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Nuclear chemistry

Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

The discovery of radiation


In 1896 Henri Becquerel made an important discovery.

He accidentally had placed a piece of uranium ore on top of an unexposed photographic


plate. Later, when the plate was developed, the image of the rock was found on the plate.
Based on further experiments, he concluded that the plate had been exposed by rays given
off by the uranium.

Madame Curie discovers Radium and


Polonium
Following Becquerels discovery, Marie
Sklodowska Curie and her husband, Pierre
Curie, attempted to isolate the radioactive
material from the uranium ore.

In doing so they discovered two new elements, Radium and Polonium, both of
which were more radioactive than the original ore.

Ernest Rutherford
Rutherford investigated this new property of matter and
discovered that, in the process of emitting radiation, atoms
of one element became atoms of another element.

Today, we describe the process of an atom of one element becoming an


atom of a different element as transmutation.

Marie Curie
1867 - 1934

Radioactivity
Spontaneous
emission of
radiation from the
nucleus of an
unstable isotope.

Wilhelm Roentgen
1845 - 1923

Antoine Henri Becquerel


1852 - 1908

this huge nuclear explosion?

http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/01200/Graphics/705px-Nuclear_fireball.jpg

Is there radon in your basement?

http://a.abcnews.com/images/Blotter/abc_1radon_ad_070625_ssh.jpg

Nuclear Properties

Atomic masses are denoted by the symbol u.


1 u = 1.66054 1027 kg = 931.49 MeV/c2

Both neutrons and protons, collectively called nucleons, are


constructed of other particles called quarks.

1 proton plus 1 neutron = 2.0159414 u = mass of the nucleus of


deutrium ???
9

Nucleons
Protons and Neutrons
The nucleons are bound together by the strong force.

Isotopes

Atoms of a given element with:


same #protons
but
different # neutrons

http://education.jlab.org/glossary/isotope.html

Classification on the basis of stability


Radioactive or unstable
nuclides

Stable nuclides

the proton and


remains unchanged.

neutron

content

Internally unstable and undergo


spontaneous change with time.

The nuclei can be change only by


bombarding them with external radiations
or particles with high energy or by
nucleons capture.

New nuclei are formed by such


changes which may be accompanied
by rearrangement or loss of their
some protons and or neutrons.

About 274 naturally occurring nuclides


are stable. e.g. 1H, 2H, 16O, 17O, 19F, 23Na,
27Al, 31P, 35Cl, 37Cl, 63Cu, 65Cu, etc.

They continuously emit the


radiations of high energy. The
emitted radiations are -, -, and radiations.

Nuclei containing 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, or


126 protons or neutrons are generally
more stable than nuclei that do not
possess these magic numbers.
Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

About
2000
nuclides
are
radioactive (natural and man-made).
e.g. 32P, 226Ra, 55Fe, 60mCo, etc.
13

Factors
affecting
stability of
nucleus

Odd-even
combination
of protons
and neutrons

Neutron to
proton ratio
of the
nucleus
Binding energy
and average
binding energy

Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

14

Even-odd nature of the number of protons and neutrons


Z

Z+N=A

Total number of nucleides

examples

Even

Even

Even

165

4He, 24Mg, 208Pb

Even

Odd

Odd

55

17O, 25Mg, 57Fe

Odd

Even

Odd

50

7Li, 19F, 63Cu

Odd

Odd

Even

2H, 6Li, 10B, 14N

only

A tendency to form P-P and N-N pairs for the nuclear stability . The stability
accorded to the nucleus on pairing of spins of protons and neutrons shows that
there are strong interactions between the two protons and two neutrons which
are formed a shell and shows a weak interaction between the other pairs.

165

The number of stable nucleides of odd A is about same whether the odd
number of protons (50) or of neutrons (55). This suggests that protons and
neutrons behave similarly even though they having different charge value

105

Each isotope contains only one proton and one neutron more than the quartet of two
protons ant two neutrons. The extra proton and extra neutron are interacting with
each other and provide the stability to these nuclei
Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

15

For the elements between oxygen and chlorine, the stable nuclides are obtained by adding two neutrons one at a time in the nucleus which is
followed by the addition of two protons
16

17

18

[ F]

18

19

addition of two neutrons results the


formation of three isotopes

20

[ F]

20

21

Ne

Ne

22

22

23

[ Na ]

nuclei which have


odd Z-value, it is
observed that only
one stable isotope is
formed

24

nuclides having even Z


value, it exist in three
stable isotopes

Ne

Na

Mg

[24 Na ]

25

Mg

26

Mg

27 Al

28

Si

29

Si

Beyond chlorine, in case of nucleides with odd Z addition of


two neutrons together results the formation of a pair of stable
isotopes e.g. 35Cl-37Cl, 39K-41K, 63Cu-65Cu, 79Br-81Br, 85Rb-87Rb,
107Ag-109Ag, etc. The middle isotopes as - 36Cl, 40K, 64Cu, 80Br,
Sunday,
December 4, 2016
B.R.THORAT
86Rb,
108Ag,
etc is invariably radioactive

30

Si

31

32

[32P ]

33

35

34

[ S]

16
35

Cl

Stability on the basis of neutron to proton (N/Z) ratio


The protons and neutrons give rise to three types interactions; n-n and p-n interactions are
attractive while p-p interactions are partly attractive and partly repulsive.
Therefore total number of protons and the neutrons in the nucleus decides overall attractive
and repulsive interactions with in the nucleus and hence its stability.

These stability of the nucleus is explain in term of neutron to proton ratio (N/Z) for a given
Z
N/P>1.536

N/P = 1.00 to 1.536 (stability strip)


N/P=1
(valid upto Z=20)

Number of
neutrons
(N)

p + B
electron
emission
X

this graph is called as Segre


chart

N/P<1
Y

n + B

(positron emmision)

Number of protons
(Z)
Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

17

The stable nucleides shows the ratio N/Z in them 1. The ratio is equal to one (N/Z) = 1 in
all the light stable nucleides up to Z = 20.
The number of neutrons is more than number
of protons which makes N/Z > 1.
Some stable isotopes of heavy elements such as
208Pb or 209Pb, the N/Z ratio is slightly greater than
1.536.

The reason for this is that with increase the


atomic number, the repulsive forces increases
rapidly and become greater than attractive
forces.
e. g. For heavy nuclei 208Pb the repulsive force is
ten times greater than that in 40Ca. Therefore
additional number of neutrons gives additional
n-p and n-n attractive forces which overcome the
excess repulsive force and provide the stability to
nucleus
Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

18

Since many elements have more than one


isotope and therefore the graph N against Z is
not a straight line, it is strip.
The strip becomes broader as increases the
value of Z all the nuclei in the strip are stable
while those are lie outside the trip are
unstable (radioactive).
The nucleides of given Z lie above the strip
contains more neutrons and undergoes
emission of - particles (electrons) for the
stability

The most of stable isotopes of any given elements


are usually found near the center of the stability
strip

The nucleides of a given Z lie below the strip


contains less number of neutrons than those
required for the stability.
Nucleides either emits positrons + particles
or capture extranuclear electron depending
on their energy.

Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

19

CONCEPT OF BINDING ENERGY

The binding energy of an atom is the energy released as all the constituent particles (n,
p and e) come together FROM INFINITY under both the STRONG force and the EM
force.
The binding energy is something that is LOST from the atomic system. Thus it is not
something that the system possesses.

ANOTHER WAY OF VIEWING BINDING ENERGY

ATOM

Constituents at infinity

The opposite way of seeing binding energy - is that if B.E. (MeV) is


put into the atom then there is just enough energy available to split
all the constituents of the atoms apart and get them to rest at
infinity.

Nuclear Binding Energy


Energy must be added to a nucleus to
separate it into its individual nucleons
(protons and neutrons).
The energy that must be added to separate
the nucleons is called the binding energy
EB.
The binding energy is the energy by
which the nucleons are bound together.

Binding Energy Comparison

Binding Energy
Measures the stability of the nucleus and explains how long the nucleons are held
together in the nucleus
The mass that is lost (mass defect, m) during the formation of the nucleus from
constituents neutrons and protons is converted into energy is called binding energy.
The relationship between mass and energy is E = mc2 where c is velocity of light

Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

24

Calculation of Binding energy (B. E.)


Let us consider a nucleus AXZ with atomic mass m amu having Z - protons and (A - Z)
neutrons. From the mass of protons and neutrons, the theoretical mass of AXZ nucleus is
calculated as = theoretical mass of AXZ = Z x mp + (A-Z) x mN

The difference between m and m is calculated as m =


of the nucleus and which is possible for all nucleus.

m is called as mass defect

Also according to Einstein equation -

The binding energy is expressed in eV, keV or MeV. Suppose one amu of mass is lost, the
energy librated is calculated as followsMass of proton 1.67262 x 10-27kg or 1.00727u
Mass of neutron 1.67493 x 10-27 kg or 1.00867u
Mass of electron 9.11 x 10-31kg or 5.49 x 10-4u
See tables/data sheet for other values of atoms
Mass difference = mass of particles mass of atom
1eV = 1.6 x 10-19J
1 MeV = 1.6 x 10-13 J
1 u = 1.6606 x 10-27 kg
1u = 931 MeV
speed of light, c = 3.0 x 108 ms-1

Binding Energy Curve


Join the correct description with an arrow on the correct place on the graph.

If these atoms can be joined


together to form heavier
atoms, the mass defect
increases, so energy has
been released
If these atoms are split into
two nearly equal parts
energy is released and again
the mass defect increases

Any alteration of the nuclear


structure which causes a
movement towards this
point results in released
energy. In fact, there is so
much of this element in the
universe because of its
highest mass defect

Observation
It is observed that, the binding energy of a nucleus is directly proportional to its mass
number (as mass number increases, mass defect also increases).
The heavy nucleus having higher binding energy and are expected to be more stable whereas
light elements having low binding energy and are expected to be less stable.

Fact
But actually it is observed that, the heavy elements like uranium, thorium etc are
radioactive and are continuously transferred into other elements and the light elements
such as nitrogen, oxygen, etc are stable.
Therefore the stability of the nucleus can be explained by using new concept is called
average binding energy

Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

27

Average binding energy


A ratio of binding energy (E) of a nucleus to its mass number (A)

It is an average amount of energy required to remove a nucleons from the


nucleus and to take away it from the nucleus.
It is then expected that if higher the average binding energy, more is the stability
of the nucleus and vice-versa.
To explain the stability of nucleus, plot a graph of average binding energy against
A of the nucleus.

Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

28

BINDING ENERGY in MeV/nucleon

10

Fission

Fission = Breaking large atoms into small


Fusion = Combining small atoms into large
238
92 U

Light Nucleides : [A<30]


The nuclei which A can be expressed in multiple of four e.g. 4He, 12C, 16O, 20Ne, 28Si have
maximum stability except 8B. It does not have a ground state and get cleaved into two alpha
particles. Also the nucleides having even A are more stable than the nucleides having odd A.

Medium nucleides: [30<A<90]


It has mean binding energy around 8.3 to 8.7. the average binding energy increases along
with atomic mass number (A) and it become maximum around A=60 (nickel and iron) and
then slowly decreases. The maximum nuclear stability of iron makes its occurrence in the
nature and abundant.
Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

30

Heavy nucleides: [A>90]


For nucleides A>90, the mean binding energy decreases continuously from the maximum 8.7
to 7.7 for A=210.
The most stable heaviest nucleus is 209Bi. Beyond this nucleides are unstable and radioactive,
mainly emits alpha particles. e.g. 238U has average binding energy 7.3 MeV therefore it can be
fission (split) into two medium nucleides because of its stability.

Binding Energy
Einsteins famous equation

E = m c2

Proton: mc2 = 938.3MeV


Neutron: mc2= 939.5MeV

Deuteron:

mc2

=1875.6MeV

Adding these, get


1877.8MeV

Difference is
Binding energy,
2.2MeV

MDeuteron = MProton + MNeutron |Binding Energy|

The actual mass of a 37Cl atom is 36.966 amu. Calculate the mass defect
(amu/atom) for a 37Cl atom.
(a) 0.623 amu
(b) 0.388 amu
(c) 0.263 amu
(d) 0.341 amu
(e) none of these

The mass defect for an isotope was found to be 0.410 amu/atom. Calculate the
binding energy in kJ/mol of atoms. (1 J = 1 kg m2/s2)
(a) 3.69 x 1010 kJ/mol
(b) 1.23 x 1020 kJ/mol
(c) 3.69 x 1013 kJ/mol
(d) 1.23 x 103 kJ/mol
(e) 1.23 x 1023 kJ/mol
1eV = 1.6 x 10-19J
1 MeV = 1.6 x 10-13 J
1 u = 1.6606 x 10-27 kg
1u = 931 MeV
speed of light, c = 3.0 x 108 ms-1

Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

33

1. What is the binding energy per nucleon in MeV for the following atoms involved in
nuclear energy:
a. U-238 nucleus
U-238 = 92p + 146n
md = ([92 x 1.00783) + (146 x 1.00867)] - U-238
= 92.72036 + 147.26582 238.05079
= 1.93539 m
= 1.93539 x 1.6606 x 10-27
= 3.2130 x 10-27 J
E = 3.2130 x 10-27 x (3 x 108)2
= 2.8925 x 10-10 J per atom
as there are 238 nucleons, then

2.8925 x10 -10


binding energy per nucleon =
= 1.21 x 10-12 J
238
b. He-4 nucleus
He-4 = 2p + 2n
= (2 x 1.00783) + (2 x 1.00867) 4.00260
= 0.0304 m
= 0.0304 x 1.6606 x 10-27
= 5.04822 x 10-29 J
E = 5.04822 x 10-29 x (3 x 108)2
= 4.5434 x 10-12 J per atom

4.5434 x10 - 12
binding energy per nucleon =
= 1.136 x 10-12 J
4

Radioactivity means the spontaneous emission of alpha () particles, beta () particles, or


gamma photons () from atomic nuclei and convert to other nuclei which is may be stable or
radioactive.
The original radioactive nuclei is called parent nuclei while the new nuclei formed after
emission is called daughter nuclei.
Radioactive decay is a process by which the nuclei of a nuclide emit ionic radiations.

Ionizing radiation
is radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can
remove tightly bound electrons from their orbits, causing the atom to become
charged or ionized (examples: gamma rays, neutrons)
Non-ionizing radiation
is radiation without enough energy to separate molecules or remove electrons from
atoms. Examples are visible light, radio and television waves, ultra violet (UV), and
microwaves
with a large spectrum ofB.R.THORAT
energies.
Sunday,
December 4, 2016
35

Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

36

Common Types of Radiation

Alphas
An alpha is a particle emitted from the nucleus of an atom, that contains 2 protons and 2
neutrons. It is identical to the nucleus of a Helium atom, without the electrons.
Betas
A beta is a high speed particle, identical to an electron, that is emitted from the nucleus of
an atom
Gamma Rays
Gamma rays are electromagnetic waves / photons emitted from the nucleus (center) of an
atom.
X rays
X Rays are electromagnetic waves / photons emitted not from the nucleus, but normally
emitted by energy changes in electrons. These energy changes are either in electron orbital
shells that surround an atom or in the process of slowing down such as in an X-ray machine.

Neutrons
Neutrons are neutral particles that are normally contained in the nucleus of all atoms and
may be removed by various interactions or processes like collision and fission

Radioactivity - 238U radioactive decay series


The Decay Path of 4n + 2 or 238U Family

234

230

226

222
218
210

Po

210

206

Pb
206
Tl

206

214

Bi

210

Hg

Po

214

Pb

Bi

214

210

Tl

At

218

Rn

Po

Pb

238
234

Pa

234

Th

Th

Ra

decay
Major route
Minor route
decay

Radioactive Decays

38

Radioactivity - 239Np radioactive decay series


The Decay Paths of the 4n + 1 or 237Np93 Family Series
233

(1.6e5 y)
229
225

(10 d)
221

213
209

Bi83

209

Po84

Pb82

209

Fr87

217 85
At
(1 min)
213 83
Bi

Ac89

225

U92

237

Np93

(2e6 y)
233 91
Pa

Th90
(7300 y; minor path)

Ra88

Tl81

Radioactive Decays

39

Alpha decay is a radioactive process in which a particle with two neutrons and two protons is
ejected from the nucleus of a radioactive atom. The particle is identical to the nucleus of a helium
atom.
Alpha decay only occurs in very heavy elements such as uranium, thorium and radium. The nuclei of
these atoms are very neutron rich (i.e. have a lot more neutrons in their nucleus than they do
protons) which makes emission of the alpha particle possible.
After an atom ejects an alpha particle, a new parent atom is formed which has two less neutrons and two less protons. Thus, when
uranium-238 (which has a Z of 92) decays by alpha emission, thorium-234 is created (which has a Z of 90).

Because alpha particles contain two protons, they have a positive charge of two. Further, alpha
particles are very heavy and very energetic compared to other common types of radiation. Typical
alpha particles will travel no more than a few centimeters in air and are stopped by a sheet of paper.

Nuclide Transmutation of Decay


APZ

A 4DZ 2

+ 4He2

Heavy Nuclide alpha emitters


235U92 231Th90 + 42 (t , 7.13108 y)

238U92

208Po84

234Th90

+ 42 (t, 4.51109 y)

204Pb82

+ 42 (t, 2.9 y)

How do nuclides transform in alpha decay? Mass


and charge change by what?
Radioactive Decays

41

Nuclide Transmutation of Decay


APZ A 4DZ 2 + 4He2
light nuclides
5He 1n0 + 42 (t , 210-21 s),

5Li 1p1 + 42 (t , ~10-21 s),

8Be 2 42 (t , 210-16 s).

Some rare earth (144 Nd, 146Sm, 147Sm, 147Eu,


...174Hf) are emitters:
144Nd 140Ce + 42 (t , 51015 y),

174Hf 170Yb + 42 (t , 21015 y).

Radioactive Decays

42

Beta decay is a radioactive process in which an electron is emitted from the nucleus of a
radioactive atom, along with an unusual particle called an antineutrino (almost massless particle that
carries away some of the energy).
Like alpha decay, beta decay occurs in isotopes which are neutron rich .
When a nucleus ejects a beta particle, one of the neutrons in the nucleus is transformed into a
proton.
Since the number of protons in the nucleus has changed, a new daughter atom is formed which has one less neutron but one more
proton than the parent. For example, when rhenium-187 decays (which has a Z of 75) by beta decay, osmium-187 is created (which has
a Z of 76).

Beta particles have a single negative charge and weigh only a small fraction of a neutron or proton.
As a result, beta particles interact less readily with material than alpha particles. Beta particles will
travel up to several meters in air, and are stopped by thin layers of metal or plastic.

Nuclide Transmutation of Decay


Beta decay consists of three processes: emitting an electron, emitting a positron, or
capturing an electron from the atomic orbital.

Electron emission
APZ

+ n ADZ + 1 + (absorbs a neutrino)

APZ

or

ADZ + 1

+ + n (emit antineutrino, n)

Positron emission
AP Z

or
AP Z

Electron capture

ADZ 1 + + + n
+ n

What is beta decay?

ADZ 1

+ +.

APZ

+ e ADZ 1 + n

APZ

+ e + n ADZ 1

or

Radioactive Decays

44

Nuclide Transmutation of Decay examples


1n0

1p1 + + n

Beta Decay of Neutron

Other examples of beta decay


14N7 + + n (t, 5720 y)
40K19 40Ca20 + + n (1.27e9 y)
50V23 50Cr24 + + n (6e15 y)
87Rb37 87Sr38 + + n (5.7e10 y)
115In49 115Sn50 + + n (5e14 y)
14C6

Proton
Neutron

Electron

What is the relationship between the parent


nuclide and the daughter nuclide in
decay?

Radioactive Decays

45

Nuclide Transmutation of + Decay


examples
In + decay, the atomic number decreases by 1.

21Ne10 + + + n
30P15
30Si14 + + + n
34Cl17 34S16 + + + n
116Sb51 116Sn50 + + + n
21Na11

(t, 22s)
(2.5 m)
(1.6 s)
(60 m)

What is the relationship between the parent


nuclide and the daughter nuclide in +
decay?

Radioactive Decays

46

Gamma decay
After a decay reaction, the nucleus is often in an
excited state. Rather than emitting another beta or
alpha particle, this energy is lost by emitting a pulse
of electromagnetic radiation called a gamma ray.
The gamma ray is identical in nature to light or
microwaves, but of very high energy.

Like all forms of electromagnetic radiation, the gamma ray has no mass and no charge.
Gamma rays interact with material by colliding with the electrons in the shells of atoms.
They lose their energy slowly in material, being able to travel significant distances before
stopping. Depending on their initial energy, gamma rays can travel from 1 to hundreds of
meters in air and can easily go right through people.

It is important to note that most alpha and beta emitters also emit gamma
rays as part of their decay process.
However, there is no such thing as a pure gamma emitter.

Transmutation of gamma decay


Gamma decay emits energy from atomic nucleus as photons.

Gamma,

, decay follows and decay or from isomers.

99Tc +
60Co 60mNi + + n (antineutrino)
60mNi 60Ni +
99mTc

24Na
h).
60Co

++ +
24Mg + + +

60Ni

(t, 5.24 y)
(2.75 MeV, t, 15

What is gamma decay?


Radioactive Decays

48

-decay and Internal Conversion


Internal Conversion Electron and X-ray Emission
X-ray

Internal
conversion
electron

Internal conversion electrons show up in spectrum.


X-ray energy is slightly different from the photon energy.

What are internal conversion electrons?Radioactive Decays

49

Over a century ago in 1895, Roentgen discovered the first example of ionizing radiation, x-rays.
Device: a glass envelope under high vacuum, with a wire element at one end forming the cathode, and a
heavy copper target at the other end forming the anode. When a high voltage was applied to the electrodes,
electrons formed at the cathode would be pulled towards the anode and strike the copper with very high
energy. Roentgen discovered that very penetrating radiations were produced from the anode, which he
called x-rays.

X-ray production whenever electrons of high energy strike a heavy metal target, like tungsten or
copper. When electrons hit this material, some of the electrons will approach the nucleus of the metal
atoms where they are deflected because of there opposite charges (electrons are negative and the nucleus
is positive, so the electrons are attracted to the nucleus). This deflection causes the energy of the electron to
decrease, and this decrease in energy then results in forming an x-ray.

Nuclide Transmutation of EC examples


48Ti22 + + + + n
(50%)
48V + e 48Ti + n (+ X-ray) (50%)
48V23

Electron Capture and X-ray Emission

X-ray
EC
What is the relationship between the
parent nuclide and the daughter nuclide in
electron capture (EC)?
What can be detected in EC?
Radioactive Decays

51

Electron capture and internal conversion


Electron Capture and Internal Conversion

EC

Internal
conversion

Explain electron capture and internal


conversion processes.
What are internal conversion electrons?
Radioactive Decays

52

Properties of Radiation
Alpha particles are heavy and doubly charged
which cause them to lose their energy very
quickly in matter. They can be shielded by a
sheet of paper or the surface layer of our skin.
Alpha particles are considered hazardous only to
a persons health if an alpha emitting material
is ingested or inhaled.
Beta and positron particles are much smaller and
only have one charge, which cause them to
interact more slowly with material. They are
effectively shielded by thin layers of metal or
plastic and are again considered hazardous only
if a beta emitter is ingested or inhaled.
Gamma emitters are associated with alpha, beta, and positron decay. X-Rays are produced either when
electrons change orbits within an atom, or electrons from an external source are deflected around the nucleus
of an atom. Both are forms of high energy electromagnetic radiation which interact lightly with matter. Xrays and gamma rays are best shielded by thick layers of lead or other dense material and are hazardous to
people when they are external to the body.

Neutrons are neutral particles with approximately the same mass as a proton. Because they are neutral they
react only weakly with material. They are an external hazard best shielded by thick layers of concrete.

When given a certain amount of radioactive material, it is customary to refer to the quantity based on its
activity rather than its mass. The activity is simply the number of disintegrations or transformations the
quantity of material undergoes in a given period of time.

The two most common units of activity are the Curie and the Becquerel.
The Curie is named after Pierre Curie for his and his wife Marie's discovery of radium. One Curie is equal
to 3.7x1010 disintegrations per second.
A newer unit of activity if the Becquerel named for Henry Becquerel who is credited with the discovery of
radioactivity. One Becquerel is equal to one disintegration per second.
It is obvious that the Curie is a very large amount of activity and the Becquerel is a very small amount. To
make discussion of common amounts of radioactivity more convenient, we often talk in terms of milli and
microCuries or kilo and MegaBecquerels.

Common Radiation Units SI


Gray (Gy) - to measure absorbed dose ... the amount of energy actually absorbed in some
material, and is used for any type of radiation and any material (does not describe the
biological effects of the different radiations)
Gy = J / kg (one joule of energy deposited in one kg of a material)
Sievert (Sv) - to derive equivalent dose ... the absorbed dose in human tissue to the effective
biological damage of the radiation
Sv = Gy x Q (Q = quality factor unique to the type of incident radiation)
Becquerel (Bq) - to measure a radioactivity the quantity of a radioactive material that have 1
transformations /1s
Bq = one transformation per second, there are 3.7 x 1010 Bq in one curie.
__________________________________________________________________________________
Roentgen (R) - to measure exposure but only to describe for gamma and X-rays, and only in air.
R = depositing in dry air enough energy to cause 2.58E-4 coulombs per kg

Rad (radiation absorbed dose) - to measure absorbed dose


Rem (roentgen equivalent man) - to derive equivalent dose related the absorbed dose in
human tissue to the effective biological damage of the radiation.
Curie (Ci) - to measure radioactivity. One curie is that quantity of a radioactive material that
will have 37,000,000,000 transformations in one second. 3.7 x 1010 Bq

Terms Related to Radiation Dose


Chronic dose means a person received a radiation dose over a long period of time.
Acute dose means a person received a radiation dose over a short period of time.
Somatic effects are effects from some agent, like radiation that are seen in the individual who receives
the agent.
Genetic effects are effects from some agent, that are seen in the offspring of the individual who
received the agent. The agent must be encountered pre-conception.
Teratogenic effects are effects from some agent, that are seen in the offspring of the individual who
received the agent. The agent must be encountered during the gestation period.

Stochastic effects are effects that occur on a random basis with its effect being independent of the size
of dose. The effect typically has no threshold and is based on probabilities, with the chances of seeing the
effect increasing with dose. Cancer is a stochastic effect.
Non-stochastic effect are effects that can be related directly to the dose received. The effect is more
severe with a higher dose, i.e., the burn gets worse as dose increases. It typically has a threshold, below
which the effect will not occur. A skin burn from radiation is a non-stochastic effect.

Computed Tomography Imaging (CT Scan, CAT Scan)

Computed Tomography is based on the x-ray principal: as x-rays pass through the body they are absorbed
or attenuated (weakened) at differing levels creating a matrix or profile of x-ray beams of different strength.
This x-ray profile is registered on film, thus creating an image. In the case of CT, the film is replaced by a
banana shaped detector which measures the x-ray profile.
Computed Tomography (CT) imaging, also known as "CAT scanning" (Computed Axial Tomography),
combines the use of a digital computer together with a rotating x-ray device to create detailed cross sectional
images or "slices" of the different organs and body parts such as the lungs, liver, kidneys, pancreas, pelvis,
extremities, brain, spine, and blood vessels. For many patients, CT can be performed on an outpatient basis
without requiring admittance to the hospital.

Sunday, December 4, 2016

B.R.THORAT

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