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Terms used in Statutes and Cases.

1. R.A 8750 or Seat Belts Use Act of 1999.

Motorist - refers to the driver of a motor vehicle.

Seat belt device - refers to any strap, webbing or similar device in the form of pelvic
restraint or lap belt, upper torso restraint or shoulder strap or a combination thereof
designed to secure a person in a motor vehicle in order to mitigate the results of any
accident, including all necessary buckles and other fasteners, and all hardware
designed for installing such seat belt device in a motor vehicle.

Motor vehicle-refers to both private and public motor vehicle. The term shall not
include the tricycle and motorcycle.
Private motor vehicle - refers to any of the following:

o Any motor vehicle owned by individuals and juridical persons for private use;
o Any motor vehicle owned by the National Government or any of its agencies,
instrumentalities or political subdivisions, including government-owned or
controlled corporations or their subsidiaries for official use; and
o Any diplomatic vehicle.

Public motor vehicle - refers to public utility vehicle or vehicle for hire.

Motor vehicle of running engine - refers to a vehicle as stated herein, operating and
standing on any road or thoroughfare with engine running.

Front seat passengers - refers to persons on board a public utility vehicle seated at
the right side beside the driver for public utility jeepneys (PUJs) and to passengers
seated at the right side beside the driver and those at the first row immediately behind
the driver in the case of public utility buses (PUBs) and to passengers seated on the
right side beside the driver for private motor vehicles.

IRR refers to the implementing rules and regulations of an administrative agency.

Children- refer to infants and/or children with ages six (6) years and below.

LTO refers to the administrative agency in charge of the Act, the Land
Transportation Office.

2. E.O no. 180 or Guidelines for the exercise of the right to organize of government

Employees refers to government employees covered by the Executive Order.

High-level employees refers to those whose functions are normally considered as

policy-making or managerial or whose duties are of a highly confidential nature.

Rank-and-file employees refers to those who are below high-level employees.

Duly registered employees organization refers to those that are registered with
the Civil Service Commission and the Department of Labor and Employment under
the Bureau of Labor Relations.

Council refers to the Public Sector Labor Management Council, and composed of
the following:
1) Chairman, Civil Service Commission Chairman
2) Secretary, Department of Labor and Employment Vice Chairman
3) Secretary, Department of Finance Member
4) Secretary, Department of Justice Member
5) Secretary, Department of Budget and Management Member

3. Case of Termination/ Illegal Dismissal

G.R. No. 173189 Sang-An vs. Equator Knights Detective and Security Agency, Inc.
February 13, 2013.
- Equator refers to Equator Knights Detective and Security Agency, Inc.
- Complaint- a sworn written statement charging a person of an offense, subscribed by
the offended party, any peace officer, or other public officer charged with the
enforcement of the law violated.
- Illegal Dismissal refers to the dismissal of an employee without procedural due

- Due process refers to the requirement of Two-notice rule.

- Petition for certiorari When any tribunal, board or officer exercising judicial or
quasi-judicial functions has acted without or in excess its or his jurisdiction, or with grave
abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction, and there is no appeal, or
any plain, speedy, and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of law, a person aggrieved
thereby may file a verified petition in the proper court, alleging the facts with certainty
and praying that judgment be rendered annulling or modifying the proceedings of such
tribunal, board or officer, and granting such incidental reliefs as law and justice may
- Grave abuse of discretion refers to the arbitrary or despotic exercise of power due to
passion, prejudice or personal hostility; or the whimsical, arbitrary, or capricious exercise
of power that amounts to an evasion or refusal to perform a positive duty enjoined by law
or to act at all in contemplation of law.
- NLRC refers to the National Labor Relations Commission.
- LA refers to the Labor Arbiter.
- Serious Misconduct refers to improper or wrongful conduct; it is the transgression of
some established and definite rule of action, a forbidden act, a dereliction of duty, willful
in character, and implies wrongful intent and not mere error of judgment.
-Two- notice rule refers to the termination of employment based on just causes as
defined in Article 282 of the Labor Code:
(a) A written notice served on the employee specifying the ground or grounds for
termination, and giving to said employee reasonable opportunity within which to explain
his side;
(b) A hearing or conference during which the employee concerned, with the assistance of
counsel if the employee so desires, is given opportunity to respond to the charge, present
his evidence, or rebut the evidence presented against him; and
(c) A written notice [of] termination served on the employee indicating that upon due
consideration of all the circumstances, grounds have been established to justify his
- Condition sine qua non -refers toa causal connection exists between a particular act
and an injury when the injury would not have arisen but for the act. It is an indispensable
action or condition.