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YDS Mini Deneme 2015

1. A great many problems facing the developing nations

can be solved by the ---- of humanitarian actors with the
governments of developed nations.
A) competition
C) conflict
E) disturbance

B) collaboration
D) escalation

8. Clean, fresh drinking water ---- essential to human and
other life forms, besides, access to safe drinking water --steadily over the last decades in almost every part of the
A) was / had improved
B) might have been / is improving
C) is / has improved
D) would be / improved

2. A dislike for religious authority may explain why the

British are not so ---- about the arrival of the Pope in their
A) hostile

B) enthusiastic

D) critical

C) populous

E) sudden

E) has been / improves

9. Despite the available funds and resources, the

impoverished parts of the world ---- economical and
cultural support that they ---- for survival.
A) did not enjoy / needed
B) would not enjoy / have needed

3. Sheep and goats are closely related, both are in the

subfamily Carnie, and it can be difficult to ---- them from
their appearance.
A) distinguish

B) ignore

D) adjust

E) estimate

C) had not enjoyed / were needed

D) have not enjoyed / need
E) do not enjoy / would need

C) reveal
10. Once he ---- from the college towards the end of
coming June, Marcus ---- the first in his family to have a
A) graduated / would be

4. Although money is not the only means of payment for

goods and services, it is the one which is most ---- used.
A) densely

B) widely

D) suddenly

E) inclusively

C) closely

B) difference

D) expression

E) sense

C) is going to graduate / has been

D) is to graduate / will have been
E) will graduate / is being

5. More than just a dance, flamenco is an artistic ---- of the

joys and sorrows of life.
A) familiarity

B) has graduated / will be

C) resource

6. The original inhabitants of Burundi were the Twa, a

people who now ---- only 1% of the population.

11. He accepts some responsibility ---- being part of an

industry that designed devices he now believes are
hazardous ---- peoples health.
A) from / on

B) of / in

C) on / by

D) in / about

12. An aircraft carrier is a warship designed ---- a primary

mission ---- deploying and recovering aircraft, acting as a
seagoing airbase.
A) towards / off

A) set out

B) stand by

D) come to

E) make up

C) take on

7. It is often argued that a country should not rely on

foreign sources for many of its products because, in
times of war, these sources might well be ----.
A) cut off

B) broken down C) held on

D) brought up

E) got away

E) for / to

C) to / in

B) with / on
D) for / of

E) onto / over

13. ---- steel had been produced by various inefficient

methods long before the Renaissance, its use became
more common after more efficient production methods
were devised in the 17th century.
A) Moreover

B) In that

D) Though

E) Instead

C) However

YDS Mini Deneme 2015

14. ---- European civilization progressed, its social
institutions and welfare practices also got more and more
A) Just as

B) Although

D) As

E) Even so

C) In that

15. In many parts of the world, especially in East Asian

countries, reforestation is increasing the area of forested
lands. ----, the amount of woodland has increased in 22 of
the world's 50 most forested nations.
A) Thus

B) Once

C) Now that

D) Even so

E) Due to

On the whole, Turkeys north Aegean coast is blissfully free of
the worst excesses of tourist development. Most of the coastal
towns are smaller and (21)---- family-oriented than those
further south, although the scenery is sometimes spoiled (22)
---- unsightly second-home developments. anakkale makes
the best base for visiting the famous battlefields and (23)----for
visiting the famous ruins at Troy. Not far south is picture
perfect Assos, an old town situated on an extinct volcano
(24) ----the Greek island of Lesbos. At Bergama the
impressive ruins of the acropolis, (25) ----paper was invented,
can be seen.

A) the more

B) the most

D) more

E) the least

C) most

16. It is quite clear that ---- we exploit natural resources
extravagantly, ---- the conditions will be for survival in the
near future.
A) either/ or

B) rather / than

C) the more / the worse

D) as / as

A) in

B) at

C) by

D) on

E) of

A) not only

E) such / that

B) as well as

D) both

C) either

E) also

17. ---- you buy something, you buy it because of the
satisfaction you expect to receive from having it and
using it.

A) overlooking
B) overlooked
C) overlooks

A) While

B) If only

D) When

E) Though

C) Since

E) to overlook

18. ---- the death of the dictator General Franco in

1975, Spain became a constitutional monarchy under
King Juan Carlos I.
A) In spite of

B) Since

D) As well as

E) Instead of

A) Just as

B) Whether

D) Whenever

E) Whereas

C) Provided that

A) when

B) which

D) where

E) whose

C) that

B) so high / that

26. While personality may not be particularly important to

leadership success, ----.
A) some researchers investigated the effects of different styles
of leadership on group atmosphere
B) leaders can sometimes change to accommodate changed

20. Children who have received special attention from

trained teachers typically have ---- IQs ---- do children who
have not.

D) both high / and


C) After

19. ---- in cryptography and telecommunications, chips for

computer programs have been used for years, banks are
only just beginning to benefit from them.

A) higher / than

D) to have overlooked

C) very high / but

E) the highest / or

C) social psychologists have considered the same thing under

more controlled conditions
D) democratic leaders were liked significantly more than
autocratic leaders
E) according to many researchers, behavior certainly is

YDS Mini Deneme 2015


27. The most rapid growth in 2005 in African tourism was

recorded in Kenya, ----.

31. Before you spend any money on fish for your

aquarium, ----.

A) while it is difficult to overestimate the potential benefit of

tourism to the South African economy

A) it is worth considering that juvenile fish are dark blue with

distinctive white markings

B) even though Africa is an increasingly attractive destination

for tourists

B) bear in mind that much of the food we eat ourselves is also

suitable for fish

C) whether tourism had a positive or negative impact on a


C) be sure that you have provided the right environment for

the well-being of your fish

D) since there would certainly be plenty of room for growth in

the tourist sectors of many African countries

D) you should have checked if they were likely to grow much


E) where the number of visitors increased by 26%

E) feed your fish sparingly as any uneaten food will cause

pollution problems in the tank

28. ---- but they rarely become angry enough to band

together against this problem.
A) Citizens of many countries know that their police forces are
dishonest and inefficient
B) In 1979 life in Tanzania grew worse than usual during a
war with neighboring Uganda
C) Animal theft was always responded to collectively by all the
men of a tribe
D) In less than a year, the grass-roots venture in a few
villages grew to a successful justice system for the country
E) This is no small task in a country with few roads
and a limited telecommunications infrastructure

29. Poor nations labor under the weight of diseases

such as malaria and tuberculosis ----.
A) although these diseases are no longer a problem there

32. Personality can be defined as characteristic patterns

of thought, emotion and behavior that define an
individuals personal style of interacting with the physical
and social environment.
A) Bir bireyin kiiliini, fiziki ve sosyal evreyle kiisel etkileim
tarzndan ok, tipik dnce, duygu ve davran kalplar
B) Kiilik, bir bireyin fiziki ve sosyal evreyle kiisel etkileim
tarznbelirleyen, tipik dnce, duygu ve davrankalplar
olarak tanmlanabilir.
C) Bir bireyin tipik dnce, duygu ve davrankalplar, onun,
fiziki ve sosyal evreyle kendine zg etkileim tarzn
belirleyerek kiiliini oluturur.
D) Kiilii belirleyen en nemli kalplar, bireyin fiziki ve sosyal
evreyle etkileimindeki kiisel tarzn tanmlayan belli bal
dnce, duygu ve davranlardr.
E) Bir bireyin kiilii, o bireyin ayrt edici dnce, duygu ve
davrankalplarnn yansra, fiziki ve sosyal evreyle kiisel
etkileimi olarak tanmlanabilir.

B) when there had been treatment available

C) since they cannot afford to pay the prices companies want
for drugs
D) if they have modern healthcare programs
E) that they are requesting economic aid from wealthy

33. One of the most important principles of the Turkish

constitutional system is secularism, which has been
regarded as a fundamental achievement of the reform
program introduced under the leadership of Atatrk.
A) Trk anayasa sisteminin en nemli ilkelerinden biri,
Atatrkn nderliinde sunulan reform programnn temel bir
baarsolarak kabul edilen laikliktir.

30. Although some people are happy to head off into

the mountains alone, ----.
A) it is advisable to hire a local who knows the paths
B) the Kakars are becoming increasingly visited for their
trekking opportunities
C) you should bring a good quality tent, stove and sleeping
D) most of them arent aware that good personal hygiene is
quite important in the wild
E) measuring a distance on the map is very important for
estimating the length of a walk

B) Atatrk nderliinde kabul edilen ve reform programnn

temel bir baarsolma zelliini de tayan laiklik, Trk
anayasa sisteminin en nemli ilkelerinden biridir.
C) Laiklik, Atatrkn nderliinde sunulan reform
programnn temel bir baarsolduu iin, Trk anayasa
sisteminin en nemli ilkelerinden biri kabul edilmektedir.
D) Trk anayasasnn en nemli ilkesi olan laiklik, Atatrkn
nderliinde sunulan reform programnn temel baarlarndan
E) Atatrkn nderliinde sunulan reform programnn temel
baars, Trk anayasa sisteminin ok nemli ilkelerinden biri
olarak kabul edilen laikliktir.

YDS Mini Deneme 2015

34. Tketim, yatrm ve hkmet almlar, mallar lkede
retilmi olsun ya da olmasn, tketiciler, firmalar ve
hkmet tarafndan yaplan tm almlar ierir.
A) All purchases by consumers, firms and the government,
even if the goods were produced outside the country, are
known collectively as consumption, investment and
government purchases.
B) Including all purchases made by consumers, firms and the
government of goods produced inside or outside the country,
consumption, investment and government purchases are a
collective entity.

37. (I) Two economists have systematically analyzed surveys
over nearly a 30-year period that ask individuals to describe
themselves as happy, pretty happy or not too happy.
(II) Most people would prefer to live in a country with a high
standard of living and few would want to experience poverty
up close. (III) The results of their work are provocative.
(IV) Over the last 30 years, reported levels of happiness have
actually declined in the United States and remained relatively
flat in the United Kingdom, despite very large increases in per
capita income in both countries. (V) Could it be the increased
stress of everyday life that has taken its toll on our happiness,
despite the increase in income?
A) I

C) Consumption, investment and government purchases

include all purchases by consumers, firms and the
government, whether or not the goods were produced in the
D) Consumption, investment and government purchases
comprise all purchases, whether by consumers, firms or the
government, of goods produced either inside or outside the
E) The goods produced outside the country and purchased by
consumers, firms or the government, are included in
calculations of consumption, investment and government

A) It is estimated that, in some countries, about 60% of the

children born in the 1990s will spend some portion of their
lives in a single-parent environment, usually as a result of
B) Nearly 60% of all the children born in the 1990s are
estimated to have spent a part of their lives in a single-parent
home, usually due to divorce in some countries.
C) Because of divorce, 60% of children in some countries,
especially those born in the 1990s, are estimated to be
spending a portion of their lives in a single-parent
D) It is thought that, in some countries, in the 1990s almost
60% of children were living in a single-parent home, mostly as
a result of divorce.
E) In some countries, mostly due to divorce, a portion of the
children born in the 1990s will spend at least 60% of their lives
in a single-parent environment, according to some estimates.



E) V

38. (I) During World War II, the Red Cross gave each Allied
prisoner a weekly parcel, with the same mix of products
tinned milk, jam, butter, chocolate, sugar and cigarettes. (II) In
addition, many prisoners received private parcels from family
and friends. (III) They then began a system of trading their
goods with each other, and cigarettes emerged as the
medium of exchange. (IV) They would wander through the
camp calling out their offers of goods to be traded for
cigarettes. (V) Enterprising British prisoners subsequently
bribed prison guards to permit them to enter the French
A) I

35. Baz lkelerde 1990larda doan ocuklarn yaklak

%60nn, yaamlarnn bir blmn, genellikle,
boanmann bir sonucu olarak tek ebeveynli bir ortamda
geirecekleri tahmin ediliyor.





E) V

39. (I) One of the curious facts of being in business is that we

tend to pay more attention to winning new customers than to
looking after them and keeping them loyal once we have won
them. (II) Some people might regard this as incomprehensible
mystery why do we behave like that? (III) But I do not really
think it is much of a mystery. (IV) Customers, therefore, are
more sophisticated and demanding than ever. (V) It is human
nature for us to be excited by new opportunities.
A) I




E) V

Carol :
- This article says that personality is shown by a persons
handwriting and his favorite colors.
Jane : - ---Carol :
- Well, apparently, the size and shapes of the letters
reflect different personality traits.
Jane :
- Thats interesting. Could I read the article when youre
finished with it?

36. (I) In general, everybody thinks that their good luck will last
forever. (II) People who have whats called an internal means
of control see themselves as responsible for their lifes
outcomes. (III) That is, they explain their achievements and
failures by looking at their own actions, inactions, traits and
characteristics. (IV) Those with an external means of control,
however, believe that their own actions have little influence on
future outcomes. (V) They thank or blame forces beyond their
control for the positive and negative events in their lives.

A) I think those kinds of articles are filling our heads with

useless information.

A) I

E) I read all about that in my psychology class, but I didnt

believe it.




E) V

B) Really? Whats your favorite color, then?

C) Ive heard about color and personality, but how is
handwriting related with personality?
D) Lets have a sample of your handwriting, then.

YDS Mini Deneme 2015

Matthew :
- Have you ever heard of a hurricane pilgrim?
Mother : - ---Matthew :
- Okay, then, lets hear it.
Mother :
- Well, a pilgrim is a person who comes from far away to
see something, and we both know that a hurricane is an
extremely strong storm. So a hurricane pilgrim is one
who comes from out of town just to see the storm.

A) No, but I can guess what it means.

43. On a linguistic map of the world, most of the great
language families occupy one distinct and restricted
territory. ---- . Either comprises a wider geographical realm,
which makes them widely spoken. In modern times the IndoEuropean languages have spread across the globe - to North
and South America, Australia and New Zealand - as a result
of European colonialism. Finno-Ugric is a group of languages
that are spread over great part of Asia in the Uralic language
family, comprising the Finno-Permic and Ugric language
A) But, the two exceptions are the Indo-European and the FinnoUgric groups.
B) A shared linguistic family does not imply any racial link, though
in modern times this distinction has often been blurred

B) I dont think I have. What do you know about it?

C) Another linguistic group, of significance in the early history of

west Asia and still of great importance today, is the Semitic family
of languages.

C) Yes; theres an article about them in this journal. What a

dangerous interest!

D) The most widespread group of languages today is the IndoEuropean, spoken by half the world's population.

D) Is it a type of traveler?

E) The ongoing struggle between languages is a process very

similar to evolution.

E) This is for your homework assignment, isnt it? Look it up

on the Internet.

44. In Britain, surnames were uncommon before the

13th century. They were originally descriptive in character,
and used to distinguish persons of the same name,
especially for real-estate matters. ----. These often indicated
appearance (Black, Short), the occupation of the person
(Baker, Tailor) or the fathers name (McDonald, Robertson).
A) People may use names other than given or inherited names for
professional purposes

42. Suppose you were asked how you know the answers
to simple addition problems, such as 4+2 and 3+5. Your
response would probably be that you simply know and
that you have memorized the answers to such oftenencountered problems. And you would probably be right,
since all of us have memorized a number of basic
arithmetical facts. ---A) So, can research help identify problems and suggest

B) Surnames crept northwards from Germany through Denmark

and into Norway in the 15th and 16th centuries
C) Thus, the earliest surnames appeared among the urban, rich
classes with property
D) In some US families, there is a tradition of using a surname as
a first name or a middle name
E) In Britain, the use of two surnames is usually regarded as

B) Like memory, childrens problem solving improves

dramatically over the childhood years.
C) However, it is quite difficult to determine which of these
strategies a child is using.
D) But what about young children who are just beginning to
learn about mathematics?

45. Specialists in climatology forecast that the global

temperatures may either rise sharply or fall dramatically.

E) In addition, coping with addition problems is a common

experience for any child who has started school.

A) To some climatologists, whereas in some areas temperatures

show a tendency to rise abruptly, in other places dramatic falls will
be seen.
B) Experts on global temperatures hold the belief that extreme
rises and falls are indispensable in the future.
C) The fact that global temperatures not only rise remarkably but
also fall below standards has been reminded by experts on
climate changes.
D) It has been predicted by experts in climate affairs that there
may be considerable rises or steep decline in global temperatures
E) Analysts in climatology warn us that there will be global
temperature extremes in the near future.

YDS Mini Deneme 2015

46. Science does not produce a unified picture of the
environment on which all can agree, instead it provides
multiple views, each of which may be valid from a
particular ideological angle.
A) There is not one single view of the environment that can be
provided through science that everyone will agree on, rather it
gives different perspectives, all of which are valid depending
on the ideological perspective.
B) The environment has been described by scientists in many
different ways rather than in just one way, and each of these
have their own validity according to the observers own
C) Science represents many diverse and particular ideological
angles, and from these a valid and unified description of the
environment can be produced that respects multiple views.

48. Many people believed that Edison and Tesla had
almost none in common, but they were wrong.
A) Edison and Tesla were very different from each other, so
everybody believed them.
B) Edison and Tesla were believed to have had little in
common by most people, which wasnt true at all.
C) A lot of people were of the opinion that Edison and Tesla
never had similar ideas.
D) Few people acknowledged that Edison was superior to
Tesla but they had the same talents.
E) Nobody realized that the most common property of Edison
and Tesla was their different personalities.

D) Scientists from different ideological backgrounds have

come together to agree upon a unified picture of the
environment on which scientists can all agree upon its validity.
E) Multiple views on the environment are the result of science
being unable to produce a unified description upon which
those from different ideological backgrounds can agree.

47. Huntingtons has been described as the most

disastrous disease known to man because of its cruel
characteristics, as it progressively strips a person of
control of his muscles, reason and feelings.
A) Huntingtons disease is described as not only the worst
disease in the world but also the most cruelly progressive, as
it slowly takes away a persons ability to control their muscles,
reason and emotion.
B) To describe Huntingtons as a cruel disease could be
disastrous as people know that it eventually takes away a
persons ability to control their muscles as well as to reason
and feel emotion.
C) Due to its cruel characteristics that gradually take away a
persons control of their muscles, reason and emotion,
Huntingtons is said to be the most devastating disease in the
D) When a person starts to rapidly lose control of his muscles
and no longer is able to reason or control his emotions, he can
be described as having the most disastrous disease ever
E) When a man is described as having Huntingtons, it can be
a very cruel experience, as they will gradually experience
certain characteristics such as lack of muscle control, reason
and emotion.

49. The changing climate will have negative effects on all

parts of the world; depending on peoples location and
lifestyles, however, there will be great differences in the
subsequent health hazards that human populations face.
A) No matter how and where people live, the subsequent
health hazards will be terribly great after the varying climate
negatively affects all regions of the world.
B) Based on their lifestyles and geographical location, human
populations all over the world will experience health risks to be
brought about by adverse effects of the changing climate.
C) Whether all regions of the world will be negatively affected
by the incremental climate change largely depends on
peoples location and ways of life, yet human populations will
end up with health risks.
D) Since all parts of the world are likely to be adversely
influenced by the globally changing climate, human
populations have been subject to resultant health risks,
regardless of how and where they reside.
E) All regions of the world will be adversely affected by the
changing climate, but the resulting health risks to human
populations will vary greatly, depending on where and how
people live.

YDS Mini Deneme 2015

The heroic myths and epics of a society teach its members
the appropriate attitudes, behaviour, and values of that
culture. These myths are of particular interest and value to us.
Not only are they exciting adventure stories, but in these
myths we see ourselves, drawn larger and grander than we
are, yet with our human weaknesses as well as our
strengths. As for heroes, they are the models of human
behaviour for their society. They earn lasting fame by
performing great deeds that help their community, and they
inspire others to emulate them. Heroes are forced by
circumstance to make critical choices where they must
balance one set of values against competing values. They
achieve heroic stature in part from their accomplishments and
in part because they emerge from their trials as more sensitive
and thoughtful human beings. Yet heroes are not the same
throughout the world. They come from cultures where
individuals may earn fame in a variety of ways. This permits
them to express their individuality. However, in spite of their
extraordinary abilities, no hero is perfect. Yet their human
weaknesses are often as instructive as their heroic qualities.
Their imperfections allow ordinary people to identify with them
and to like them, since everyone has similar psychological
needs and conflicts.

52. One understands from the passage that myths ---A) are not as instructive as epics, which in fact describe
heroes that, from a moral point of view, are absolutely perfect
B) appeal to very few people because they are mere fictions
that contain nothing but only adventures
C) are a kind of mirror through which are reflected not only our
virtues but also our shortcomings
D) are so concerned with human weaknesses that even
ordinary people do not identify themselves with mythical
E) represent only universal values and attitudes, as they do
not belong to a specific society or culture

53. It is pointed out in the passage that a heros

fame ----.
50. It is suggested in the passage that the trials that
heroes undergo ----.
A) are usually the outcome of conflicting values in society and
can therefore be most painful
B) make up the contents of those myths and epics which have
survived to our time
C) can be described in a variety of ways, although they are
mainly related to their needs
D) have a positive impact on their character whereby they
attain a high moral status

A) derives from his achievements that are for the good

of his people
B) does not last long, since he is easily overcome by his
C) is recognized throughout the world because of his
extraordinary abilities
D) encourages ordinary people to identify themselves
with him
E) depends on his ability to accomplish the impossible

E) enable a society to become aware of its weaknesses and

find ways to get rid of them

51. As stressed in the passage, heroic myths and epics

54. As asserted in the passage, we can learn ----.
A) can be understood from various angles since they are the
products of different cultures

A) from myths why and how heroes perform great deeds

B) represent different attitudes that heroes adopt during the

course of their adventures

B) both from heroes imperfections and from their heroic


C) illustrate various sets of values that are always contrary to

each other

C) from heroes adventures that there are various ways to

understand our weaknesses

D) essentially show why heroes moral imperfections become

the cause of their downfall

D) the history of a community through a close study of its

heroic past

E) are morally useful because one learns from them how to

conduct oneself properly

E) from epics whether every hero earns lasting fame in the

same way

YDS Mini Deneme 2015

55. (I) Although humans do not use smells to communicate,
many other mammals do. (II) Odorous substances take a long
time to fade and can be left as signposts to mark out an
animal's territory. (III) Scents contain a lot of information
they tell visitors the sex of the animal, its age and may even
identify the individual. (IV) Mammals can also use sound for a
lot of reasons, e.g. to attract mates, to startle enemies, and to
locate relatives. (V) For example, a male cheetah marks its
territory with strongsmelling urine, and this warns visiting
males to keep out.
A) I







E) V

57. (I) Pia Winberg at the University of Wollongong in

Australia is looking at seaweed cultivation for medical
application. (II) And for that, she prefers growing it on land.
(III) Unlike seaweed grown for biofuel or food, medical uses
need highly controlled growing conditions. (IV) Using 25m
long saltwater tanks, Winberg can manipulate the plants to
encourage the traits she needs. (V) Many seaweed species
have yet to be classified, so there are likely to be many more
species with valuable medical uses.
A) I




59. (I) Noam Chomskys ethical analyses are based on what

he calls the principle of universality. (II) Good politicians
must analyze their political actions rigorously, instead of
blinding the public with rhetoric. (III) At root, this principle is
relatively simple. (IV) It says that at the very least we should
apply to ourselves the same standards that we apply to
others. (V) This is a principle that Chomsky claims has always
been central to any responsible system of ethics.
A) I

E) V






E) V

60. (I) Character traits are the qualities that make up a

characters personality. (II) For example, a character may be
honest, generous, stubborn, or scheming. (III) You can
discover these character traits through a characters actions
and words and through the writers description of the
character. (IV) Some characters may show only one major
character trait, while others, like real people, show a number
of different traits. (V) Thus, the setting of a story affects what
happens to the characters and what they learn about life.
A) I




E) V

61. (I) As the world's population approaches seven billion, the

challenges facing humanity have never been greater. (II) And,
the solutions to most fundamental challenges can be found in
science. (Ill) But providing for the food, energy and safety
needs of a growing population will require more than science
alone. (IV) Companies, both large and small, need to come up
with more innovations to facilitate trade and commerce. (V) It
will require people working together across borders, cultures
and nations to improve the lives of people around the world.
A) I




E) V

62. (I) The oldest known evidence of strange flying objects is

from some cave paintings that were found in Europe.
(II) Before the end of the 18th century, very few Europeans
had dedicated themselves to the study of flight. (Ill) One was
the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci. (IV) He was preoccupied
chiefly with bird flight and with flapping-wing machines called
"ornithopters". (V) His aeronautical work, however, remained
unknown until late in the 19th century, when it could furnish
little of technical value to experimenters but was a source of
inspiration to aspiring European engineers.
A) I

58. (I) Since his first appearance in Action Comics in 1938,

Superman has adapted to the changing times. (II) After the
Second World War, he changed his slogan from fighting for
truth and justice to fighting for truth, justice and the American
way. (III) Such figures as Superman are seen as fulfilling the
same societal function as the myths of ancient Greece or
Rome. (IV) As the nation dealt with the turmoil of the 1970s
and embraced a more diverse culture, self-sacrifice suddenly
became part of Supermans appeal. (V) As for the Superman
of the first half of the 21st century, with his alter ego Clark
Kent, he is likely to reflect our modern world, which is fearful
of a collapse, whether economic or environmental.
A) I


E) V

56. (I) Music can change our mood by changing the way we
perceive the world. (II) Karaoke can have a decidedly negative
effect on mood depending on the singer. (III) For example, in
experiments where people looked at smiley or sad face icons,
the music they were listening to affected what they saw.
(IV) A beat can even affect our heart rate and, when people
sing together, their breathing may become synchronized and
positive emotions increase. (V) These effects are perhaps not
so surprising when we know that musical patterns affect the
auditory brainstem, as well as auditory cortex, parts of the
neural reward system and other areas involved in memory
and emotion.
A) I





E) V

63. (I) Are humans the only primates that cry? (II) The answer
depends on how you define crying. (III) If it is defined as
tears coming from the eyes, then the answer is yes.
(IV) Others take a conservative stance and say that it is too
difficult to tell whether non-human primates have feelings.
(V) However, if crying is vocalization that occurs under the
conditions of distress, then you can find crying in almost all

E) V
A) I




E) V

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