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Anda di halaman 1dari 23

EXPERIMENTAL AND

COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATION

OF FLOW IN GAS TURBINE BLADE

COOLING PASSAGES

Harald Roclawski, Jamey D. Jacob, Tiangliang Yang,

& James M. McDonough

Mechanical Engineering Dept.

University of Kentucky

Conference and Exhibit

June 11-14, 2002/Anaheim, CA

For permission to copy or republish, contact the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500, Reston, VA 201914344

June 7, 2001

INVESTIGATION OF FLOW IN GAS

TURBINE BLADE COOLING PASSAGES

Harald Roclawski, Jamey D. Jacob, Tiangliang Yang, & James M. McDonough

Mechanical Engineering Dept.

University of Kentucky

Results of experimental and numerical investigations into gas turbine cooling passage

flows are presented. EXPAND ONCE ENTIRE PAPER IS COMPLETE.

Nomenclature

b

cf

D

FFP

h

H

Re

U

Turbulators

FilmCooling

Bleed Holes

Tip Bleed Air

FilmCooling

Bleed Holes

TrailingEdge

Region

Turbulators

Skin friction coefficient

Channel width, 406mm

Forward flow probability

Backward facing step height, 28.6mm

Channel height, 203mm

Reynolds number

Freestream velocity

Viscosity

Density, kg/m3

Introduction

Continuing requirements for ever increasing

thrust/weight ratio in high-performance aircraft gas

turbine engines necessitates increasing operating temperatures to gain improved thermodynamic efficiency.

Even a fractional improvement in performance can

offer significant savings (see, for example, Mayle1 ).

Currently available materials for turbine blades are

unable to withstand long periods of exposure to

these high temperatures while maintaining structural

integrity, even with thermal barrier coatings (TBC),

implying need for active cooling strategies. Over

the past 30 years turbine temperatures have been

continually increased, and continuing improvements

in cooling techniques have been a major contribution

to this.

Several different approaches to cooling are usually

employed in cooling even a single turbine blade, as can

be inferred from a sample blade circuit shown in figure 1. In general, high-performance turbine blades are

cooled by a combination of exterior flow film cooling

which limits the heat flux from the combustion gases to

the blade material and interior cooling air circuit flows

which extract heat from the interior surfaces of the

M.S.

Professor; senior member AIAA.

Post-doctoral Fellow; member AIAA.

Professor; senior member AIAA.

Assistant

Copyright

Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. with permission.

Han et al., 1986).

blade. A key factor in this interior heat removal process is maintaining turbulent flow. At the same time

this results in greater pressure losses, so there must always be a tradeoff between cooling circuit heat transfer

effectiveness and pressure loss in turbine blade design

studies. A significant portion of the design effort is devoted to this problem, and it is especially difficult for

both experimental and computational fluid dynamics

(CFD) because of the highly complex geometries of

interior cooling air circuits, the turbulent flow, and in

the case of experiments, the need to account for high

rates of blade rotation.

Past experiments on turbine blade cooling have fo-

1 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

and the effect of turbulence generating devices on the

flow field and heat transfer rates. The effect of rotation, which is a requisite parameter in turbine flows,

has generally been ignored due to the complexity of

the experimental apparatus. This has proved to be a

major gap in in experimental testing. Also, the majority of experimental measurements have been single

point measurements, not allowing a full field analysis.

This point has proved particular difficulty when trying

to validate numerical simulations which benefit from

full field data. The maturation of modern optical field

measurements have allowed these hurdles to be overcome, though any experiments must require extreme

care in their formulation.

In the case of numerical simulations, turbulence

modeling based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes

(RANS) approaches has generally proven inadequate

for this problem, and typical Reynolds numbers (Re)

encountered in internal cooling air flows ( O(105 ))

preclude use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) in

most cases. But recent advances in computing power

and in numerical procedures associated with largeeddy simulation (LES) suggest that certain forms of

this approach may be applicable. However, a significant amount of laboratory experimentation is needed

for their validation, and (probably) tuning. In the

present paper we will focus on one particular aspect

of constructing synthetic velocity models. We remark

that there are many alternative approaches,15, 16 and

we shall not attempt a thorough review of the subject. Instead, we will concentrate on the Hylin and

McDonough17 formalism.

Previous Work

cooling has been primarily focused on the external

cooling effects (e.g., Wang et. al2 ). This is due to

the relative ease of the external measurements as compared to the complex apparatus or gross simplifications required for internal duct measurements, particularly when it applies to measurements of the flow

field. Previous research efforts on internal cooling

have been limited in scope, typically focusing on a single aspect of the multivariant problem. Bunker and

Metzger3 examined the local heat transfer from internal impingement cooling using temperature sensitive

paint. General relations showed increased heat transfer with increased jet Reynolds number. Bohn et. al4

numerically and experimentally examined trailing edge

cooling in turbine blades. The experiments were conducted in a scaled test rig and showed anisotropic turbulence profiles resulting in non-symmetrical coolant

distribution. The numerical predictions compared reasonably well with the experimental data. Johnson et.

al5 examined the heat transfer within rotating serpentine passages. Geometry and orientation were found

to have large effects on the maximum local heat transfer. Specifically, the angle to which the passage was

inclinded respective to the axis of rotation was found

to vary the heat transer ratio up to 50%. Flannery

et. al6 examined the heat transfer properties of various

heat transfer enhancement devices within a cooling circuit using napthalene sublimation. Dimensional analysis and scale modeling showed improvement in heat

transfer in vortex flow cavities and sand-dune shaped

turbulators, though actual measurements in a channel or rotating cavity were not performed. Morris and

Chang7 investigated the heat transfer properties of a

circular cooling channel. Full field heat transfer data

were obtained through a combination of measurements

and solution of the channel wall heat conduction equation. The resulting internal heat flux distribution over

the full inner surface was subsequently used to determine the local variation of heat transfer coefficient.

Effects of the Coriolis force and centripetal buoyancy

on the forced convection mechanism were investigated

and found to be of sufficient order to warrent consideration in further experimental and numerical studies.

Cakan and Arts8 studied the flow in a straight, rectangular, rib-roughened internal cooling channel. At a

Reynolds number of 6500 and 30000 and a rib blockage

ratio of 0.133, DPIV measurements were taken. They

found that the flow through the ribbed channel can be

characterized by a series of accelerations, decelerations

with separation, reattachment and redevelopment due

to the sudden changes in cross-section. The ribs induce

a separation and recirculation bubble. The flow reattaches at X/e = 4.5 (Re = 6500). Comparing both

studies, they claim that the reattachment distance is

not strongly dependent on the Reynolds number. Upstream of the ribs, the flow impinges on the rib, moves

to the sidewalls of the channel and produces to vortices. Behind the rib a similar motion occurs due to the

recirculation region. In the span wise flow direction;

two counter rotating secondary flow cells are observed.

The flow in a straight, rectangular channel with ribs

on two opposite walls was investigated by Lio et. al9

by means of LDV. The Reynolds number based on the

channel hydraulic diameter was 33000. The ribs were

perforated and the effect of the rib open area ratio was

investigated. They also found a periodic accelerating

and decelerating flow behavior. In contrast to the previous paper, only one secondary flow cell is observed in

the span wise flow direction. Furthermore, it was discovered that the reattachment length downstream of a

rib pair is shorter than in the case of a backward-facing

step. The maximum heat transfer rate was found to

be dependent upon a critical range of the open area

ratio governed by whether the flow treated the ribs as

permeable or impermeable. A PIV Investigation of the

flow in a rectangular channel with a 90 and 45 rib

arrangement and a 180 bend was done by Schabacker

and Bolcs10 at Re = 45700 and a rib height equal to

2 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

in the span wise flow direction were observed. The development length to achieve a fully developed flow condition is longer for the case of a 45 rib arrangement.

Furthermore, the 45 ribs prevent the development of

zones of recirculating flow in the upstream outer corner of the bend and the curvature-induced secondary

flows a weakened in this section of the channel. Compared to a smooth channel, the flow recovers faster

from the bend effect. Results for the case of a stationary and rotating, rectangular, ribbed channel with a

180 bend were obtained by Servouze11 using LDV.

The flow conditions were Re=5000, Ro=0.33 and a

rib aspect ratio of 10. In the stationary case a periodic accelerating and decelerating flow behavior was

found. In contrast to other papers, secondary flow

structures (vortices) in the span wise flow direction

were not observed. Iacovides12 did an LDA study

on the flow in a ribbed channel with a 180 bend.

He investigated a staionary case at a Re=100000 and

two rotating cases at Ro=(+-)0.2. The rib-height to

duct diameter ratio was 0.1 He also observes a periodic flow behavior. Because of the ribs, turbulence

increases at the bend entry and an additional separation bubble over the first rib interval downstream of

the bend exit is formed. Nevertheless, in agreement

with Schabacker and Bolcs, it is claimed that the flow

recovers faster from the bend effect in a ribbed channel. Especially the separation bubble along the inner

wall is reduced. Lastly, Hwang and Lai14 examined

laminar flow within a rotating multiple-pass channel

with bends from a computational standpoint. Rotation was found to have a large impact on the wall

friction factor. Validations were only made with stationary experiments, however. Heat transfer rate or

turbulators were not examined.

Previous Modeling Efforts

Experimental Portion

Setup & Diagnostics

facing step and turbulator experiments are shown in

figure 11(a) and 11(c), respectively. Both test sections

were installed in a low-turbulence open-circuit blowdown wind tunnel. A 7.5 hp motor powers a radial

fan at the inlet. A vibration damper, flow straightener,

and turbulence dampening screens precede the nozzle

which has a contraction ratio of 6.7. The maximum

test section velocity is 35 m/s with an open exhaust

and approximately 10 m/s when a filter is installed

to capture seeding particles. The test sections have

a channel height H of 0.2 m (203 mm) and width D

of 0.4 m (406 mm). The backward facing step has a

step height h of 28.6 mm. The turbulator test section is arranged so that multiple square ribs of various

Geometry

BFS

Turbulator

Table 1

Scale

h

H

b

H

Re Range

2.0 103 1.7 104

1.4 104 1.2 105

1.8 103 1.8 104

1.4 104 1.4 105

Experimental Parameters

sizes can be placed in different locations in the channel. The current paper presents results for ribs of equal

sizes with sides b = 24.5 mm. Ribs arrangements of 1,

2, 3, and 4 bars are examined with equal separation

distances of 152 mm in the multiple turbulator runs.

Re based on channel height, step size, and rib size are

reported in table 1.

In both the backward facing step and turbulator

test sections, PIV, HWA, and static pressure measurements were made along the tunnel centerline downstream of the step and last rib, respectively. For PIV,

the laser sheet was generated by a 25 mJ double-pulsed

Nd:YAG laser with a maximum repetition rate of 15

Hz. Pulse separations varied from 100 s to 1 ms

based upon the tunnel velocity. A 10 bit CCD camera with a 10081018 pixel array was used to capture

images. Uniform seeding was accomplished using either zinc stearate or talc injected at the fan inlet; a 1

micron filter at the tunnel exhaust was required to capture the particles thus reducing the maximum tunnel

velocity during PIV. A predictor-corrector algorithm

with an interrogation area of 3232 was used to generate displacement vectors and velocity gradients.13 For

the hot-wire measurements, which are required to obtain details of random fluctuations in velocity for the

modeling efforts, a single-component boundary layer

hot-wire probe was used capable of wall measurements

within 0.3 mm of the surface. 40,000 points or greater

were recored at a sampling rate 10 kHz. For the static

pressure measurements, pressure taps were placed 25.4

mm apart downstream of the backward facing step and

slightly upstream and downstream of the last turbulator. Pressure measurements were made up to 14.5 b

downstream of the turbulator in the results presented

here.

Results

insert discussion files

Turbulators

insert discussion files

Discussion

Modeling

In the present paper we will focus on one particular aspect of constructing synthetic velocity models. We remark that there are many alternative approaches,15, 16 and we shall not attempt a thorough

3 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

the Hylin and McDonough17 formalism.

We begin by noting that synthetic velocity turbulence models offer the potential of a much closer connection to laboratory measurements than can be obtained with other modeling approaches because primitive variables (e.g., velocity components) are directly

modeled and used instead of attempting to model flow

statisticsReynolds stresses.

Within the Hylin and McDonough framework, a

subgrid-scale quantity is expressed as a product of

three factors, e.g.,

u = A u u Mu .

(1)

in McDonough and Huang.24, 25 The other two parameters are most closely associated with shear stress: uy

and vx in 2D. As noted in McDonough and Huang,25

in order to construct reliable synthetic velocities by

employing nonlinear DDSs it is essential to find a mapping between physical parameters, say Re and U and

the above bifurcation parameters of the map(s). The

present paper documents our initial attempts to accomplish this for a specific flow geometry.

We begin by noting that in order to establish such

a mapping we must first be able to accurately express

any appropriate set of physical data in terms of bifurcation parameters of the DDS. This is nothing more

than a curve-fitting problem, and McDonough et al.26

and Mukerji et al.27 provided an approach to solving

it. This consists of first recognizing that an exact

polynomial fit is not appropriate (cf., Casdagli and Eubank,28 for examples where it is appropriate), and that

a global least-squares fit is needed. The next step is to

determine a set of data characterizations by means of

which to compare the fit with the original data. McDonough et al.26 provide a long list of these but make

no claims as to either the necessity of any single one,

or sufficiency of the set as a whole.

Once such a set of characterizations is chosen, we

construct the model in the form given in McDonough

et al.:26

a temporal fluctuation. Each of the three factors on

the right-hand side of (1) varies across the spatial grid,

and from one resolved-scale time step to the next.

Expressions for the first two factors have been derived from first principles employing the Kolmogorov

theory of homogeneous turbulence (see Frisch,18

for a good overview), as given in Hylin and McDonough17, 19, 20 ) and Sagaut.21 The third factor received little specific attention in early investigations.

Hylin22 associated this factor with Kolmogorovs

stochastic variable, and considered the logistic map,

absolute value logistic map and tent map for realizations. All appear to give similar results when the

same map is used for all velocity components.

Two-dimensional simulations of turbine blade cooling presented by McDonough et al.23 suggest that

using the same map for all solution components is not

correct (especially for passive scalars). McDonough

and Huang24 provide a derivation of appropriate maps

for use in (1) for reduced-kinetics H2 O2 combustion

and show that the maps (discrete dynamical systems,

DDSs) arising from the NavierStokes equations are

basically logistic maps while those corresponding to

thermal energy and species concentrations are not.

Finally, McDonough and Huang25 present a detailed

analysis of the 2-D poor mans N.S. equations derived as in the previous reference. They show that

essentially every temporal behavior seen in actual N.

S. flows can be produced by this simple 2-D DDS:

b(n+1) = 2 b(n) 1 b(n) 2 a(n) b(n) ,

(2)

Details of this expression can be found in the cited

references, but we briefly note the following. The parameters , k , k , k , dk and K must all be found

in the course of the curve-fitting process. The k are

amplitude factors and can be considered analogous to

Fourier coefficients (although they do not arise from a

formal inner product). Sk is a nonlinear discontinuous

function of the behavior of the map; its purpose is to

allow existence of frequencies of oscillation not found

in the DDS, itself (i.e., lower frequencies) in addition

to permitting modeling of very irregular intermittencies. The parameters k are the frequencies at which

iterations of the k th map will be initiated; dk is the

duration of evaluation once initiated; k is the bifurcation parameter, and for purposes herein, the form of

the k th map is

(n+1)

(n)

(n)

mk

= k mk

1 mk

,

(3)

Fourier coefficients of the velocity field, U = (U, V )T .

This DDS contains four bifurcations parameters (1 ,

2 , 1 , 2 ). The first two are directly related to the

Reynolds number, Re, or possibly the integral scale or

Taylor microscale Re, depending on details of implementation,17 and thus might reasonably be set equal as

interesting and detailed treatment).

We will use the scalar map (3) in the present study,

rather than the 2-D map described above, because the

temporal resolution of the current 2-D PIV data is

insufficient for capturing details of subgrid-scale turbulent fluctuations. On the other hand, the single

K

X

(n+1)

k Sk

(dk , k , mk (k )) .

k=1

4 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

velocity component obtained from hot-wire measurements at 10 KHz is sufficient. Our goal is thus to

determine the variation of each of the parameters in

Eq. (2) at a specific location in the physical flow field

as a function of Re.

For each value of Re considered we will construct

two separate curve fits of the data. The first will be

based on the complete velocity signal and thus, up to

subtracting out the mean, corresponds to a Reynoldsaveraged N.S. (RANS) quantity:

u0 (x, t) = U (x, t) u(x),

where the overbar denotes time average. The second

will be obtained from high-pass filtered data analogous

to the SGS behavior in a LES formalism. In this case

u (x, t) = U (x, t) u

(x, t),

where tilde denotes (formally) a spatial filtering.

Both cases are of interest because the ability to fit

both types of data shows that synthetic velocity fields

are applicable to both LES and RANS models. But

in addition, with both fits available we will see that

they are very differentas one should expect. This

raises very serious questions regarding validity of certain forms of very large-eddy simulation (VLES)

in which time-accurate RANS equations are solved,

and conversely to forms of LES in which RANS formalisms are employed to construct the SGS models.

At the fundamental mathematical level RANS and

LES are quite different, and the results we present below provide a direct empirical demonstration of this.

Thus, considrable care must be taken when attempting to bridge the gap between these two modeling

approaches.

The cases we consider correspond to Re = 4 104

and Re = 1 105 for the turbulator flows discussed

above in the section on experiments. For both values

of Re the measurement location was ?? mm upstream

of reattachment, and at a height of 3.5 mm, behind the

first turbulator. The curve-fitting process was carried

out essentially as described in McDonough et al.26 and

Mukerji et al. ,27 and as in those references once the

process is complete we compare three additional features: i) the appearance of the time series, ii) the

power spectral density, and iii) the delay map.

As emphasized in these references, we consider the

appearance of the modeled time series to be essential

to a good fit of the data (just as would be the case

in an exact fit), and the characterizations employed

in the least-squares fit are selected to guarantee this.

But appearance in this case is a nontrivial notion, first

because it is difficult to define precisely, and second

because the objective function for the least-squares fit

is highly nonlinear, discontinuous, contains both real

and integer variables, and thus generally has multiple

local minima.

series in some detail, indicating that close examination of most such data will lead to identification of a

finite number of types of structures. The number of

these is typically used as the initial guess for the value

of K, the number of terms in the model representation, Eq. (2). In comparing the model with the data

it is important to observe, as already noted, that the

fit is not intended to be exact because an exact fit is

intrinsically incompatible with the physics (and mathematics) of a turbulent flow. Our rule of thumb for

checking that the model has preserved the appearance

of the data is that if the modeled time series and data

are juxtaposed, it should be impossible to determine

where the data ends and the model begins.

Use of power spectra and delay maps as additional

tests of goodness of fit is recommended because appearance is at best only semi-quantitative. On the

other hand, neither of these characterizations alone

will guarantee a good fit. Many different time series

exhibit very similar power spectra, and the delay map

provides only basic topological information associated

with the underlying attractor (if there is one). Nevertheless, both of these can be of value in fine tuning

a fit of data.

Results for Complete Velocity

Figure ? displays three complete velocity time series in parts (a) through (c). The first corresponds to

experimental data for Re = 4 104 ; the second represents evaluation of the model, Eq. (2), with and initial

guess of the parameters to be determined in the leastsquares fit, and the third shows the final fit of data.

We display part (b) of the figure to emphasize that

finding the correct parameters is a nontrivial process

(and one which requires considerable CPU time). Table ? displays the initial guess of the parameter values

and the associated objective function value, as well as

the same data for the final fit, for both values of Re

considered. Part (c) of the figure indicates a significant improvement over the initial guess, and in fact a

fairly good representation of the data.

Figures ?? and ??? display comparisons of power

spectra and delay maps, respectively, with part (a)

corresponding to measured data and part (b) to modeled results in both cases.

Similar results are presented in Figs. ????, ?????

and ?????? for the Re = 1 105 case, except that

we have not shown the initial guess result in Fig. ????.

[Give comparative discussion of these results,

and indicate dependence on Re from Table ?.

Discuss application to RANS modeling.]

Results for High-Pass Filtered Velocity

suitability for LES SGS models. Discuss Re dependence of data.]

[Compare model results in the two cases

5 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

high-pass filtered behaviorse.g., variation of

parameters with Re.]

Discussion

Continuing Work

Acknowledgements

12

B.E.Launder, K.Nikas LDA Study of the Flow Development Through an Orthogonally Rotating U-Bend

of Strong Curvature and Rib-Roughened Walls, Journal of Turbomachinery, April 1998 Vol.120 p. 386391.

13

Raffel, M., Willert, C., and Kompenhans, J. Particle Image Velocimetry: A Practical Guide, SpringerVerlag, 1998.

This work is supported by AFOSR grant F4962000-1-0258 under the supervision of Dr. Tom Beutner.

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14

IN TEXT FOR CONSISTENCY, ACCURACY, and

TIMELINESS. THEY WILL BE UNIFORMLY REFORMATTED ONCE COMPLETE.

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PIV

regi

on 1

PIV

regi

on 2

(Hh)

HWA

regi

on

h

D

a) Backward facing step geometry.

PIV

regi

on 1

PIV

HWA

regi

on 2

regi

on

b

D

b) Turbulator geometry.

Fig. 2

8 of 22

June 7, 2001

Velocity Magnitude

5

2.5

4.5

2

y/h

3.5

1.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

0.5

1

0

1

x/b

RMS Turbulence

2.5

0.9

0.8

2

y/h

0.7

1.5

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.5

0.2

0

1

x/b

Fig. 3

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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

0.1

June 7, 2001

12

y/h

Velocity Magnitude

10

6

x/b

10

12

4

2

0.8

RMS Turbulence

y/h

0.6

1

0.4

0

Fig. 4

6

x/b

10

12

0.2

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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

u/U

2.5

y/h

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1

11

12

13

14

x/b

a) Backward facing step geometry.

2.5

y/h

u/U

1.5

1

0.5

0

3

x/b

2.5

y/h

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

10

x/b

b) Turbulator geometry.

Fig. 5

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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

2.5

u/U

y/h

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1

x/b

2.5

y/h

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

10

11

12

13

x/b

Fig. 6

12 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

14

15

June 7, 2001

1 bar

y/h

0

1

4

2 bars

4

4 bars

4

x/b

y/h

0

1

y/h

0

1

Fig. 7

13 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

1 bar

y/h

10

12

10

12

10

12

2 bars

y/h

4

4 bars

y/h

4

x/b

Fig. 8

14 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

1 bar

y/h

10

12

10

12

10

12

2 bars

y/h

4

4 bars

y/h

4

x/b

Fig. 9

15 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

1 bar

y/h

0

1

4

2 bars

4

4 bars

4

x/b

y/h

0

1

y/h

0

1

Fig. 10

16 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

1

Cp

Cp

1 bar

2

1 bar

10

12

14

1

4

16

10

12

14

1

4

1

16

16

10

12

14

16

10

12

14

16

10

12

14

16

3 bars

10

12

14

1

4

1

16

Cp

4 bars

0

4 bars

6

x/b

10

12

14

1

4

16

6

x/b

b) Turbulator geometry.

Cp

1

0

1 bar

1

4

10

12

14

16

10

12

14

16

10

12

14

16

10

12

14

16

Cp

1

0

2 bars

1

4

1

Cp

0

3 bars

1

4

1

Cp

Cp

14

3 bars

1

4

12

2 bars

Cp

Cp

1

4

1

10

2 bars

1

4

1

1

Cp

Cp

1

4

1

0

4 bars

1

4

c) Turbulator geometry.

Fig. 11

17 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

m/s

60

0.8

40

Velocity: BFS

0.7

Vorticity: BFS

20

0.6

0

0.5

20

0.4

0.3

40

0.2

60

0.1

80

a) Velocity.

b) Vorticity.

0.16

0.9

0.14

RMS Turbulence Intensity: BFS

FFP: BFS

0.12

0.8

0.7

0.1

0.6

0.5

0.08

0.4

0.06

0.3

0.04

0.2

0.02

Fig. 12

0.1

18 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

m/s

s1

200

2.5

150

Velocity: BFS

Vorticity: BFS

100

50

1.5

0

50

1

100

150

0.5

200

a) Velocity.

b) Vorticity.

0.9

0.3

RMS Turbulence Intensity: BFS

FFP: BFS

0.25

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.2

0.5

0.15

0.4

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.05

0.1

Fig. 13

19 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

m/s

s1

8

600

Velocity: BFS

Vorticity: BFS

400

200

3

200

2

400

a) Velocity.

b) Vorticity.

0.4

0.35

0.9

FFP: BFS

0.8

0.7

0.3

0.6

0.25

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.15

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.05

Fig. 14

Fig. 15

0.1

20 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

m/s

40

0.7

0.6

Velocity: BFS

Vorticity: BFS

20

0.5

0

0.4

20

0.3

40

0.2

60

0.1

a) Velocity.

b) Vorticity.

0.12

0.9

0.8

FFP: BFS

0.1

0.7

0.08

0.6

0.5

0.06

0.4

0.04

0.3

0.2

0.02

0.1

Fig. 16

21 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

June 7, 2001

22 of 22

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 20022925

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