding Cement : This type of cement is produced by adding an expanding medium like
sulpha aluminate and a stabilizing agent to ordinary cement. Hence this cement expands
where as other cement shrinks. Expanding cement is used for the construction of water retaining
structures and also for repairing the damaged concrete surfaces.
e. High alumina Cement: This cement is produced by grinding clinkers formed by calcining
bauxite and lime. The total content should not be less than 32 percent and the ratio by weight of
alumina to lime should be between 0.85 and 1.30.
1. Initial setting time is about 31/2 hours therefore, allows more time for mixing and placing
2. It can stand high temperatures.
3. It evolves great heat during setting therefore not affected by frost.
4. It resists the action of acids in a better way.
5. It lets quickly and attains higher ultimate strength.
1. It is costly

2. It cannot be used in mass construction as it evolves great heat and as it sets soon.
3. Extreme care is to taken to see that it does not come in contact with even traces of lime or
ordinary cement.
f. Hydrophobic Cement: This type of cement contains admixtures, which decreases the wetting
ability of cement grains. The usual hydrophobic admixtures are acidol napthene soap, oxidized
petrolium etc when hydrophobic cement is used, the fire pores in concrete are uniformly
distributed and thus the frost resistance
and the water resistance of such concrete are considerably increased.
g. Low Heat Cement: Considerable heat is produced during the setting action of cement. In
order to reduce the amount of heat, this type of cement is used. It contains lower percentage of
tri calcium aluminates C3A and higher percentage of dicalcium silicate C2s. This type of cement
is used for mass concrete works because it processes less compressor strength.
h. Pozzuolona Cement: Pozzuolona is a volcanic powder and the percentage should be
between 10 to 30.
1. It attains compressive strength with age.
2. It can resist action of sulphates.
3. It evolves less heat during setting.
4. It imparts higher degree of water tightness.
5. It imparts plasticity and workability to mortar and concrete prepared from it.
6. It offers great resistance to expansion
7. It possesses higher tensile strength
1. Compressive strength in early days is less.
2. It possesses less resistance to erosion and weathering action.
i. Quick Setting Cement: This cement is prepared by adding a small percentage aluminum
sulphate which reduce the percentage of gypsum or retarded for setting action and accelerating
the setting action of cement. As this cement hardness less than 30 minutes, mixing and placing
operations should be completed. This cement is used to lay concrete under static water or
running water.
j. Rapid Hardening cement: This cement has same initial and final setting times as that of
ordinary cement. But it attains high strength in early days due to
1. Burning at high temperature.
2. Increased lime content in cement composition.
3. Very fine grinding.
1. Construction work may be carried out speedily.
2. Form work of concrete can be removed earlier.
3. It is light in weight.
4. It is not damaged easily.
5. This cement requires short period of curing.
6. Use of this cement also higher permissible stresses in the design.
7. Structural member constructed with this cement may be loaded earlier.
k. Sulphate Resisting Cement: In this cement percentage of tri-calcium aluminates is kept
below 5 to 6 percent and it results in the increase in resisting power against sulphate. This
cement is used for structure which are likely to be damaged by sever alkaline condition such as
canal linings, culverts, siphons etc.
l. White Cement: This is a variety of ordinary cement and it is prepared form such raw
materials which are practically free from colouring oxides of Iron, manganese or chromium. For
burning of this cement, oil fuel is used instead of coal. It is used for floor finish; plaster work,
ornamental works etc.
3.3. Uses of Cement:

1. Cement mortar for masonry work, plaster, pointing etc

2. Concreter for laying floors, roofs and constructing lintels, beams, weather sheds, stairs, pillars
3. Construction of important engineering structure such as bridges, culverts, dams, tunnels
storage reservoirs, light houses, deckles etc.
4. Construction of water tanks, wells, tennis courts, septic tanks, lampposts, roads, telephone
cabins etc.
5. Making joints for drains, pipes etc.
6. Manufacture of pre cast pipes, piles, garden seats, artificially designed urns, flowerpots, etc
dustbins, fencing posts etc.
7. Preparation of foundations, watertight floors, footpaths etc.
Sand is an important building material used in the preparation of mortar, concrete, etc.
Sources of Sand: Sand particles consist of small grains of silica (Si02). It is formed by the
decomposition of sand stones due to various effects of weather. The following are the natural
sources of sand.
a. Pit Sand: This sand is found as deposits in soil and it is obtained by forming pits to a depth of
about 1m to 2m from ground level. Pit sand consists of sharp angular grains, which are free from
salts for making mortar, clean pit sand free from organic and clay should only be used.
b. Rive Sand: This sand is obtained from beds of rivers. River sand consists of fine rounded
grains. Colour of river sand is almost white. As the river sand is usually available in clean
condition, it is widely used for all purposes.
c. Sea Sand: This sand is obtained from sea shores. Sea sand consists of rounded grains in light
brown colour. Sea sand consists of salts which attract the moisture from the atmosphere and
causes dampness, efflorescence and disintegration of work. Due to all such reasons, sea sand is
not recommendable for engineering works. However be used as a local material after being
thoroughly washed to remove the salts.
Characteristics of sand:
1. It should be chemically inert
2. It should be clean and coarse. It should be free from organic matter.
3. It should contain sharp, angular and durable grains.
4. It should not contain salts, which attract the moisture from atmosphere.
5. It should be well graded (i.e.) should contain particles of various sizes in suitable proportions.
Grading of Sand:
According to the site of grains, sand is classified as fine, coarse and gravelly Sand passing
through a screen with clear opening of 1.5875mm is known as fine sand. It is generally used for
masonry works.
Sand passing through a screen with clear openings of 7.62mm is known as gravely sand. It is
generally used for plastering. Sand passing through a screen with clear opening of 3.175mm is
known as coarse sand. It is generally used for masonry work..
Bulking of Sand:
The presence of moisture in sand increases the volume of sand. This is due to fact that moisture
causes film of water around the sand particles which result in the increase of volume of sand. For
a moisture content of 5 to 8 percent, the increase in volume may be about 5 to 8 percent,
depending upon the grading of sand. The finer the material, the more will be the increase in
volume for a given moisture content. This phenomenon is known as bulking of sand. When
moisture content is increased by adding more water, sand particles pack near each other and
the amount of bulking of sand is decreased. Thus the dry sand and the sand completely flooded
with water have practically the same volume. For finding the bulking of sand, a test is carried out
with following procedure as in the fig.
Fig. Bulking of Sand

I. A container is taken and it is filled two

third with the sample of sand to be
II. The height is measured, say 20cm.
III. Sand is taken out of container
IV. The container is filled with water
V. Sand is then slowly dropped in the
container and it is thoroughly stirred by
means of a rod.
VI. The height of sand is measured say
16cm, then bulking of sand == -------------= ------ or
1. What are the main types of sand according to the natural source?
2. What is meant by bulking of sand?
3. What are the important characteristics of sand?
1. Explain the sources of sand.
2. Explain the characteristics of sand.
3. Explain how bulking of sand is found using the experiment.
4. Explain the grading of sand.
5. Explain the bulking of sand.
Coarse aggregate: Sources, shape, size, grading, sampling and analysis, impurities

Aggregates are the materials basically used as filler with binding material in the
production of mortar and concrete. They are derived from igneous, sedimentary and
metamorphic rocks or manufactured from blast furnace slag, etc. Aggregates form the
body of the concrete, reduce the shrinkage and effect economy.
They occupy 70-80 per cent of the volume and have considerable influence on the
properties of the concrete. It is therefore significantly important to obtain right type and
quality of aggregates at site. They should be clean, hard, strong, durable and graded in
size to achieve utmost economy from the paste.
Earlier aggregates were considered to be chemically inert but the latest research has
revealed that some of them are chemically active and also that certain types exhibit
chemical bond at the interface of aggregates and cement paste.
To increase the bulk density of concrete aggregates are used in two markedly different
sizesthe bigger ones known to be coarse aggregate (grit) and the smaller ones fine
aggregate (sand).
The coarse aggregate form the main matrix of concrete and the fine aggregate from the
filler matrix between the coarse aggregate.

Classification of aggregates:
The aggregates may be classified into natural aggregates and artificial aggregates.
Natural Aggregates:
These are obtained by crushing from quarries of igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic rocks.
Gravels and sand reduced to their present size by the natural agencies also fall in this category.
The most widely used aggregate are from igneous origin. Aggregates obtained from pits or
dredged from river, creek or sea are most often not clean enough or well graded to suit the
quality requirement. They therefore require sieving and washing before they can be used in
Artificial Aggregates:
Broken bricks, blast furnace slag and synthetic aggregates are artificial aggregates. Broken
bricks known as brick bats are suitable for mass concreting, for example, in foundation bases.
They are not used for reinforced concrete works. Blast furnace slag aggregate is obtained from

slow cooling of the slag followed by crushing. The dense and strong particles as obtained are
used for making precast concrete products. The sp. gr. of this range between 22.8 and bulk
density 11201300 kg/m3. The blast furnace slag aggregate has good fire resisting properties
but are responsible for corrosion of reinforcement due to sulphur content of slag. Synthetic
aggregates are produced by thermally processed materials such as expanded clay and shale
used for making light weight concrete.
On the basis of size:
According to size aggregates are classified as coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and all-inaggregate
Coarse Aggregate:
Aggregate retained on 4.75 mm sieve are identified as coarse.
They are obtained by natural disintegration or by artificial crushing of rocks.
The maximum size of aggregate can be 80 mm. The size is governed by the thickness of
section, spacing of reinforcement, clear cover, mixing, handling and placing methods.
For economy the maximum size should be as large as possible but not more than onefourth of the minimum thickness of the member.
For reinforced sections the maximum size should be at least 5 mm less than the clear
spacing between the reinforcement and also at least 5 mm less than the clear cover.
Aggregate more than 20 mm sizes are seldom used for reinforced cement concrete
structural members.
Fine aggregate:
Aggregate passing through 4.75 mm sieve are defined as fine. They may be natural sand
deposited by rivers, crushed stone sandobtained by crushing stones and crushed
gravel sand.
All in- aggregate:
Naturally available aggregates of different fractions of fine and coarse sizes are known as
all-in-aggregate. The deficiency of any particular fraction can be corrected for use in the
mix but they are not recommended for quality concrete.
On the basis of size:
Aggregates are classified as rounded, irregular, angular, and flaky.
These are generally obtained from river or sea shore and produce minimum voids (about
32 per cent) in the concrete. They have minimum ratio of surface area to the volume, and
the cement paste required is minimum. Poor interlocking bond makes it unsuitable for
high strength concrete and pavements.
They have voids about 36 per cent and require more cement paste as compared to
rounded aggregate. Because of irregularity in shape they develop good bond and are
suitable for making ordinary concrete.
They have sharp, angular and rough particles having maximum voids (about 40 per cent).
Angular aggregate provide very good bond than the earlier two, are most suitable for high
strength concrete and pavements; the requirement of cement paste is relatively more.
These are sometimes wrongly called as elongated aggregate. However, both of these
influence the concrete properties adversely. The least lateral dimension of flaky aggregate
(thickness) should be less than 0.6 times the mean dimension. For example, the mean
sieve size for an aggregate piece passing through 50 mm and retained on 40 mm sieve is
(50 + 40)/2 = 45.0 mm. If the least lateral dimension is less than 0.6 45 = 27.0 mm, the
aggregate is classified as flaky.
Elongated aggregate are those aggregate whose length is 1.8 times its mean dimension.

Flaky aggregate generally orient in one plane with water and air voids underneath. They
adversely affect durability and are restricted to maximum of 15 per cent.


The purpose of using water with cement is to cause hydration of the cement. Water in
excess of that required for hydration acts as a lubricant between coarse and fine
aggregates and produces a workable and economical concrete.
In case of excess water, the cement along with water comes to the surface by capillary
action and forms a thin layer over surface known as laitance. This weakens bond between
the successive lifts of concrete.
The excess water may leak through the form work, resulting in honeycombed concrete
and on evaporation makes the concrete porous.
On the other hand lesser water makes it difficult to work with concrete and because of non
uniform mixing the resultant concrete is weaker in strength.
The amount of water must therefore be limited to produce concrete of the quality required
for a job. Water is also used for washing aggregates and curing.

Quality of water:
Almost any natural potable water that has no pronounced taste or odour is acceptable for
the concrete mix. Many sources of water unsuitable for drinking may also be used. In case
of a doubt, water samples should be tested for suitability. Excessive impurities may affect
setting time, strength, durability and may cause efflorescence, surface discolouration,
and corrosion of steel.
The effects of impurities in water are mainly expressed in terms of setting time of Portland
cement. The initial setting time of the mixes with impure water and that with the pure
water are obtained. Their difference in the initial setting time of 30 minutes with initial
setting time not less than 30 minutes is supposed to be acceptable. The 7 day and 28 day
compressive strengths of the cube/cylinder specimens prepared with impure water should
not differ by 10 per cent from that of cubes/cylinders prepared with pure water.
Effect of water in the mix depending on the source:
Natural ground water:
Natural ground waters seldom contain more than 20 to 30 ppm of iron. However, acid
mine waters may carry rather large quantities of iron. Iron salts in concentrations up to
40,000 ppm do not usually affect mortar strengths adversely.
Sea water:
The sea water generally contains 3.5 per cent of salts with about 75 per cent of sodium
chloride, about 15 per cent of chloride and sulphate of magnesium.
It has been found to reduce the strength of concrete by 10-20 per cent and slightly
accelerate the setting time.
Sea water may lead to corrosion of the reinforcement. Therefore, sea water may be
recommended for concrete without reinforcement.
The chlorides in sea water may cause efflorescence restricting it to be used in making
mortars for plastering. The use of sea water is not recommended for pre stressed concrete
because of stress corrosion and the small diameter wires (if corroded may cause disaster).
Industrial waste water:
Most waters carrying industrial waste have less than 3,000 ppm of total solids.
Waste waters from paint factories, coke plants, chemical and galvanizing plants may
contain harmful impurities.
It is advisable to test any waste water that contains even few hundred parts per million of
unusual solids before using it for mixing concrete.
Cement concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, pebbles or crushed rock and water. When placed
in the skeleton of forms and allowed to cure, becomes hard like a stone. Cement concrete is
important building material because of the following reasons.
1. It can be moulded into any size and shape of durable structural member.
2. It is possible to control the properties of cement concrete.
3. It is possible to mechanise completely its preparation and placing processes.
4. It possesses adequate plasticity for mechanical working.
The cement concrete has the following properties

1. It has high compressive strength

2. It is free from corrosion
3. It hardens with age and continues for a long time after concrete has attained sufficient
4. It is proved to be economical than steel
5. It binds rapidly with steel and it is weak in tension, steel reinforcement is placed in cement
concrete at suitable places to take up tensile concrete or simply R.C.C.
6. It forms a hard surface, capable of resisting abrasion stresses.This is called reinforced cement.
7. It has tendency to be porous to avoid this proper grading & consolidation of the aggregates,
minimum water-cement ratio should be adopted.
Constituents - Requirements.
The main constituents of concrete are
a) Cement / Lime: Before introduction of ordinary Portland cement, lime was used as
cementing material. At present most of the cement concrete works in the building construction is
done with ordinary Portland cement. But other special varieties of cement such as rapid
hardening cement, high alumina cement are used under certain circumstances. The cement
should comply with all standard specifications
b) Fine Aggregates: The material, which is passed through 4.7625mm B.S.test sieve, is termed
as fine aggregates. Usually natural river sand is used as fine aggregates. But places where
natural sand is not available economically, finely crushed stone may be used as fine aggregates.
c) Coarse Aggregates: The material retained on 4.7625mm size B.S.test sieve is termed as
coarse aggregates. Broken stone is generally used as coarse aggregates. For thin slabs, and
walls, the maximum size of coarse aggregates should be limited to one third the thickness of the
concrete section.
d) Water: Water to be used in the concrete work should have the
following properties.
1) It should be free from oils
2) It should be free from acids or alkalies
3) It should be free from Iron, Vegetables matter or other substance, which is likely to have
adverse effect on
4) It should be fit for drinking purpose
Function of Water
1. It acts as lubricant for fine and coarse aggregates.
2. It acts chemically with cement to form binding paste with coarse aggregates and
3. It is necessary to flux the cementing material over the surface of the aggregates.
4. It is employed to damp the concrete in order to prevent them absorbing water vitally
necessary for chemical action
5. It enables the concrete mix to blow into moulds.
Uses and types
Uses of Concrete:
1:2:2 - For heavy loaded R.C.C columns and R.C.C arches of long spans
1:2:2 - For small pre cast members of concrete like fencing poles, telegraph poles etc. watertight
1:2:3 - For water tanks, bridges, sewers etc.
1:2:3 - For foot path, concrete roads
1:2:4 - For general work of RCC such as stairs, beams, columns, slabs, etc
1:4:8 / 1:5:10 For mass concrete for heavy walls, foundation footings etc.
Preparation of concrete mix:
There are two types of concrete mixing
(i) Hand mixing

(ii) Machine mixing

1. Hand Mixing: This method of mixing concrete is resorted to when the quantity if concrete to
be used in a work is insufficient to warrant the necessity of machine. This is used with advantage
in places where
machinery cannot be used on account of their non-availability or in works near a hospital where
the noise of machine is not desirable. Hand mixing is done on a clean, hard and impermeable
surface. Cement and sand are first mixed dry with the help of shovels until the mixture attains a
uniform colour. Aggregative are then added to this mixture and the whole mixture is then turned
by shovels until the stone pieces uniformly spread throughout. After this, desired are quantity of
water is poured into the heap from a can fitted with a rose. The mass is then turned until a
workable mixture is obtained. It is advised to add 10% extra cement to guard against the
possibility of inadequate mixing by this method.
2. Machine Mixing: - The machine used for mixing concrete is termed as concrete mixer. Two
types of concrete mixers are in common are
1. Continuous mixers
2. Batch mixers
Continuous mixers are employed in massive construction where large and continuous flow of
concrete is desired. The process of feeding the mixing is more or less automatic. The machine
requires careful supervision so as to obtain the concrete mix of desired consistency. In batch
type of concrete mixer. The desired proportion of materials are fed into the hopper of a drum in
which the materials get mixed by the series of blades or baffles inside the mixer.
Batch mixers are further two types
1. Tilting drum type
2. closed drump type.
In the first type, components are fed in the revolving drum in a tilted position and after
sometime the concrete mix is discharged by tilting the drums in the opposite direction. In the
latter type the drum remains rotating in one direction and emptied by means of hopper which
tilts to receive the discharge. While using the mixer, coarse aggregates should be fed first, sand
and cement should be put afterwards. In this revolving state, the components get mixed while
water is poured with the help of can. The concrete should be for atleast 2 minutes, the time
being measured after all the ingredients including water have been fed into the drum. The batch
type concrete mixer is as shown in the fig.

Fig., Batch type Concrete Mixer

Compaction - Methods:
Concrete should be placed and compacted immediately after mixing.
The concrete should be placed within 30 to 40 minutes to prevent the danger of concrete
getting its initial set, before laying the concrete; the shuttering should be cleaned of all of
dust or debris. Crude oil or grease etc is usually applied to the shuttering before
concreting to prevent the shuttering absorbing the water from the concrete or getting
stuck to it.
In placing the concrete, care should be taken to see that it should not be thrown from
heights. Concrete should be laid in layers 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12) in thickness and each
layer should be properly compacted before laying the next one.
Compaction of concrete should be proceeding immediately after placing.
The function of compaction of concrete is to expel the air bubbles in the mass and make it
impermeable in addition to its securing the desired strength.

The concrete mass should be consolidated or compacted till the cream of the cement
starts appearing on the surface. Over compaction may lead to segregation of concrete
while-under-compaction may leave air voids in concrete and results in honey combing.
Compaction may be done by hand or mechanical device.
(i) Hand compaction: The hand compaction may be done by Roding, tamping or hammering.
Tamping is
usually adopted for compacting concrete for slabs or other such surfaces. Roding is done for thin
vertical members. Hammering is done for massive plain concrete works and for compact an
almost dry concrete the surface is beaten with heavy flat bottom rammers till the thin film of
mortar start appearing on the surface.
(ii) Mechanical compaction: Mechanical compaction is done by the use of vibrators. Vibrators are
of three types
1. Internal
2. External
3. Surface.
Internal vibrators are commonly used in large works for flat surface compaction. In this the
vibrator is immersed in the full depth of concrete layer. The vibrator should be kept in one
position for about 3 minutes and then removed and placed another position.
External vibrators are placed against the form work and are only adopted for thin section
of members or in places where internal vibrators cannot be used with ease.
Surface vibrators are generally employed in concrete road construction. Compaction of
concrete by use of vibrators permits the use of stiff concrete mix of high strength and
ensure better compaction than that obtained by the method of hand compaction
6.5 Curing of concrete:
Curing of concrete is one of the essential requirements of process of concreting. Curing is
process of keep the set concrete damp for some days in order to enable the concrete gain more
(i) Curing protects concrete surfaces from sun and wind
(ii) Presence of water is essential to cause the chemical action which a companies the setting of
Definition of Concrete Curing
Curing is a procedure that is adopted to promote the hardening of concrete under conditions
of humidity and temperature which are conducive to the progressive and proper setting of the
constituent cement. Curing has a major influence on the properties of hardened concrete such
as durability, strength, water-tightness, wear resistance, volume stability, and resistance to
freezing and thawing.
Concrete that has been specified, batched, mixed, placed, and finished can still be a failure if
improperly or inadequately cured. Curing is usually the last step in a concrete project and,
unfortunately, is often neglected even by professionals.

Methods of Curing Concrete

The best curing method depends on:


Application equipment required

Materials available

Size and shape of the concrete surface

1. Keep concrete in water
Keep the concrete immersed in water during the curing period to fulfill the moisture
requirements of concrete. This can be done by:

Ponding or immersion

Spraying or fogging

Fogging minimizes moisture loss during and after placing and finishing of concrete.
Saturated wet coverings
Such methods provide some cooling through evaporation, which is beneficial in hot weather.
2. Prevent the loss of the existing water
Prevent the loss of the mixing water from concrete by sealing its surface. This can be done by:

Covering the concrete with impervious paper or plastic sheets.

Polyethylene film is an effective moisture barrier for curing concrete and easily
applied to complex as well as simple shapes. To minimize discoloration, the film should be kept
as flat as possible on the concrete surface.
Applying membrane-forming curing compounds.
Penetrating sealers help protect reinforcing steel in bridge decks from corrosion due
to chloride infiltration without reducing surface friction
3. Steam Curing
Strength gain can also be accelerated with:



Live steam

Heating coils

Electrically heated forms or pads

Requirements for curing
Time - 3-7 Days
Temperature - 50-100 F
Moisture - Saturated at all times

Effect of Curing on concrete performance: The purpose of curing is to ensure that the
concrete does not dry out prematurely, but retains moisture so that it will build up strength and
gain durability and resistance to wear. The concrete should be kept continuously damp for at
least 7 days to achieve satisfactory curing. The easiest method is to cover the concrete with
plastic sheeting immediately after finishing. It

Increases Strength

Increases Water tightness

Increases Abrasion resistance

Increases Freeze-thaw resistance

Increases Volume stability

Decreases permeability.


Lightweight Aggregate:

Lightweight aggregates are used to make lightweight concrete.

Lightweight aggregates can be processed natural materials (for example expanded clay
or expanded shale), processed by-products (for example foamed slag or sintered
pulverized fuel ash) or unprocessed materials (for example pumice).

Lightweight aggregate is a type of coarse aggregate that is used in the production of

lightweight concrete products such as concrete block, structural concrete, and pavement.

Most lightweight aggregate is produced from materials such as clay, shale, or slate. Blast
furnace slag, natural pumice, vermiculite, and perlite can be used as substitutes.
Applications where lightweight aggregates are used include:

Lightweight concrete masonry,

Structural lightweight and semi-lightweight cast-in-place concrete ,

Low-density precast concrete units,

Low-density mortars for radiant heat floor and refractory,

Geotechnical low-density engineered fill,

Insulating concrete fill,

Concrete roofing tile and ballast and

Ground cover and soil-less mix.

Lightweight Aggregate :

Minimizing the need for repair and replacement of the Infrastructure

Reduced heat island effect in urban areas :

The magnitude of the heat island effect is the temperature difference between a citys hot
built-up core and its surrounding cool rural areas which can amount to 6C or more.

By incorporating vesicular aggregates into the soil, the tiny pores act as reservoirs that
hold and release as needed water and soluble nutrients for the vegetation to absorb.

The porous cellular lightweight aggregates help manage water by acting as a moisture
flywheel absorbing moisture during wet periods and slowly releasing it along with soluble
nutrients during dry spells.

In addition to minimizing the need for irrigation, it also reduces the amount of runoff. As
in wastewater treatment plants a gravel bed can be an important component in improving
the quality of the groundwater.

Horticulture uses such as green roofs.

Usage of recycled by products :

By-products such as fly ash and bottom ash from power generating plants can be
processed into lightweight aggregates.

Filter beds:
In the treatment of municipal waste, filter beds are used where a bacterial film anchors
and develops on aggregate surfaces. The surface of lightweight aggregates provides an
ideal medium for the development of this bacterial growth and is particularly effective in
lowering the phosphates content. With a vesicular aggregate even more surface area is
available for the beneficial organisms to form as compared to normal weight aggregates.

Examples: Litex brand lightweight aggregate is well suited for

concrete masonry, structural and non-structural concrete, soil
stabilization, and horticulture and landscaping applications.
True Lite Lightweight Aggregate brand aggregate ("True Lite") is a
co-product of the iron production process. It is well suited for
lightweight concrete masonry, lightweight structural and nonstructural concrete, and lightweight engineered fill applications. True Lite offers excellent
fire resistance, thermal insulating, and sound absorption capabilities.

In cement, Vitrex brand pelletized slag offers:

Low moisture content. Vitrex brand pelletized slag typically has a moisture content of less
than 8 percent. Some cement producers grind Vitrex brand pelletized slag directly without
further drying.

A magnified view shows the pores of autoclaved

aerated concrete

AAC has been produced for more than 70 years,
and it offers advantages over other cementitious
construction materials, one of the most important
being its lower environmental impact.
AACs improved thermal efficiency reduces the
heating and cooling load in buildings.
AACs workability allows accurate cutting, which
minimizes the generation of solid waste during
AACs resource efficiency gives it lower
environmental impact in all phases of its life
cycle, from processing of raw materials to the
disposal of AAC waste.
AACs light weight also saves cost & energy in
AAC's light weight saves labour

Autoclaved aerated concrete block with a sawn surface to

show the cellular pore structure

Environmental benefits of Autoclaved Aerated

The use of autoclaved aerated concrete has a range of
environmental benefits:
Insulation: most obviously, the insulation properties of
aircrete will reduce the heating costs of buildings
constructed with autoclaved aerated concrete, with
consequent fuel savings over the lifetime of the building.
Materials: lime is one of the principal mix
components and requires less energy to produce than
Portland cement, which is fired at higher temperatures.
Sand requires only milling before use, not heating, and
PFA is a by-product from electricity generation. NB: lime
may require less energy to manufacture compared with
Portland cement but more CO2is produced per tonne
(cement approx. 800-900 kg CO2/tonne compared to
lime at 1000 kg CO2per tonne).
Carbonation: less obviously, the cellular structure of
aircrete gives it a very high surface area. Over time,
much of the material is likely to carbonate, largely
offsetting the carbon dioxide produced in the
manufacture of the lime and cement due to the calcining
of limestone.

It is common for no fines concrete to be used as external

walls in houses because rains falling on the surface of
external walls can only penetrate a short horizontal
distance and then falls to the bottom of the walls. The use
of no fines concrete guarantees good thermal insulation of
the house.
Plastering walls :
NFC has a rough surface texture for plastering. Normal
plaster mixes are used and the surface of the NFC must be
dry when applying the plaster. Plastered NFC walls have
some excellent qualities, but one drawback is that neither
conventional wall plugs nor masonry nails can be used for
attaching fixtures.
Screeding :
When used in underfloor drainage, roof insulation and
domestic floors, NFC should be screeded within 72 hours
of placing. Particular attention must be paid to wet curing
the screed.

NFC therefore has large interconnected voids and a much

lower density than conventional dense concrete. The
structure of NFC makes it ideal for use as a drainage laye
under reservoir and basement floors. It can also serve as
an insulating layer and as a damp-proofing material.
NFC is NOT suitable for drainage purposes where the
water is soft or aggressive to concrete.

The low permeability of polymer concrete allows it to
be used in swimming pools, sewer pipes, drainage
channels, electrolytic cells for base metal recovery,
and other structures that contain liquids. It can also
be used as a replacement for asphalt pavement, for
higher durability and higher strength.

Advantages of polymer concrete include:
Rapid curing at ambient temperatures
High tensile, flexural, andcompressive strengths
Good adhesion to most surfaces
Good long-term durability with respect to freeze
and thaw cycles
Low permeability to water and aggressive solutions
Good chemical resistance
Good resistance against corrosion
Some safety issues arise out of the use of polymer
concrete. The monomers can be volatile, combustible, and
toxic. Initiators, which are used as catalysts, are
combustible and harmful to human skin. The promoters and
accelerators are also dangerous.
Polymer concretes also cost significantly more than
conventional concrete.

Intended use of POLYMER CONCRETE

Due to its properties, polymer concrete is nowadays used in
many applications:
Production of prefabricated products for bridge drainage
system (bridge edge beams, bridge kerbs, bridge drainage
inlets, gutters),
Production of prefabricated products for linear drainage
systems (channels, linear drainage channels, linear
drainage silt boxes)
Production of industrial tanks, intended for electrolysis of
non-ferrous metals,
Production of catch basins and channels to drain
aggressive industrial wastewater, water meter chambers,
sewage pump stations,
Production of storage tanks to store corrosive substances,
e.g. acids, bases,
execution of chemical resistant cladding as chemical
resistant coats made of laminates or resin composites.
Reinforced cement concrete:

Reinforced cement concrete is a composite

material made up of cement concrete and
reinforcement in which the concrete resists
compression with reinforcement resisting the
tension and shear. It is the most versatile
building material available and is extensively
used in the construction industry ranging from
small structural elements such as beams and
columns to massive structures like dams and
The idea of reinforcing concrete with steel has
resulted in a composite material, having the
potential of resisting significant tensile stresses.
The steel bars are embedded in the tensile zone
of concrete to compensate the poor tensile
resistance of concrete.
The bond between steel and the surrounding
concrete ensures strain compatibility. Moreover,
the reinforcing steel imparts ductility to this composite material.
The reinforcing steel also supplements concrete in bearing compressive forces, as in the
case of columns. Here the bars are confined with lateral ties, in order to maintain their

positions and to prevent their local buckling. In addition, the lateral ties also serve to
confine the concrete, thereby enhancing its compression load bearing capacity.
Prestressed concrete:
One of the serious limitation of reinforced cement concrete is the cracking which is a natural
phenomenon for concrete constructions. Once cracks occur they do not disappear even after
removal of load. If the width of these cracks is to be kept within permissible limits, the steel
stress has to be kept low.
Presence of cracks lowers the capacity of structure to bear reversal of stresses, impact vibration
and shocks. Also, the reinforcing bars may get corroded in due course of time and the concrete
deteriorates. Besides these disadvantages, the presence of cracks makes theory of reinforced
concrete quite irrational.
Efforts were made to eliminate the cracking of concrete by artificially introducing in it either
before or simultaneously with the application of external loads, a compressive force of
permanent nature. This force is so applied that it causes compressive stresses in that zone of the
member where tensile stress will be caused by external loads. The tensile stress in concrete will
thus be neutralized and it will not crack.
A prestressed concrete may thus be defined as a concrete in which stresses of suitable
magnitude and distribution are introduced to counteract, to a desired degree, the stresses
resulting from external loads. The concept of prestressing concrete was first used by Mandl of
France in 1896. In prestressed concrete high strength concrete and steel are desirable.
The former is required because of following:
1. The use of high strength concrete results in smaller cross-section of member and hence
smaller self weight; longer spans become technically and economically practicable.
2. High bearing stresses are generated in anchorage zones.
3. The shrinkage cracks are reduced, with higher modulus of elasticity and smaller creep strain
resulting in smaller loss of prestress.
The loss of prestress at the initial stages is very high and for this reason high strength steel is
required. High tensile strength wires with ultimate tensile strength up to 2010 N/mm2 are the
choice. For prestressed concrete members, the high tensile steel used generally consists of
coires, bars or strands.
Prestressing is achieved by either pre-tensioning or post-tensioning. In the former the wires or
cables are anchored, tensioned and concrete is cast in the moulds. After the concrete has gained
strength the wires are released. This sets up compression in concrete which counteracts tension
in concrete because of bending in the member.
In the post-tensioning prestressing force is applied to the steel bars or cables, after the concrete
has hardened sufficiently. After applying the full prestress the cable passages are grouted. The
minimum 28-day cube compressive strength for concrete is 40 N/mm2 for pre-tensioned
members and 30 N/mm2 for post-tensioned members.
1. The cracking of concrete is eliminated enabling the entire cross-section of the member to take
part in resisting moment.
2. As dead load moments are neutralized and the shear stresses are reduced, the sections
required are much smaller than those for reinforced concrete. This reduces the dead weight of
3. In ordinary reinforced concrete (RCC) the economy is not as pronounced as in prestressed
concrete (PSC). The prestressing force in most cases is computed strictly from dead load of the
structure; consequently, a weight reduction of 25% results in a substantial reduction in the weight
of prestressing tendons. It is widely used for construction of precast units such as beams, floors,
roofing systems, bridges, folded plate roofs, marine structures, towers and railway sleepers

Fibre reinforced concrete:

Conventional concrete is modified by random dispersal of short discrete fine fibres of asbestos,
steel, sisal, glass, carbon, poly-propylene, nylon, etc. Asbestos cement fibres so far have proved
to be commercially successful. The improvement in structural performance depends on the
strength characteristics, volume, spacing, dispersion and orientation, shape and their aspect
ratio (ratio of length to diameter) of fibres. A fibre-reinforced concrete requires a considerably
greater amount of fine aggregate than that for conventional concrete for convenient handling.
For FRC to be fully effective, each fibre needs to be fully embedded in the matrix, thus the
cement paste requirement is more. For FRC the cement paste required ranges between 35 to 45
per cent as against 25 to 35 per cent in conventional concrete.

The first flexural cracking load on a FRC member increases due to crack arresting mechanism of
the closely spaced fibres. After the first crack fibres continue to take load provided the bond is
good. Thereafter the fibres,reaching the breaking strain fracture. The neutral axis of the section
shifts and the fibres of adjacent layers fracture on reaching the breaking strain. Failure occurs
when the concrete in compression reaches the ultimate strain.
1. Strength of concrete increases.
2. Fibres help to reduce cracking and permit the use of thin concrete sections.
3. Mix becomes cohesive and possibilities of segregation are reduced.
4. Ductility, impact resistance, tensile and bending strength are improved.
1. Fibres reduce the workability of a mix and may cause the entrainment of air.
2. Steel fibres tend to intermesh and form balls during mixing of concrete.
Types of Frcs:
Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC)
Aspect ratios of 30 to 250
Diameters vary from 0.25 mm to 0.75 mm
Hooks are provided at the ends to improve bond with
the matrix
Introduction of steel
fibres modifies:
1. Tensile strength
2. Compressive
3. Flexural strength
4. Shear strength
5. Modulus of Elasticity
6. Shrinkage
7. Impact resistance
8. Strain
9. Durability
Fibre reinforced concrete is useful in hydraulic structures, airfield pavements, highways, bridge
decks, heavy duty floors, and tunnel linings.

Highway and airport pavements

Refractory linings
Canal linings
Industrial floorings and bridge-decks
Precast applications - wall and roof panels, pipes, boats, staircase steps &
manhole covers
Structural applications.
Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) :

Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete (GFRC)

Ready mixed concrete:

Ready mixed concrete (RMC) is a concrete, delivered at site or into the purchasers vehicle, in
plastic condition and requires no further treatment before being placed in a position in which it is
to set and harden.

It is a high quality concrete of required grade produced under strictly controlled conditions in a
centralised automatic batching plant and supplied to the customer in a transit mixer truck for its
placement at site.
The concrete can be mixed either dry at the batching plant, loaded into agitator truck mixers and
water added during transportation; or it can be mixed wet at the batching plant, discharged into
the agitator truck mixers and transported to site.
Use of RMC to its full advantage requires more careful planning on the site as compared to the
site mixing. Due to better quality control measures adopted, RMC can be considered to be
almost a factory-made product, yet it is not. It is advantageous not only for mass concreting but
also for small quantities of concrete to be placed at intervals.
RMC is extremely useful on congested sites or in road construction where limited space is
available for aggregate stock piling and mixing plant.
The major setback to the use of RMC is its cost. Though a little bit expensive, the increasing
emphasis on quality, with skilled labour becoming expensive, and its inherent advantages
outweigh the cost.
Admixtures in RMC:
Generally RMC is transported to sites which are located at long distances from the batching
plants. At the delivery point, concrete should be workable and plastic. The transit period is
sometimes four to five hours. The ordinary concrete will suffer slump loss due to the time lost in
transit and evaporation of water due to atmospheric conditions such as high temperature.
Therefore, admixtures will be required to extend the setting time and, retention of specified
slump of concrete.
Two types of admixtures are in usethe high performance water reducing admixtures and a high
range water-reducing super-plasticizers.
The advantages of using high performance water reducing admixtures are:
1. Improved cohesion and reduced bleeding and segregation.
2. Makes the mix cohesive even if the aggregates are of slightly poor grading.
3. Since chloride free it is safe for use in reinforced and prestressed concrete.
4. Improved workability and workability retention with controlled extended setting time and
hence ideal for use in hot weather condition.
5. Workability increases without extra water addition.
6. Assists in producing dense, close textured, low permeability concrete thus enhancing
7. Water reduction helps in improvement of compressive strength at all ages.
The advantages of using high range water-reducing super plasticizers are:
a) Speedy construction.
b) Increased workability and reduced segregation.
c) Longer placing time.
d) Improved pumpability.
e) Chloride free.
f) Safe for use in prestressed and marine structures.
g) Safe for use with sulphate resisting cement and marine aggregate.
h) Higher ultimate strength.
i) Improved workability.
Advantages of using RMC:
1. Enhanced quality and durability resulting in lower maintenance costs and increased speed of
2. Ready mix concrete is consistently of the same quality and provides a high quality of
construction material; construction time is also reduced.
3. It reduces congestion at the site and prevents traffic jams.
4. It hastens infrastructure development and thus provides more employment opportunities.
5. It is an environmentally safer alternative.
6. With ready mixed concrete, modern construction techniques can be followed.
7. ConvenienceReady Mix Concrete is delivered at the site with minimum logistical hassles.
8. Different types of concretes can be made for different applications.
9. Use of RMC obviates the need to set up the infrastructure required for site manufactures of
concrete. This also reduces the working capital to be invested by the customers, as they will not
be required to maintain stock of aggregates, cement, plant and machinery etc .


Paint is a liquid surface coating. On drying it forms a thin film (60150 _) on the painted
surface. Paints are classified as oil paints, water paints, cement paints, bituminous paints
and special paints such as fire proof paints, luminous paints, chlorinated rubber paints (for
protecting objects against acid fumes), etc.
The functions of the paints are: to protect the coated surface against possible stresses
mechanical or chemical; deteriorationphysical or environmental; decorate the structure
by giving smooth and colourful finish; check penetration of water through R.C.C; check the
formation of bacteria and fungus, which are unhygienic and give ugly look to the walls;
check the corrosion of the metal structures; check the decay of wood work and to varnish
the surface to display it to better advantage.
Characteristics of an ideal paint:
The requirements are uniform spread as a thin film, high coverage, good workability and
durability, sufficient elasticity to remain unaffected by expansion or contraction of the
surface to be painted or by weathering action of atmosphere. The paints should also be:
impervious to air and water, cheap and economical to form a hard surface.
Enamels consists of bases like zinc oxide, etc. ground in varnish. If desired colouring
pigments may be added. They dry quickly and furnish a hard glossy surface. Enamel can
be used for internal as well as external works and are generally recommended for
application on wood work. These are acid resistant, not affected by alkalis, gases and, are
The surface of the wood is rubbed with a sand paper and cleaned. A primer coat
consisting of titanium white in pale linseed oil is followed by two to three coats of enamel
Distemper is made with base as white chalk and thinner as water. Some colouring
pigments and glue are added. They are available in powder and paste forms and are
substantially cheaper than paints.
They are most suitable for plastered surfaces as well as white washed surfaces of interior
Oil bound washable distemper, washable oil free distemper, and non washable distemper
or emulsion paints are some of the types of distemper. In the oil bound distemper, the
drying oil is rendered mixable with water. While using they are thinned by adding water.
On drying, the oil content in distemper hardens and yields a comparatively durable

1. The coatings are thick and more brittle compared to paints.

2. They are workable, easy in application but less durable.
3. The film being porous can be applied on even newly plastered surface.
Distempers are applied in the following manner:
Preparation of surface: The surface is thoroughly rubbed and cleaned. In case of a new
plastered surface, the surface is kept exposed, to weather, for drying before the application of
distemper. If an existing (old) distempered surface is to be redone, surface is cleaned with
profuse watering. The efflorescence and patches, if any, should be wiped out by a clean cloth.
Cracks, if any should be filled with putty.
Priming coat: A priming coat as recommended by the manufacturer is applied on the prepared
Final coat: Two or three coats of distemper are applied. Each coat should be applied only after
the previous coat has dried.
A painted building with full colour effects gives complete satisfaction. But the appearance of
defects becomes a ready source of complaint. Unfortunately painting defects are by no means
uncommon. They may arise from a variety of causes but the principal reasons behind them are
incorrect choice of paint in relation to backing materials, application of paint to a damp surface
or one to which moisture may have access and; poor workmanship.
Effects of background:
The factors affecting durability are dampness, cleanliness, movements, chemical reactions,etc.
Dampness: The traditional construction in brick, cement, etc. involves the use of wet procedures.
If paint is applied on an insufficiently dry background the moisture is trapped and in the process
of subsequent drying the adhesion of the paint breaks down. Emulsion paints are somewhat better in this respect.
Paint will not adhere to the surface if it is not cleaned of dirt or dust.
The painting processes can be delayed for proper results for movements caused by shrinkage
and special paints should be used for thermal movements.
Chemical reactions:
Between backing material and paint film may push the paint off the backing material and lead to
softening or decolourise the paint. This effect generally occurs only if moisture is present and is
noticeable in oil paints over materials containing cement or lime. The breakdown of bond is
because of the crystallization of salts below the paint film and the discolouration is usually due
to action of free lime on the pigments.
Effects of weather:
The paint film is subjected to chemical attack of atmosphere, sunlight and heat, all deteriorating
it. Special chemical resistant paints should be applied in industrial areas. Alkali resistant paints
weather well in coastal areas. Blue and green colours tend to fade when exposed to bright light.
In addition the fierce heat of sun may breakdown the paint film because of the disintegration of
the material itself and also because of the thermal movement. The most common defects
noticed after painting, are as follow:
1. Swelling of the paint film and can be defined as localized loss of adhesion between one or
more coatings or between primer and parent surface.
When swelling is because of oil or grease on the surface it is known as blistering and in
case of moisture it is called peeling. It occurs in nonporous coatings such as oil based
paints and enamels. A special heat-resisting type of paint should be used for hot surfaces
such as radiators.
It is brought about by moist air, oily or greasy surface, or imprisoned gases between the
painted surface and the paint film, which expand under the influence of heat.
2. Emulsion paints provide a porous coating and allow the moisture to pass through. If hair
cracks produced enclose small area it is known as crazing.
In case the enclosed area is large the defects is called crocodiling.
It is caused when the paint film lacks in tensile strength and occurs when paint is applied
during very cold weather or because of insufficient drying of undercoat.
When cracks are very small and do not enlarge with time, the top coating is flattened with
emery paper and a fresh coat of paint is applied.

3. The cracks extend throughout the entire paint system extending right down to the original
Cracks in the plaster or masonry do not let the paint to remain intact.
Paint applied on glossy surface.
Premature application of top coat before the previous coat has completely dried.
Painting improperly seasoned wood.
4. Flaking is detachment of paint film from the surface.
The moisture penetrates through the cracks on the coatings and the bond between surface
and paint film is lost.
1. Use of plastic emulsion paints.
2. Surface should be rubbed with emery paper before applying a fresh coat.
3. All dirt or dust on surface should be removed prior to painting.
5. Chalking: Paint film becomes powder due to insufficient oil in primer.
6. Alligatoring: One layer of paint films sliding over the other one, when a hard paint is applied
over a soft one or vice versa.
7. Wrinkling: or crawling appears when the paint film is quite thick or the oil in the paint is more
than required. The lower portion of the paint does not dry due to greater thickness of the
paint film which shrinks due to drying in course of time.
8. Running & sagging: Paints applied over smooth and glossy surface do not stick and flow back
or towards the unpainted area. This is known as running and sagging. The surface to-be
painted should, therefore, be rubbed with an emery paper before painting.
9. Mild dew: Mildew thrives in warm, moist and dark places. Zinc oxide and phenol mercury
oleate are very useful to check its growth.
Bloom: is identified as dull patches on the finished, polished or painted surface due to
defect in the quality of paint or poor ventilation.
Flashing: is characterized by the appearance of certain glossy patches on the painted
surface. The reasons attributed to this defect are weathering actions, use of cheap paint,
and poor workmanship.
Grinning: is due to the imperfect opacity of the paint film even after the final coat. The
background and its defects can be clearly visible in such a case.



Glass is an inorganic, homogeneous and amorphous substance obtained through the cooling of a
molten mass. Its main qualities are the transparency and hardness. The glass has uncountable
applications in the most varied industries, given its inalterability characteristics, hardness,
resistance and thermal, optical and acoustic properties, becoming one of the few materials yet
irreplaceable, being every time more present in the technological development researches for
the well-being of the man.
Qualities & Features:

Transparence (permeable to light)
Non absorbance
Great dielectric insulator
Low thermal conductivity
Abundant resources in the nature

Composition of Glass

its not a single compound and its difficult to give it a particular chemical formula
commonly expressed as combination of alkali oxides, metal oxides and silica dioxides
aX2O, bYO, 6SiO2
a, b are no. of molecules;
X is an atom of an alkali metal i.e. Na, K etc.
Y is an atom of a bivalent metal i.e. Ca, Pb etc.
For example,
Soda-lime Glass - Na2O, CaO, 6SiO2
Potash-lead Glass - K2O, PbO, 6SiO2

Important properties of glass


Absorbs, refracts and transmits light

Amorphous substance having no definite crystalline structure which makes it easy to
fuse it and mould it as many times as possible
No sharp melting point
Does not react with water and other atmospheric agents but is affected by alkalis
Characteristics, both physical and chemical, vary considerably with addition of other
materials (B2O3, if added with glass makes its alkali resistant)
Excellent electrical insulator at elevated temperatures
Easy to clean and maintain it from stains
Easy to add colour to glass


Considerable compressive strength up to certain point but does not deform but breaks
highly brittle substance
Thermal conductivity is less
Manufacturing of Glass

Stage I Collection of raw materials depending on the type of the glass:

Say, Soda-lime Glass preparation needs Chalk (CaO), Soda ash (Na 2O) and Clean sand (SiO2)
Cullet in the form of waste glass or broken glass is added to increase the fusibility as well as to
prevent the loss of alkali through volatilisation.
Decolourisers are also added to eliminate the yellowish tint of Ferric Oxides and greenish tint of
Ferrous Oxides Antimony Oxide, Arsenic Oxide, Cobalt Oxide, Manganese Oxide, Nickel Oxide
are the most commonly used decolourisers.
Stage II Preparation of batch
- By adding ingredients in correct proportion, and mixing them uniformly.
Stage III Melting in furnace
- In pot furnace or tank furnace depending on the scale of operation small scale in pot and
large scale in tank furnace
- Refractory lining of fire clay.
Stage IV Fabrication of glass
Float Glass makes the molten glass float over liquid tin;
Plate Glass rolled over either two layers of roller or combination of plate and rolled
Cast glass cast by pouring molten glass or pressing them in moulds.
Stage V Annealing of glass
- Its of process of making glass objects cool down gradually from a very high temperature
- Due to high thermal insulation of glass rapid cooling creates thermal stress between inner and
outer layers of glass leading to a state of strain

- Makes glass highly vulnerable to minor shocks and disturbances thus annealing is a crucial
Flue method of annealing glass objects being passed through a flue with varying
temperature allowing it to cool down gradually a constant process applied for large scale
Oven method of annealing temperature variation achieved by cooling the oven itself from
high temperature an intermittent process suitable for small scale annealing.

Test for waviness


Apply a coating of silver on one surface protected by metallic copper film (similar to
making of mirror out
of glass)
Sketch comprising broad straight bands at 45 to the horizontal in a rectangle waved in
front of the mirror which should be vertically placed.
Image of bands free from distortion means that the glass is free from waviness or
distortion free.
Types of glass
A. Soda lime glass
contains 70-74 percent Silica, 8-13 percent calcium oxide and 13-28 percent sodium


comprises of 90 percent of the glass manufactured

used for flat glass panels, window glass and tableware
B. Lead Glass

composition similar to soda lime glass but lead oxide replaces calcium oxide
highly resistant to electricity
refractive index around 2.2 characteristic sparkle in cut glass
extensively used in manufacturing luminaries and shielding nuclear radiation
C. Boro-silicate glass

contains 10-20 percent of boron oxide, 80-87 percent silica, and sodium oxide less than
10 percent
possess high shock resistance and electrical insulation properties
low co-efficient of thermal expansion and excellent chemical stability
D. Laminated glass

made of two or more layers of glass which are laminated to an interlayer of clear or
tinted Poly Vinyl Butyral (PVB)
resistant to shattering as the pieces remain in places after breaking
E. Tinted glass
- used for reflecting or absorbing solar radiation
- green glass has highest day light transmittance and grey glass has the lowest
F. Coated glass
- clear glass panel with a very thin metallic coating
- reflects heat and thermally insulates the internal space
G. Wired Glass
- molten glass rolled with a wire mesh embedded
- resist splintering of glass even after breaking
- wired glass has application in high temperature environment
- should satisfy flameproof requirements as per the IS

H. Coloured glass
- various colours by incorporating Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Se etc.
Application of Glass in Door and Window shutters
Transparent or translucent glass sheets, clear or tinted are used as door and window shutters in
various sizes
Classification of transparent glass used as door/window glazing

AA Quality or Special Selected Quality (SSQ) for safety glass in door/window or wind
A Quality or Selected Quality (SQ) for selected glazing and wind shields.
B Quality or Ordinary Quality (OQ) for general purpose glazing and framing.
C Quality or Greenhouse Quality (GQ) For green house glazing but varied suitably for
doors and windows.
Glass Tiles

made for the purpose of glazing, wall finish, partions, ceilings, curtain walls and
swimming pool application
Wide variety ranging from clear to tinted glass, plain, polished, textured, roughened,
laminated with interlays of polymers, wired etc.
Glass Fibres
fibres made out of glass and drawn into threads
diameter up to 5 micron.
contains silica 50-55 percent, calcium oxide 15-20 percent, boron oxide 8-12 percent
and sodium and potassium oxide less than 1 percent
used in gypsum plaster with epoxy resin or cement as binders
low silica content makes them alkali resistant suitable for cement matrix composites
glass fibre reinforced composites are extensively used in preparation of water pipes,
tanks and panels
Glass Wool

composition similar to boro-silicate glass

glass melted at 1500-1600 C and blown through holes of a platinum alloy plate
molten material after passing through holes is subjected to high speed gaseous jets and the
resultant woolly mass is moved over a conveyor belt
glass wool is more cost effective than rock wool
extensively used for thermal insulation and acoustic insulation
glass wool used as core material in ply woods and metallic sheets or plastics used for
ceiling and partition wall panels, door shutters etc.
Glass Blocks

glass blocks typically have compressive strength in the range of 3-4 MPa
can be either hollow (made of two pressed glass shapes fused together into a single
unit at an elevated temperature with the air trapped inside dehydrated and partially evacuated)
or solid
chemical composition similar to the glass used in door/window panels
can have various colours, textures, transparency and dimension
used mostly as partition walls where light transmission, insulation and glare control are
of major importance
mortar used in glass block masonry is cement lime mortar where cement in 1 part,
lime in 0.5 part and sand in 3 parts are used
Waste Utilisation

glass manufacturing is a relatively environment friendly process and its offers ample
scope for reuse
waste glass in form of cullet is fed back to glass furnaces for reuse
this leads to significant waste minimization and lower mining of raw materials
broken glass in powdered form is mixed with clay for moulding bricks imparting high
waste glass has application in special grade concrete the chemical resistance
increases but the compressive strength decreases
Types of glass:
There are 2 types of flat glass: The float and the printed glass.

Float Glass
The float glass is a transparent, colorless or colored glass, with uniform thickness and
homogeneous mass. It is the ideal glass for application that demand perfect visibility, as it does
It constitutes the raw material for the processing of all the other flat glasses, being applied to
different segments and it can be: laminated, tempered glass, curved, screen-printed glass and
used in double glazing. It is used in automotive industry, of household appliances, civil
construction, furniture and decoration.

Printed Glass
The printed glass is a translucent flat glass, colorless or colored, which receives the printing of a
pattern (drawing) when is leaving the furnace. It is used in civil construction, household
appliances, furniture and decoration.

Casted Glass

Glass casting is the process in which glass objects are cast by directing molten
glass into a mould where it solidifies. The technique has been used since
the Egyptian period. Modern cast glass is formed by a variety of processes such as
kiln casting, or casting into sand, graphite or metal moulds.

Glass block:

When it comes to designing and building with glass, one of the simplest yet
most versatile ways of utilising glass is in the form of glass blocks. Glass
blocks can be used both internally and externally and wherever they are
placed the
way in which they transmit and refract light allows the designer to maximise
the sense of light and space creating beautiful and always unique living and working spaces.

Where privacy is paramount opaque glass blocks can be selected, retaining light and vibrancy
whilst protecting privacy.
Glass blocks are suitable for both commercial and residential purposes and can be used to fill
window openings, form dividing walls, external walls, in the creation of shower cubicles, bars,
terraces, and desks. In fact the design potential for the use of glass blocks in any construction is
limited only by your imagination.

The foamed glass aggregate is produced from cleaned recycled glass. The product is especially
suited for usage in the construction of roads, as frost-heave insulation as well as a bulk
lightening material. It is also excellent as an all-round building insulator (foundation and frost
heave insulator, flat roof insulator in the structure of inverted roofs), as well as a bulk lightening
material for foundations. Crushed foamed glass can also be used as a capillary blocker.