Anda di halaman 1dari 51

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS

CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Implementation notes in CS3000.


Chapter 1
1.0 Feed-Forward Control
1.1 Process and Control information from Project Specification
The tank is used as a buffer. The product is pumped to the tank. The discharge is
measured in T/H at a major line. The tank level is controlled by manipulating the valve in
the main feed line. To ensure better control the flow is used as feed forward .
A Hand/Auto selection shall be provided. Operator will manipulate the feed on Manual.
HA
l
100

LCV100

LT

LC

LY

100

100

100

FT
100
100

The above ISA diagram is a Typical for a Level control loop with
The Feed-Forward algorithms are 3 types.
Case1 . LY(out) = FT(out) + LC(out)

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
1

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Case 2. LY(out) = FT(out) + LC(out) 50


Case 3. LY(out) = FT9(out)x(1+2(LC(out)/100-0.5))

1.2. Implementation in CS3000


1.2.1.1 Case 1

Fig. 1.2.1.1
The above is a typical implementation in CS3000. It is exactly a translation of algorithms
shown on the process diagram.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
2

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

The above presentation does not follow the conventional practice. The signal flow will be
from top to bottom or left to right. The Input will be at the Top/Left and the Output will
be at the Bottom/Right. It is advisable to change to the common practice as shown below.

Fig. 1.2.1.2
1.2.1.2 Deficiencies in this case:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Feed forward signal handling


Correction of FF signal in both direction
Bumpless Transfer
IOP of FF signal handling

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
3

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

1. Feed forward signal handling


The input to the MLD-SW block shall be % of valve opening. The Feed forward
signal (RV1) is flow in Engineering unit. The Controller output is in % of valve
opening.
It is necessary to convert RV1 to percentage. Generally only a gain can be
provided in the calculation block for this purpose. This is applicable in case of
flow is linear with respect to valve opening. In most cases the valve characteristic
will be non linear. A Function generator shall be considered to avoid going to
configuration at site. Tuning of parameters are only shall be applied at site.

2. Correction of FF signal in both direction


In a feed forward loop, the function of controller is to provide necessary
correction to the FF signal. The output range of the controller is 0 to 100%. The
correction is possible only in the higher side. For example, the FF signal is 40%
and the due to some process upset reasons, the required demand is 30%. The loop
will loss its controllability and the valve will remain at 40% and the level will
keep on increase. Since level is an integrating type, the level will not stop and will
cause trip if not adjusted Manual.
3. Bump-less transfer
This is a very important feature required for a control.
There shall not be any sudden change in the out put to the control valve, when
transferred to Auto from Manual. In vise-versa the Manual output will follow the
Auto signal when it is on Auto in all systems.
In the above loop assume the level is low when the pump is not running (no
feeding available). The controller output will become 100%. The HA station is on
Manual. When the feed is available, the operator will adjust the output to a value
to bring the level equal to the set point. Assume the HA output is 20%. When the
loop is transferred to Auto, the valve will open to 100%.
4. IOP of FF signal handling
A control loop implementation shall consider the IOP conditions of all related
I/O. As a firmware feature IOP of PV will transfer the loop to Manual. This is
mandatory condition for any control. Also as a firmware the FF signal will be
hold at the last value and the loop will remain in Auto. This is also an acceptable
and better operation philosophy. A good control shall try to maintain the loop on

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
4

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Auto as much as possible. In this case the loop will become single element control from
2-element control. The performance will be inferior to Feed-forward loop.However the
loop has to go on Manual during the maintenance of the input transmitter. If this can be
over-come without any trouble to the operation and still go on Auto, that is the best
scenario. The above requirements are the responsibility of a control company. However
some Engineers are having a wrong idea that they have to do only what is shown on the
Project Specification. Also thinking that these are enhancements and by leaving like this
they can claim variation orders in the future after FAT.
Balance-less Transfer
When a loop is transferred to Auto to Manual, it will behave as Integral controller.
Normally will not make any bump. But the response will be very slow. By proper design,
it can be accelerated. This is also become the responsibility of a good DCS supplier.
Balance-less transfer will help to reduce the manpower during start-up.
1.2.1.2.1
The following is the result of Case 1 with proper FF signal and Tracking for Bump-less
transfer.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
5

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Logic to Track on Manual

Fig 1.2.1.3

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
6

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

The FUNC-VAR block is used to provide the Flow vs. Valve opening demand %.
CPV1 is the signal to Track on Manual.
Still no solution is provided for correction of Function for both directions.
1.2.2.1 Case 2
It might have been noticed that some designer would have given the equation for FF
as :
C = A+B-50
This will be implemented by modifying CPV1= RV+RV1-50.
This algorithm provides correction on both direction of the FF signal.
Assume FF signal B = 40%.
The process is following exactly as per the FF. Then the MV of controller is 50%.
Due to any upset, it requires 30%, then controller will modify MV to 40 and the valve
demand will become 30%.
1.2.2.2 Deficiencies in this case
The above scheme is also has some deficiencies.
1. The output of the control will go to Reset windup condition
Consider FF = 10%. Due to upset the level remain high, may be feeding is
from unmeasured pipes which are only for emergencies. The controller
output will go to 0%. This means, CPV = -40%. But the input to valve will
be limited 0. This is known as Reset Windup in control system. If the
process is set to normal and the level start decreasing , there will not be any
action by valve until the control reaches 40%. This create very big upset in
the control and need operator intervention.
2. The loop can not correct FF to provide 0 to 100% demand to valve
This also can not correct a deviation FF more than 50%. To get 0 to 100%
correction, the controller output shall be set to -100 to 100. In this case
C = A+B.
50 shall be ignored.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
7

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

This scheme will create very high upset during Reset Windup situation.
1.3.1 Correct Implementation

Fig.1.3.1

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
8

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig.1.3.2
The scheme above solves all the deficiencies discussed above.
The output range for PID shall be as below:
MH 100 and ML - -100
The ADD blocks provide the OUT terminal to connect to MH and ML of PID. These can
be applied in CALCU as reference connection to reduce the blocks.
During FF signal on IOP, it will be hold to the last value by AS-M block. The loop will
be on Auto. The IOP will be released, when the signal become normal and the loop is
Manual. No need to worry about the maintenance.
1.3.2 Ultimate Scheme in CS3000
The ultimate scheme to implement the Feed forward loop using the SUM algorithm is as
shown in Fig. 1.3.2 below:

Fig. 1.3.2

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
9

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

1.4.1 Case 3
The Feed-forward loop discussed above uses SUM algorithm with PID controller. In
some application it will produce an erroneous situation. Example, in a Boiler Master
loop, SUM algorithm will create excess firing when load changes.
Assume an operating condition:
FF signal 80% load 100%. MV of PID 0%. In this case the demand at 50% load will
be 40% and again MV will be 0. No excess firing. Assume the fuel calorie is reduced.
At 100% load the fuel demand will increase, say 90%. The BM will integrate with
pressure deviation. When MV is 10%, the error will be 0.

At this condition with the load is reduced to 50% at 1%/MIN, the demand will be
around 50% (B=40%, A=10%). No enough fixed error will exist during load change,
for the BM to reduce the firing rate. The firing demand with fuel at 50% load is 45%.
This will keep the pressure high until the Integral corrects the MV to 5%. Since the
integral time will be around 12 Min, in the case of coal fired boiler, it will take more
than 2 to 3 hours to get 0 error
The alternate method is MUL algorithm in the FF loop. The demand equation is
C = B*(1+2*(A/100-0.5) )
The scheme is shown below:

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
10

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig. 1.4.1
When the load is steady, as above, the demand will be 90%, FF is 80%, and load is
100% with 0 error. The multiplication factor will be 1.125 and MV will be 56.25%. If
load is reduced to 50%, MV remains at 56.25% and multiplication factor 1.125, the
demand will be 45%. This is actual requirement for 50% load using the present fuel.

END

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
11

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Chapter 2
Cascade Control
A typical Cascade control is shown below :
P-44

P-45

PV

0 600 T/H

FT

FC

I-12
100A
100

l
100

SET POINT

P-36
P-34

P-35

I-11

LCV100

C=A+B

LT

LC

100

100

100
B

FT
100
0 500 T/H

Fig. 2.1.1
Every cascade control shall be implemented with a feed-forward loop. Without
the feed-forward loop, there will not be any improvement in the performance.
The feed-forward loop shall be treated as in chapter 1.
2.1 Correct implementation in CS3000
The recommended implementation in CS3000 is shown below:

YOKOGAWA
12

LY

0 100 %

REVISION 0.0

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

FY100RL :

FY100LC :

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
13

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig. 2.2.1
LY100CL ::
CPV1 = RV*1
END

Feed-forward loop consists of FI100, FY100SW and FY100LAG are similar to


those of Typical 1, Feed-forward loop. LAG is used as a noise filter. In a
control noise will make the MV to hunt due to any noise. Depending on
Transmitters noise filter may be an inconvenient. Providing LAG in the
implementation is a good practice.
LY100CL
Simply connecting the input to LAG to LC100 will transfer the LC100 to
Manual when input is on IOP. LC100 will not be available to operator. If forgot
to set to Auto when the input is normal, there will be confusion in the
operation. Hence it is better to transfer the loop to Manual upon LT on IOP.
The algorithm will block the IOP propagation downward.
Connection to RL1
The PV of the secondary loop shall be connected to RL1 of Primary loop. This
will work as Anti Reset windup during process upset.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
14

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

In a boiler control this is a must for the Steam Temperature Control. In many
boilers after a years of operation, the steam temperature will be less than SP by
10 to 20 deg. C at a load of 80%. The STC will need spray after 90% load to
100% load. In this situation if this not applied, the SET to secondary will go to
the scale maximum and operator action will be need.
The Clamp setting in the secondary PID shall be disabled. If left as default, the
valve may stay between 0 to 2% in the case of process upset. This throttling
will damage the control valve.
In this system, the Integral is connected as shown below:

Fig. 2.2.2
As default, RL1 is connected to MV of the PID block. The signal to VN is a velocity
component of the FF signal.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
15

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

When RL1 is connected to PV of the secondary loop in a cascade enhancement, the FF


signal is reflecting the actual. Hence the performance will be reduced during load change
and the gain due to FF loop will be lost.
To overcome this handicap, the loop shall be implemented as above. FC100SW2 is kept
at IN2, which is connected to MV of the PID block during load change. The LD, RL and
logic block determines the load change. The RL1 is connected to PV of the secondary
after 2 to 3 min after the load become steady.
2.2 Variation due operation requirements
In many cases it will not be possible to implement the direct cascade form. The best
example is the boiler Air Flow Control.
The SAMA will be as below:

Fig. 2.3.1
There are many algorithms in between the Boiler Master which is the Primary loop in this
case- cade loop. The final block connected to PID block is the High Selector.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
16

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

A typical implementation is shown below:

Fig.2.3.2

Functionally it looks same as the requirement from the SAMA. Operation point of the
following shall be considered:
Bumpless Transfer from Manual to Auto
The loop will be operated on Manual from the PID block, FC-100. If balanceless
transferred is applied, and then the above condition is not applicable. In this case
balanceless transfer is not considered. The other alternate is the conventional design,
which requires adjusting the PV close to SP and transferring to case-cade. Most of the
plant operations are based on this method.
To apply the above procedure, the SP shall be visible to the Operator from the PID
blocks window. SP track PV on Manual cannot be applied for a case-cade. In CS3000,
the PID block will display the last value when on Manual. Hence dynamic update is not
possible. Operator cannot see the real time SP.
To show the actual real time SP, which is MV of HS block FC-100HS1, the same can be
written to SV of PID using CALCU.
But the SET connection to PID needs a OUT terminal. When the OUT terminal of HS
block is connected to SET of PID, the value of OUT will be same as the last value before

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
17

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

changing to Manual by the Push-back phenomena of the system. To de-link push back
and provide OUT terminal an ADD block FC-100ADD shall be used in between. MV of
the HS shall be connected to IN of ADD block.
The correct implementation for this case-cade loop will be as below :

FC-100CL1

END

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
18

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Chapter 3
3.1 Over-ride control
Sometimes in a process control, while controlling a parameter other parameter which
may cause unsafe situation in the process may happen.
Typically, in a boiler control the main purpose of the loop, shown below, is to control the
fuel oil flow as per the demand from boiler master. When there is sudden reduction in
demand the valve may close more than required and burner pressure may reduce. Low
fuel oil pressure will cause a boiler trip.

Fig. 3.1.1
To overcome such situation over-ride control as shown above will be specified. This loop
try to maintain the minimum valve opening as decided by the over ride pressure control
loop.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
19

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

3.2 Implementation in CS3000


The following issues shall be considered before going for implementation:
1. Operating faceplate.
In this case, the operator will operate from the Instrument of Flow controller
FC101.
2. IOP of inputs
IOP of the input will transfer the PID to Manual as a default. FC101 shall be
transferred to Manual when there is IOP of FI101. However PC101 will not be
allowed to go to Manual. Since PC101 instrument is not access to the operator, it
will not be noticed and cause trouble when the PI101 goes to IOP. In other words
PC101 shall be on Auto always.
3. Manual operation
No override shall be applied during Manual unless specified. Operator is
responsible for his action. Stroking of control valve also need 0 -100% operation
during maintenance.
A typical implementation of the above loop is shown below:

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
20

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig. 3.2.1
The output of PC101 will be 100% during a shutdown. The control valve cannot be tested
for maintenance.
During Manual operation of FC101, the override will be active.
PC101 will be transferred to Manual in case of IOP of PT101.
Due to build-in push back algorithm, the override be available without any additional
logic. Where as in other DCS, output of PC101 shall be tracked during normal operation
for effective take-over when the pressure goes below the SP due to reset windup. The
pushback algorithm makes the integral output equal to the MV of FC101 during normal
operation.
Assume pressure is 6 Kg/cm2, FC101.MV- 20% and P of PC101 is 100%.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
21

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

The output of PC101 will remain at 13.33% and will not go to 0%. When the pressure is
same as SP, 5 Kg/cm2, the MV of PC101 will be 20% and will provide necessary
protection immediately from 4.99 Kg/cm2.
3.3 Recommended implementation

CALCU:

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
22

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

LC :

Fig. 3.3.1
The LAG blocks will provide necessary noise filter irrespective of transmitter filter.
CPV1 of CALCU will de-couple the action of IOP of PC101. FC101 will be transferred
to Manual in case of IOP of PT101.
The MV of PC101 will be hold at 0% demand during Manual and shutdown.
3.4 Enhancement for the process
However the above loop cannot maintain the min pressure when there is a sudden
reduction in load in a boiler. During such occasion, the FC101 may close the valve below
the value required to maintain the min pressure.
The Enhanced implementation of the loop for load runback is shown below :

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
23

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

FY101RL :

FY101LC :

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
24

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig.3.4.1
When there is load runback, the MV of FC101 will go very low momentarily. The
reduction will be very fast. If it is faster, it can be considered a load runback. These
conditions are used in the logic and MV of FC101 will be driven to % demand obtained
from predetermined function, block FY101FN, for No. burner in service and the valve
opening demand to get pressure more than the min.
END

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
25

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Chapter 4
4.1 Multiple Output Control System
The typical application is Furnace pressure control of a large size boiler. Normally
2 x 60% fans, Induced Draft Fan (IDF), will be provided for this application.. Either A or
B fan will be started in the first place and will be put to Auto. The fan will adjust the
position of the inlet vane and maintain the furnace pressure around -10 mmWCL.
After starting and stabilizing any FD fan, the second ID fan will be started. It may be
adjusted slowly by operator to share the load. During this period, the furnace pressure
will reduce and the PID will reduce the position of the fan on Auto. The operator will put
the second fan Auto when the MV is approximately equal to the PID output. This
operation is called manual balancing. The latest design demands Balance-less transfer to
Auto from Manual.
A typical SAMA is shown below:

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
26

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig 4.1.1

4.2 Following is a typical implementation in CS3000:

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
27

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig.4.2.1
The above implementation is exactly reflects the SAMA.
IOP of input will transfer the PID to Manual as default of the system. This block will
be available to operator only for operation and not to change the Mode. If left to the
operator, this may become unnecessary operation from operator. It will be required to
transfer the MLD to Manual upon IOP of the input, Furnace Pressure transmitter.
The PID and the two MLD blocks may be given for operator operation.
The PID will show the MV of MLD A when both MLDs are on Manual as its MV.
By experience the operator will understand the Tracking of PID on both fans Manual.
He can accept this implementation. But for some reason, if B is started in the first
place, the PID block will indicate MV as 0. After may be worrying before putting the
MLD B to Auto, even though the MV of PID will Track the MV of MLD B before
the MLD B goes to Auto and transfer will be bump-less. This will not be accepted by
some plants.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
28

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

The gain of PID is dependent of the fans on Auto. When 2 fans are on Auto the gain
shall be half of that for 1 fan is on Auto. This adaptive gain shall be applied.
The worst situations in this implementation arise in the feed forward loop. It is not
possible to tune FF loop. Most case Ck, the gain of FF will be quietly set to 0 and
made loop as simple feedback. Thereby the performance of the loop will become very
low.
The following is the typical implementation to over come the above handicaps. :

LC Block , PY101lC :

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
29

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

CL block, PY101CL :

Fig. 4.2.2

The default propagation of IOP to PID has been decoupled by the CPV1 connection.
The MLDs will be transferred to Manual during IOP using as shown in LC block.
Gain is changed by the mathematical Integral controller, which is looking the average
of MV of MLDs. The correction is immediate and the I can be 5 to 10 sec.
This also allows using the AFC out put to use as feed forward in the Furnace pressure
controller. Both are the demand for both fans on Auto.
The control enhance the loop for balance-less transfer of the second fan to Auto.
The ramping during transfer will be applied through RP of MLD. However there is a
possibility of disturbance in the furnace pressure. In case of high deviation, the RP
will be made to 0 and the loop is allowed to stabilize and continue after the deviation
is within limits.
END

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
30

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Chapter 5
5.1 Transmitter selection - 3 Transmitters
5.1.1
The following is the description in a typical project specification.
1.1
1.1.1

FEED GAS PRESSURE CONTROL


OBJECTIVE

The objective of the feed gas pressure control is to control the pressure in the plant
accurately and reliably.
1.1.2

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION

To make the feed gas pressure control reliable the middle of three pressure transmitters
(10PT-061A/B/C) is used for pressure-measured value to the master pressure controller
10PCA-061 via 10Y-061.
1.1.3
1.1.3.1

OPERATIONAL AND IMPLEMENTATION ASPECTS


Initialization

In case a second meter run will be put into operation, the transfer shall be bumpless when
the flow controller 10FRC-032/042/052 is put onto cascade to the master pressure
controller (10PCA-061).
1.1.3.2

Calculations

Not applicable.

4. DETAILED LOGICS/SEQUENCE NARRATIVES


Not applicable.

5. REFERENCES
The Process Control and IPF Narratives of Unit 1000 shall be read in conjunction with
the following documents:
PFS 7000-E-10-08-D-0001-01
PEFSs 7000-E-10-08-D-0003/0010-01
Cause & Effect Diagram, 7000-E-10-08-S-0002-01
IPF Requirement Specification, 7000-E-10-08-S-0003-01
Process Control and IPF Philosophy, 7000-S-90-10-S-0117-01

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
31

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

The specification requires median selection between the 3 transmitters as per 1.1.2.
5.1.2
A typical implementation

Fig. 5.1.1.1
The above configuration meets the specification at the surface level. It is not addressing
the issue of IOP of the inputs. As a default the system will select as below:

If automatic selection is performed and one of the input signals has an invalid (BAD)
data status, the maximum or minimum value will be selected from the data excluding the
invalid signal. If two input signals are invalid (BAD), the remaining non-invalid input
signal (RVn) is selected.
The table below shows invalid input signals and corresponding actions when selecting the
Medium value:
Table Invalid Input Signals and Corresponding Actions When Selecting the Medium Value
Input signal with BAD data status

Action

RV1
RV2
RV3
Any two signals
All signals BAD
and the SW is set to 0.

RV2 is selected.
RV1 is selected.
RV2 is selected.
RVn that is not BAD is selected.
The previously selected value is stored

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
32

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

In the above implementation suffers during IOP. If the deviation between transmitters is
high, it will create a bump in the process.
5.1.2 Recommended implementation
In normal case when all the three are not in IOP, the median will be selected. In case of
IOP of any transmitter the high of the remaining healthy transmitters will be selected.
When two of them IOP, the healthy transmitter will be selected. The loop will be
transferred to Manual in case of all the three are in IOP status.
The transfer of transmitter is bump less. RP of the MLDs are set to provide smooth
ramping of PV.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
33

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
34

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig. 5.1.2
5.2 Transmitter Selection 2 Transmitters
5.2.1
Most of the case redundant transmitters will be applied for PV measurement.
The common philosophy in the selection of transmitter for control will be:
a. Select AVE when both are normal
b. Either select (by operator) A or B depending on the reliability of the transmitters
c. Any IOP will select the healthy transmitter
5.2.2
The following is the recommended implementation:

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
35

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
36

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

LC Block 45B151CL1

Fig.5.2.1.1

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
37

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Average selection
Some cases average of transmitters will be taken for control. The transmitter which is in
IOP shall be deleted from voting. The average shall be that of the remaining healthy
transmitters. The loop shall be rejected to Manual when all the transmitters are in IOP.

5.3.1.Typical implementation in CS3000

Fig 5.3.1
During IOP, the healthy inputs will be taken for average calculation. PY0001AVE will
show IOP. But still it will be in operation. PID will continue to Auto.
Before releasing to maintenance, the PID shall be taken to Manual. The wires shall be
disconnected at the input side. The input shall be left to IOP. The loop can go on Auto
and the output of PY0001AVE will be the average of the remaining 2 healthy
transmitters.
After rectifying the fault, the loop shall be taken to Manual and the wires shall be
restored. The normal condition shall be confirmed. Then the loop can go on Auto.
The loop will go to Manual when all the 3 inputs are BAD by default.
However the implementation has a defect. There can be bump when IOP of a transmitter.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
38

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

5.3.2 Recommended Implementation

PY0001MLD RP = 0.1
PY0001LC

Fig 5.3.2
When MLD is introduced, the default to transfer to Manual is decoupled. It shall be
achieved by logic.
However there will be a small disturbance in the PV and hence MV during IOP. This
cannot be avoided. It will not affect the performance of the loop.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
39

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

END

Chapter 6

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
40

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Tuning of Control
6.1
Processes are divided into two main types. One is Self-regulating or Non integrating type.
Example, Pressure, Flow , Temperature, etc. The process value will settle in a new value
by itself after a change in the final element position.
Other type is Non self regulating type or Integrating type. Example Level. The process
value continues to change after a change in final element position.
There are two type of methods are practiced in the control industry.
a. Ultimate method
b. Process Reaction Curve method
The details of the above methods are described in textbooks.
a. In Ultimate method the PB of the controller shall be reduced, in other wards gain shall
be increased until the PV changes to equal % of the MV. If leave it at that gain the PV
and MV will swing at a fixed phase lag depends on Dead time.
The example below is a process, which has pure dead time of 30 times scan time.
The PV and MV are swinging. If the gain is reduced to half, the loop become stable.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
41

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig. 6.1.1
Above is the behavior of with Ultimate gain. Process gain is 1. Ultimate PB is around
120. No lag is assumed.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
42

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig.6.1.2
The behavior of same process as Fig. 6.1.1 is shown in Fig.6.1.2.Only Gain is
reduced by half and loop reached steady state condition.
However in the field no operator will allow to swing the process to the Ultimate gain
condition. Hence using this method is not practical.
a. In process reaction curve it is necessary to find the process gain, Dead time and
the slope of the reaction. After that the algorithm parameters such as PB, I and D
can be calculated.
There are many people worked on the above and conclude many empirical equations.
They are :
Ziegler Nichols
Coher-Coon
Smith-Murrili
Rutledge-LaSpisa

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
43

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

All are different.


It is time consuming and practical impossible to get all the parameters.
It is also not applicable for Integrating loops such as Drum Level, De-aerator Level,
Hot-well Level, etc.
6.2 Practical Method
Finally it can be concluded that Control tuning is an Art. Art is a science, which do
not follow any fixed rule.
It is always a good practice to follow something similar to Ultimate method.
In this method, the PB (Gain) shall be fixed around 300 and I shall be around 500 sec
before start tuning a loop.
The PB for all loops in a process will be around 100. If the control valve is sized for
other than full load, the gain will be different. The gain for low load valve in Drum
Level control of boiler will be 3 time larger than that of main valve.
Integral time is mainly depends on the Volume to Mass ratio.
For flow and pressure loops it will be very small around 45 to 60 sec. Temperature of
fuel oil heating will be 180 sec to 240 sec.
Boiler Master 300 for gas/oil firing, 600 to 720 for coal firing
Turbine Mater same as flow control 45 to 60 sec
Drum level 360 to 420 sec
SH steam temperature control 360 to 600 sec
Reheat temperature Burner tilt 120 to 180 sec, GR fan 300 to 360 sec
Air flow Inlet vane 240 to 300 sec, blade pitch 180 to 240 sec
First it is necessary to find the maximum PB. It will be the one when the MV is
changing by steps.
The change in MV in the loop below is like pulse. PB is 80. It can be conluded that
gain of 110 to 120 may be suitable.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
44

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig.6.2.1

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
45

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig. 6.2.2
In Fig 6.2.2 the reduction in MV is smoother. It can be tried as PB for preliminary tuning.
It can be noted that the PV has not reached the SP after a long time and this deviation is
called Offset.
It is time to tune Integra. In this case the I is 600 sec.
The Offset will become 0 when I is reduced to 80 sec. Fig. 6.2.3

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
46

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig.6.2.3
Note 1.; In CS 3000 as default, the loop will not responds to PB when SP is changed on
Auto. It is necessary to change the output calculation to Basic. Is shall be changed to
default upon completion of preliminary tuning.
The behavior for high gain can be noted from Fig.6.2.4
The MV and PV will be hunting.
PB is reduced to 40 from 120.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
47

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig 6.2.4
The PV and MV will swing as shown in Fig 6.2.5. I is reduced to 10 from 80 sec

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
48

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Fig.6.2.5
Some cases the Dead time will vary with respect to load. Example, steam temperature
control. At lower load the mixing of water and steam will not be efficient below 40%
load. This will increase Dead time. I shall be increase for low load and reduced for
high loads. PB shall be decreased at low load and increased at high loads.
Valves characteristic will not be computable for the process condition. A Equal
percentage valve might have been selected instead of Linear. The MV can be
modified or Gain can be adapted with respect to MV.
The FX is the MV modifier and column G is the gain modifier in the table shown in
Fig 6.2.6.

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
49

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

Attn. :
Engineers
Power Plant Controls
z=(1/R)^0.5
R=

SNo output % m
1
0 0
2
10 0.1
3
20 0.2
4
30 0.3
5
40 0.4
6
50 0.5
7
60 0.6
8
70 0.7
9
80 0.8
10
90 0.9
11
100 1
12
13

50

EQ% to Linear

Fm

FX

Gain

0.141

0.000

0.0

4.41

0.141

0.441

44.1

4.41

0.141

0.639

63.9

3.20

0.141

0.752

75.2

2.51

0.141

0.825

82.5

2.06

0.141

0.876

87.6

1.75

0.141

0.914

91.4

1.52

0.141

0.943

94.3

1.35

0.141

0.966

96.6

1.21

0.141

0.985

98.5

1.09

0.141

1.000

100.0

1.00

Fig. 6.2.6
The criteria for performance of a loop is decided by many ways as below:
None

1/4 decay

ITAE

Integral Time Absolute Error Fast


t |c(t) - r(t)| dt
penalizes errors over a long period
IAE
Integral Absolute Error
Faster
|[c(t) - r(t)]| dt
gives equal weight to all positive and negative errors
ISE
Integral Square Error Fastest

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
50

TRAINING CENTER

IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLS
CENTUM CS 3000 ENGINEERING

[c(t) - r(t)]2dt
Emphasizes large errors more than small errors,
penalizes large overshoot
But in a boiler control a performance without over/under shoot is preferred. I can be little
longer. The steady and change in PV and MV shall be considered as acceptable
performance. The deviation for 1%/min load change shall be as low as :
Main steam Pr plus/minus 3 Kg/cm2
SH steam temperature plus/minus 10 Deg.C
Drum level plus/minus 50 mmWCL.
The boiler plant can be tested for 2 %/min to 3 %/min. Stable condition during and after
load ramp shall be the aim of tuning.
END

REVISION 0.0

YOKOGAWA
51

TRAINING CENTER