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MODUL KECEMERLANGAN 2016

KIMIA
TINGKATAN 4

PPD PASIR GUDANG

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MODUL DISEDIAKANDAN DISUSUN OLEH:


1.

VALARMATHY SUPAIAH

SMK BANDAR SERI ALAM

2.

YAP HENG KUE

SMK ULU TIRAM

3.

ZORAH BT HJ MUSTAPA

SMK SUNGAI TIRAM

4.

YIP YIM POON

SMK TMN PELANGI INDAH

5.

WAN NORAIN BINTI WAN MAMAT

SMK PSR GUDANG 2

6.

ZUANA BT YUNUS

SMK TAMAN RINTING 2

7.

NOOR HAYATI BINTI HASSAN

SMK AGAMA JOHOR


BAHRU

8.

ROHANA BINTI JANTAN

SMK KOTA MASAI 2

9.

MAZIAH BINTI SABRAN

SMK SERI KOTA PUTERI

10.

BAB 2 STRUKTUR ATOM


BAB 3 FORMULA KIMIA DAN PERSAMAAN KIMIA
1.

You are given two white substance labelled X and Y. The substance is urea while the
other one is a naphthol .
Andadiberiduabahanberwarnaputih yang berlabel X dan Y. Satubahanialah urea
manakalasatulagiialahnaftol.
Describe an experiment to identify the identity of X and Y using physical methods.
Huraikansatueksperimenuntukmengenalpasti identity bahan X dan Y
menggunakankaedahfizikal.
You are given the following information:
Andadiberimaklumatberikut:
Substance / Bahankimia
Urea
Naftol

Melting point / Takatlebur (oC)


132
95

Your answer should include the following aspects:


Jawapanandaharusmerangkumiaspekberikut:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Material and apparatus / Senaraibahankimiadanradas


Procedure / Prosedureksperimen
Result/ Keputusan
Explanation / Peneranganbagaimana identity bahandikenalpasti
(15 markah)

2.

A car fitted with air bag which will inflate in an accident.


Sebuahkeretadilengkapidengan beg udara yang
akanmengembangapabilaberlakukemalangan.
The air bag contains solid sodium azide, NaN3 which will decompose rapidly to form
sodium and nitrogen gas. The nitrogen gas formed fills the air bag.
[Relative atomic mass: N=14;H=1;O=16 and 1 mol of gas occupies the volume of
24dm3 at room temperature and pressure]
Beg udaramengandungipepejalnatriumazida, NaN3 yang
akanteruraidengancepatmembentuknatriumdan gas nitrogen. Gas nitrogen yang
terbentukakanmengisi beg udaraitu.
[Jisim atom relatif: N=14; H=1; O=16 dan 1 mol gas menempatiisipadu
24dm3padasuhudantekananbilik]
(a) Construct equation for the decomposition of sodium azide.
Bina persamaankimiabagipenguraiannatriumazida.

[2marks]

(b) In an accident, an air bag fills with 72dm3 of nitrogen at room temperature and
pressure. What is the mass of sodium azide needed to provide 72dm3 of nitrogen?

Dalamsuatukemalangan, beg udaramengandungi 72dm3 gas nitrogen


padasuhudantekananbilik. Berapakahjisimnatriumazida yang
diperlukanuntukmenghasilkan 72dm3 gas nitrogen?

[3 marks]
(c) Sodium azide, NaN3 reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce sodium chloride
and compound A. Compound A contains 2.33% of hydrogen and 97.7% of nitrogen
by mass.
Natrium azida NaN3
bertindakbalasdenganasidhidroklorikcairuntukmenghasilkannatriumkloridadansebatia
n A. Sebatian A mengandungi 2.33% hydrogen dan 97.7% nitrogen
berdasarkanjisim.
(i)

What is the empirical formula for compound A?


Apakah formula empiriksebatian A?

[4 marks]
(ii)

Constuct the equation for the reaction between sodium azide and dilute
hydrochloric acid.
Bina persamaanbagitindakbalasantaranatriumazidadanasidhidroklorikcair.

[1 mark]

BAB 4 JADUAL BERKALA UNSUR


BAB 5 IKATAN KIMIA

1.

Diagram 1 shows a diver in the sea


Rajah 1 menunjukkan seorang penyelam di dalam laut

Rajah 1
(a)

State the name of gas X.


In your opinion, what is the rational of using gas X in the diver's tank?
Nyatakan nama bagi gas X
Pada pendapat anda, apakah rasional penggunaan gas X dalam tangki
penyelam?
( 3 markah )

(b)

With reference to the number of protons in the periodic Table, explain why the
gas X exists as a monoatomic gases while oxygen gas exists as a diatomic
gases.
Dengan merujuk kepada bilangan proton dalam Jadual Berkala, terangkan
mengapa gas X wujud sebagai gas monoatom sedangkan gas oksigen wujud
sebagai gas dwiatom
(7 markah )

(c)

Sea water containing sodium chloride. Explain the formation of bond between
sodium atom and chlorine atom.
In your description, state the type of bond and draw the electron arrangement
of the compund formed

elektron

Air laut mengandungi garam natrium klorida.


Terangkan pembentukan ikatan antara atom natrium dan atom klorin.
Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan jenis ikatan dan lukiskan susunan
bagi sebatian yang terbentuk
Apart from soluble in water, state one another physical properties of sodium
chloride
Selain daripada larut dalam air, nyatakan satu sifat fizik lain bagi natrium

klorida
(10 markah )

BAB 6 ELEKTROKIMIA

(a) A group of students were given a task by their teacher to carry out an experiment to
determine the electrical conductivity of three substances X, Y and Z.
Sekumpulanpelajartelahdiberikantugasanoleh guru
merekauntukmenjalankaneksperimenuntukmenentukankekonduksianelektrikbagitigabahanX, Y danZ.
Results of the experiment are shown in Diagram 1.1
Keputusaneksperimenditunjukkandalam Rajah 1.1.

Based on Diagram 1.1./Berdasarkan Rajah 1.1


Suggest substance X, Y and Z./CadangkanbahanX, Y danZ
Explain the differences for observations/Terangkanperbezaanbagipemerhatian
Classify the substances into electrolyte and non electrolyte/Kelaskan bahanbahanitukepadaelektrolitdanbukanelektrolit.
[10 marks]
Answer
1.X - glucose solution / (any suitable covalent compound)
2.Y solid sodium chloride / (any suitable ionic compound in solid state )
3.Z sodium chloride solution / (any suitable ionic compound in aqueous state)
4. X cannot conduct electricity
5. because X consist of molecule//has no free moving ions
6. Y cannot conduct electricity
7. Because the ions in Y cannot move freely
8. Z can conduct electricity
9.Because the ions in Z move freely
10.
electrolyte
Non electrolyte
z
X, y

Gold electroplating, when used in jewellery manufacturing, allows the manufacturer to provide the
market with jewellery that appears to be made of pure gold at a cheaper price as the jewellery is
only plated with gold.

Penyaduranlogamemasapabiladigunakandalampembuatanbarangkemasmemberikanpengilanguntu
kmemasarkanbarangkemasseolah-olahdibuatdaripadaemastulentetapidijualpadaharga yang
lebihrendahdisebabkanbarangkemasdisadurkandenganemas.
Reffering to the above statement, describe an experiment in the laboratory how to electroplate an
iron ring with gold. Include a labeled diagram in your description.
Merujukkepadapernyataan di atas,
huraikansatueksperimendalammakmalbagaimanauntukmenyadurcincinbesidenganemas.
Sertakangambar rajah berlabeldalamhuraiananda.
[10 marks]
Answer

1. Iron ring is connected to the negative plate on the battery.


2. Aurum / Gold plate is connected to the positive terminal of the battery.
3. Both plates are immersed into the aurum nitrate solution.
4. Gold plate and iron ring are connected to batteries as shown in the diagram using connecting wire
5. Cathode: Au+ + e Au
6. Observation: golden solid is deposited
7. Anode : Au Au+ + e
8. Observation: gold become thinner//dissolve

BAB 7 ASID DAN BES


BAB 8 GARAM

1.

In the frozen food industry Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) used in burgers as food additives.
The addition of as food additives is to ensure that the food can be stored longer. Food
additives can make the colour of the meat more savoury. In the process of heating red
meat burger Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) decomposes forming a chemicals P and
colourless gas.
Dalam
industry
sejukbekunatriumnitratdigunakandalam
burger
sebagaibahantambahanmakanan.
Penambahanbahantersebutbertujuanuntukmemastikanmakanantersebutdapattersimpa
nlebih lama. Bahantersebutdapatmenjadikanwarnadagingitulebihmenyelerakan. Dalam
proses
pembakarandaging
burger
Natrium
Nitrat
(NaNO3)
teruraiuntukmenghasilkansatubahankimia P dan gas tidakberwarna.

(a) What are the ingredients of food additives is added in the red meat?
Apakahjenisbahantambahmakanan yang ditambahkandalamdagingtersebut?
_____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(b) Write the balanced chemical equation that involved when the red meats are grilled?
Tuliskanpersamaankimiaseimbang yang terlibatapabilasekepingdagingdipanggang
_____________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

(c) Based on the equation verify the present of the gas released
Berdasarkanpersamaandiatassahkankehadiran gas yang terbebas
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[3 marks]
(d) Explain the harmful effect of consuming the chemicals P in long terms.
Terangkankesanmerbahayapengambilanbahankimia P tersebutdalamjangkamasa
yang panjang.
_____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
2.

Different substances have different levels of acidity or alkalinity. The pH scale which
ranged from 0 to 14 is used to indicate the degree of acidity and alkalinity of
substances. The pH values for daily common substances are shown in Diagram 1
Bahan yang berbezamempunyaitahapkeasidandankealkalianbahan. Skala pH
mempunyainilaidari 0 ke 14. Nilai pH bagikeperluanharianditunjukkan di Rajah 1.

Based on the Diagram _____,


Diagram 1 / Rajah 1
Based on Diagram 1,
Berdasarkan Rajah 1,
(a) State the formula of ions that enable the substances to show its acidic and alkaline
property.
Nyatakan formula bagi ion yang membolehkanbahanbahantersebutmenunjukkansifatkeasidandankealkalian.
Acidic:___________________________________________________________
Keasidan:________________________________________________________

Alkaline:_________________________________________________________
Kealkalian: _______________________________________________________
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(b) How does the ions that you have stated in (a) affect pH value of the substances?
Bagaimanakah ion-ion yang andanyatakan di (a) mempengaruhinilai pH bahanbahantersebut?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

(c)

Diagram 2 / Rajah 2
(i)

Based on the situation in Diagram 2, which substance in Diagram 2 you would


suggest the student to solve the problem?
Give reason for your answer.
Berdasarkansituasidalam Rajah 2, bahanmanakahdalam Rajah 2 yang
akanandacadangkankepadapelajartersebutuntukmenyelesaikanmasalahnya?
Berialasankepadajawapananda.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

(ii)

The student found there was a piece of magnesium ribbon on the floor that
started dissolving and fizzing as the acid ran over it.

Explain the observation.


Pelajaritukemudiannyamendapatisekeping pita magnesium di
ataslantaisedangmelarutdanmendesisapabilaterkenaasid yang mengalir.
Terangkanpemerhatiantersebut.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

3.

Lim Seng was playing in the playground with his friends. While playing suddenly a bee
came and stung his hand. He went to home and told his mother. She apply substance Y
that was found in the bathroom on Lim Seng hand. Suggest substance Y that his mother
applied on his hand. Explain your answer.
Lim Seng bermainbersamarakan-rakannya di tamanpermainan. Semasabermain,
seekorlebahtelahmenyengattangannya. Diabalikrumah dab memberitahuibunyaapa yang
telahberlaku. Ibunyamenyapukanbahan Y yang diambildaribilik air. Cadangkanbahan Y
yang digunakanolehibunya. Jelaskanjawapananda
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
[3 marks]
4.

Shell of the snail is made of compound X. Compound X is an ionic compound which can
react with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Cengkerangsiputdibuatdaripadasebatian X. Sebatian X adalahsebatianionik yang


bolehbertindakbalassdenganasidhidroklorikcair.
Based on the information given,
Write a chemical equation for the reaction.
State the observation
Give a chemical test to identify the gas produced.
Berdasarkankenyataan yang diberikan,
Tuliskanpersamaanbagitindakbalastersebut
Nyatakanpemerhatian
Berikansatuujianuntukmengenalpasti gas yang dibebaskan.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
[4 marks]
[4 markah]

5.

Diagram 3 / Rajah 3

Diagram 3 shows the observation when chicken egg is immersed in solution X.


Rajah 3 menunjukkanpemerhatianapabilasebijitelurayamdirendam di dalamlarutan X.
Suggest solution X which can be easily found in the kitchen and explain the
observation. Write a chemical equation to show the reaction.

Cadangkanlarutan X yang mudahdidapati di dapurdanterangkanpemerhatian yang


berlaku. Tuliskanpersamaankimiabagitindakbalas yang berlaku.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[4 marks]
[4 markah]

BAB 9 BAHAN BUATAN DALAM INDUSTRI


1.

The following diagram shows a racing bicycle.


Rajah berikut menunjukkan sebuah basikal lumba.

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Why the frame of a racing bicycle cannot be made of steel? Give a suggestion and
explain which material is most suitable to be used as a frame.
Mengapakah rangka basikal ini tidak sesuai dibina daripada besi keluli? Berikan satu
cadangandan terangkan bahan yang manakah paling sesuai digunakan sebagai
rangka basikal.
..........
..........
..........
..........
[6 marks]
2.

John pours hot water into a glass bottle. Then, he puts the bottle into a refrigerator.
After two hours, he discovered that the bottle is cracked. Explain the situation based
on the properties of glass.
John menuang air panas ke dalam sebuah botol kaca. Kemudian, dia masukkan botol
tersebut ke dalam peti sejuk. Selepas dua jam, dia mendapati botol tersebut retak.
Terangkan keadaan tersebut berdasarkan sifat-sifat bagi kaca
..........
..........
..........
..........
[6 marks

BAB 2 STRUKTUR ATOM


BAB 3 FORMULA KIMIA DAN PERSAMAAN KIMIA
JAWAPAN:

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Soalan
1

Jawapan
(a) Apparatus: boiling tube , and clamp foot retort , furnace tripod
, Bunsen burner , wire gauze , thermometer , beaker 500ml
and stopwatch .
Radas: tabungdidih, kaki retort danpengepit, tungku kaki tiga,
penunu Bunsen, kasadawai, thermometer, bikar500ml dan
jam randik.
Materials: powder labeled X and Y and steamer oil
Bahankimia: serbukberlabel X dan Y dankukusanminyak

Markah

(a) Procedure
Prosedur:

1. Three spatulas powder X entered into a boiling tube .


2. A beaker filled with oil up to about full .
3. Beaker filled with oil and then placed on a three-legged
furnace .
4. Boiling tube then clamped in a beaker filled with oil to the
level of substance X below the oil level .
5. A thermometer inserted into the boiling tube.
6. Oil heated in a beaker until the temperature reaches
approximately 70 C. Then, the Bunsen burner flame is
reduced , which is slowed warming .
7. The stopwatch is started and the temperature was
recorded at intervals X minutes until it melts .
8. The result recorded in the table .
9. Temperature graph plotted against time for heating the
material X.
10. Measures outlined above was repeated using the
material X and Y.
1. Tiga spatula serbukbahan X
dimasukkankedalamsebuahtabungdidih.
2. Sebuahbikardiisidenganminyaksehinggalebihkurang
penuh. Bikar yang berisiminyakkemudiandiletakkan di
atastungku kaki tiga.
3. Tabungdidihkemudiandiapitkandalambikar yang
berisiminyakdenganparasbahan X di bawah paras
minyak.
4. Sebatang thermometer dimasukkankedalamtabungdidh.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

5. Minyak di
dalambikardipanaskansehinggasuhumencapailebihkuran
g 70oC. Kemudian, nyalaanpenunu Bunsen dikurangkan,
iaitupemanasandiperlahankan.
6. Jam randikdimulakandansuhubahan X
dicatatkanpadasela masa minitsehinggaiamelebur.
7. Keputusandirekodkandalamjadual.
8. Graf suhumelawan masa
diplotkanbagipemanasanbahan X.
9. Langkah-langkah di
atasdiulangdenganmenggunakanbahan X danbahan Y.

Result/ keputusan:
The graph is plotted against time for the two materials .
Graf suhumelawan masa diplotbagiduabahan.
Suhu (oC)

Masa (min)

If the value of T is 95 C , the material is naphthol .


If the value of T is 132oC , the material is urea .
Sekiranyanilai T ialah 95oC, bahanituialahnaftol. Sekiranyanilai
T ialah 132oC, bahanituialah urea.

Soalan
2

Jawapan
2Na + 3N2

(a) 2NaN3

1+1

1
1

Markah
2

(b) Number of moles of nitrogen / Bilanganmol nitrogen


=

= 3 mol

Number of moles of NaN3 / Bilanganmol NaN3 = 2 mol

Mass of NaN3 / Jisim NaN3 = 2 mol x [23 + 3(14)] gmol-1


= 130 g

(c)
Element
Unsur
Mass/g
Jisim/g
Number of mole
Bilanganmol
Simplest ratio
Nisbahteringkas

2.33

97.7

= 6.98

= 2.33
.
.

=1

.
.

=3
1

Empirical formula = HN3


(d) NaN3 + HCl NaCl + HN3

1
1

BAB 4 JADUAL BERKALA UNSUR


BAB 5 IKATAN KIMIA
JAWAPAN

2.

(a)

(b)

Helium
Ringan
Lengai/tidak bertindak balas secara kimia

1
1
1

Susunan elektron atom helium ialah 2


Telah mencapai susunan elektron duplet yang stabil
Atom tidak perlu menerima, menderma dan berkongsi
elektron

1
1
1

Susunan elektron atom oksigen ialan 2.6


Atom oksigen memerlukan 2 elektron
Untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil
2 atom oksigen berkongsi dua pasang elektron
Ikatan ion
Susunan elektron atom natrium ialah 2.8.1
Untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil
Atom natrium membebaskan 1e // NaNa+ + e

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Susunan elektron atom klorin ialah 2.8.7


Untuk mencapai susunan elektron oktet yang stabil
Atom klorin menerima 1 e// Cl + e Cl

1
1
1

Ion natrium dan ion klorida tertarik antara satu sama lain
oleh daya tarikan elektrostatik yang kuat

(c)

10
Rajah
1+1

Takat lebur tinggi// takat didih tinggi //boleh mengalirkan


arus dalam keadaan leburan dan larutan akueus
JUMLAH

BAB 7 ASID DAN BES


BAB 8 GARAM
JAWAPAN:

1
20

Soalan
1

Soalan
2

Jawapan
(a) Preservatives / Pengawet
(b) 2NaNO3 2 NaNO2 + O2

(c) Collect the gas in a test tube


Put the glowing wooden splinter in the test tube
The glowing wooden splinter is lighted up
Kumpulkan gas dalamtabunguji
Masukkankayuujiberbaradalamtabunguji
Kayuujiakanmenyala

1
1
1

(d) Cause grow of cancer cell


Menyebabkanpertumbuhanselkanser

Jawapan
(a) H+
OH(b) The higher the concentration of H+, the lower the pH value
The higher the concentration of OH-, the higher the pH value.
Semakintinggikepekatan H+, semakinrendahnilaipH.
Semakintinggikepekatan OH-, semakintingginilaipH.
(C)(i) Baking soda / Serbukpenaik
Baking soda is an alkali that can neutralise the acid
Sebukpenaikadalah alkali yang bolehmeneutralkanasid.
(ii) Magnesium react with acid to produce hydrogen gas
Magnesium bertindakbalasdenganasidmenghasilkan gas
hidrogen.

Soalan
3

Markah
1

Jawapan
Toothpaste / Ubatgigi
Bee sting is acidic while toothpaste is alkaline

Markah
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

Markah
1

Sengatanlebahadalahberasidmanakalaubatgigiialah alkali
Toothpaste can neutralise the acidity of bee sting
Ubatgigibolehneutralkansengatanlebah yang berasid

Soalan
4

Jawapan
The shell of the snail contain calcium carbonate
Cengkerangsiputmengandungikalsiumkarbonat
Equation / Persamaan: CaCO3 + 2 HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
Bubbles produced/ effervesence occur.
Gelembung gas dihasilkan
Deliver the gas released into a test tube containing lime water
Menyalurkan gas terbebaskedalamtabunguji yang mengandungi
air kapur.
Lime water will turn chalky/cloudy/milky
Air kapurmenjadikeruh

Soalan
5

Jawapan
Solution X is vinegar / ethanoic acid.
Larutan X adalahcuka / asidethanoik
The shell of chicken egg contains calcium carbonate.
Cengkerangtelurmengandungikalsiumkarbonat.
Vinegar / ethanoic acid react with calcium carbonate to produce
carbon dioxide gas.
Cuka /
asidethanoikbertindakbalasdengankalsiumkarbonatuntukmenghasilkan
gas karbondioksida.
Equation / Persamaan:
2CH3COOH + CaCO3 (CH3COO)2Ca + CO2 + H2O

BAB 9 BAHAN BUATAN DALAM INDUSTRI

Markah
1

1
1
1

Markah
1

1
1

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JAWAPAN:
-Steel is an alloy with the composition of iron and carbon. It has
1
2
high strength and is very heavy. This will increase the weight of
the racing bycycle and reduce the speed during a race.Thus,
steel is not suitable to make the frame of a racing bycycle.
-Keluliadalahaloidengankomposisibesidankarbon.
Kelulimempunyaikekuatan yang tinggidansangatberat
.Iniakanmeningkatkanberatbasika]
lumbadanmengurangkankelajuannyasemasaberlumba. Olehitu,
kelulitidaksesuaiuntukmembuatrangkabasikallumba.

Racing bicycles require a light and strong frame to increase


speed when racing. The most suitable material that can be used
to make the frame of a bicycle is duralumin.
Basikallumbamemerlukanrangka yang
ringandankuatuntukmeningkatkankelajuansemasaperlumbaan.
Bahan yang paling
sesuaiuntukdigunakanmembuatrangkabasikalialah duralumin.

Duralumin is an alloy with the composition of 93% aluminium


and 3% copper. This alloy combines the low density of the
aluminium and high tensile strength of copper. Thus, the racing
bicycle become light and tought.
Duralumin ialahaloidengankomposisi 93% aluminium dan 3%
kuprum. Aloiinimenggabungkanketumpatanrendahdari aluminium
dang ketegangantinggidarikuprum. Olehitu,
basikallumbamenjadiringandankuat.

A glass bottle is made from soda lime glass. Soda lime glass
contains silicon dioxide, sodium oxide and calcium oxide.

Botolkacadiperbuatdaripadakaca soda kapurmengandungi silicon


dioksida, natriumoksidadankalsiumoksida.
3
Soda lime glass has low melting point, a low thermal expansion,
does not withstand heat and cracks easily with sudden change in
temperature.
Kaca soda kapurmempunyaitakatlebur yang rendah,
pengembangantermal yang rendah,
tidakbolehtahanpanasdanmudahpecahapabilaberlakuperubahansuhu
yang mendadak.