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Running head: ALL READING REFLECTIONS

Merriam All Reading Reflections


Karin Fonseca
Valdosta State University

ALL READING REFLECTIONS

Merriam All Reading Reflections


Merriam Chapter 1- Reading Reflection - Introduction to Qualitative Inquiry
The purpose of chapter one is to explain what qualitative research is, explain the
difference in quantitative research to qualitative research, the different types of qualitative
research, and how to do a qualitative report. Merriam begins talking about the interpretive
approach of qualitative research. This is how individuals interact and experience with the world.
Critical qualitative approach is how social or political incidents affect our world or reality. There
are two factors that contribute to interpretive research. These factors understand the meaning
people have about their life experiences or world and researcher are the primary source of data
collection.
Qualitative research is inductive. This means hypothesis, theories, and concepts are
designed after the collection of data and interviews are done. They build from the information
versus starting off to prove or disprove the theory. Merriam then lists the eight primary types of
qualitative study:
Basic interpretive - the researcher goal is to understand how the
subjects understand the phenomenon being studied. Strategy is
inductive and the results are descriptive. The main goal is to
identify and interpret the case study at hand. The data collected is
through interviews, document analysis, and observations.
Phenomenology - the focus of the research is on the structure of the
experience. The researcher must put aside any beliefs or bias
he/she has about the subject in order to see the holistic view of the
phenomenon. The author gives the examples of being a mother or
being lonely. This research design is trying to see the essence of
the study.
Grounded theory - this approach focuses on discovery with less
emphasis on description and verification. These theories are
localized dealing with specific events. The constant comparative
method is used to analysis the data. The hypotheses generated
from grounded theory are suggestive rather than tested.
Case study - this study is an intensive study of a specific group or
individual. The study is done on a specific group and the information
obtained is in depth. Because the case studies are so specific, other
studies can be based on this type of study. The book also states
that it is possible to develop a grounded study of a case study.
Ethnographic study - is a type of anthropological study designed to
study a group of people or society. Usually aimed toward the beliefs
or values of a culture. The emphasis on this study is not how the
data is collected, but rather the data was collected as if the
researcher is immersed in the culture. To collect the information
correctly, the researchers will immerse themselves in the culture to
gain the perspective needed.
Narrative analysis - this study bases the data on stories or groups of
stories. The data is first person accounts of events. These analyses

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are broken down into three types: psychological, biological, and


discourse. Psychological approaches are based on internal motives.
Biological approaches take into affect the persons place in the
society. Examples are the age, gender, and family origins in the
group. Discourse examines the written word of the story. The mood
of the story determines how the analysis is done.
Critical Qualitative Research - this study critiques the way social and
cultural beliefs or affect the world we live in. The focus is not on the
individual but to free subjects from their beliefs in order to change
the society they live in.
Postmodern research - this type of research follows no guideline or
strategy. Each study follows it own guidelines. The author states
this creates three crises in the research. Representation - how can
we report on someone else's life? Validity - how can we accurately
report if the trustworthiness of this report if never been done?
Social action - how can this study bring change?
Merriam then focus on research problem. Research begins with a question or lack of
information on a particular topic. There are four questions in research. They are:
Understand the process,
Explain the unknown,
Understand written and stated theories,
Can you uncover the problem the subjects are having? As you begin forming your
question, so too will form a statement called a problem statement. As you collect data
your question will become what you hope to learn from the research. The next step is
deciding where to collect your data.
Data Collection and Analysis is the next section in chapter one. There are three types of data
collection in qualitative research-interviews, observations, and documents.
Interviews are face-to-face contact with the test subject where
specific questions are asked. Most times there are a structure and
timeline to the questions.
Observations are firsthand observations made at an event that the
study is focusing on. Commonly called fieldwork.
Documents are another source of data collection. Here researchers
gather information from written sources, public records, and visual
images on the subject matter.
In the last depart of the chapter Merriam discusses the ways of writing a qualitative report.
The ways very depending upon whom the target reader is, but no set way is established.
Merriam Chapter 2- Reading Reflection - Assessing and Evaluating Qualitative
Research
This chapter deals with assessing and evaluating qualitative research. According to
Merriam, when doing a study on a topic, it is important to ask if a qualitative study needs to be
done. Qualitative research is designed to interpret the meaning behind the action of what people
have done. It digs deep into the problem and determines the cause and effect of the problem.
This type of research is not interested in surface opinions of people. Qualitative is interested in

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how something works. The second question to ask in determining if qualitative research is
necessary is: What is the possible significance of the research? Will this make an impact on the
world? If the research being done is on a specific program or school system, will the research
benefit the system? After these questions have been answered, the next step is to establish the
research design to be used. This is important because using the correct method of research
demonstrates ones knowledge of research.
Merriam discusses the sample section of the research paper. The source or proper sample
is vital to obtaining the correct information. You must get the right information from the right
source if you want the research to be valid and accurate. It is also important to give a description
of the sample in the beginning of the sample section. The method section of the paper should
discuss the data collection. This section of the paper tells if all or one of the data collection
methods ere used. Merriam also lists online information as a source. Furthermore, It is also
important to note any software that was used for data analysis.
The final part of the chapter goes into proving the validity and accuracy of research.
Internal validity is a check to the researcher in assuring the data collected is accurate data
collected. Often times the information collected is face to face contact with the test subject.
Based on the attitude or perception of the subject, the researcher must determine if the
information given is correct. The use of multiple researchers, outside observation, or additional
finding in documents helps in allowing validity to data collected. This is called triangulation.
Another way to give validity to data is through member checking. This is using the data
collected in other interviews with test subjects. Asking if what one subject is true to another. Or
another way to member check is to ask the wrong question and see how the subject answers. An
additional internal validity check is through peer review. This is review work done by a
researcher's peers. The final type of internal validity is related to time. Putting adequate time
into a study proves the validity of the data. It is necessary to emerge yourself in the research and
saturate yourself with the data. It may even help to seek information that may disprove your
work.
The next part of validity is reliability. It is imperative that the data recorded be able to be
replicated. This is also important in the interviews. If the most important data collection tool is
the researcher than the researcher must strive to improve on their techniques for interviews. A
part of reliability, discussed by Merriam, is an audit trail. If the researcher keeps accurate
records and records data properly, then any third party or other researcher can follow the
researcher in his/her work. By doing this, the ability to produce those same results is proven.
Just like an audit in a company, an outside source can come into the business and double check
the actions of the business.
Merriam discusses external validity and generalizability as proving the accuracy of ones
research with limited data. It is important to note that qualitative data is data collected on a
specific situation. The information obtained from one study may not carry over to a similar
study. The lack of generalization does not disprove the study either. It is up to the reader of a
qualitative study to determine if the information recorded fits from one phenomenon to another.
The last part of validity is ethical issues. Sometimes the data discovered may reveal
undesirable information. It is the part of the researcher to disclose all information both good and
bad. For example, if a researcher is doing a study on a school system and discovers information
unfavorable to the school or administrator, the researcher has the ethical responsibility to report
the accurate information.

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Merriam Chapter 3- Reading Reflection - How Cultural Values Shape Learning in


Older Adulthood The Case of Malaysia
A group work by: Karin Fonseca, Melissa Harrell, Amber Hurst, Maura
Lewis
Background of the Study
Premise of Study:
Understand the nature of learning in older adulthood in a non-Western
culture using the framework of cultural values
Malaysia used for the study due to blend of Asian cultures: Malay,
Chinese, and Indian
Begin study by comparing Western and Eastern or Asian cultural values
Due to the modernization of Malaysia will have a good blend of East
and West cultural values
Western Values:
Individual over group
Self reliant
Controlling nature
Task oriented
Independent
Competitive
Autonomy, control, and production are always valued
Fruitful aging means staying productive and successful
Eastern Values:
Being in harmony with nature
Values relationships and cooperation
Age equates with prestige and authority
Reflection and contemplation
Values of the collective, harmony, and spirituality
Harmony between society and individual
Spiritual and social relationships are important
Setting:
Southeast Asian country of Malaysia
Includes West Malaysia and East Malaysia
Study conducted in East/Peninsular Malaysia
Population = 22 million
6% are senior citizens
Official religion = Islam
Colonized by Portuguese, Dutch, and British
Extremely culturally diverse
Malays = 60%
Chinese = 30%
Indians = 10%

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Each group has maintained their cultural heritage


5 Common Values in Malaysian Ethnic Groups:
1. Collectivism
2. Hierarchical
3. Relationship Oriented
4. Face (maintaining a persons dignity)
5. Religious
Research Problem:
To understand how culture shapes the nature of learning in older adulthood in Malaysia through a
qualitative study.
Research Purpose:
To understand how culture defined the nature of learning for older adults in Malaysia.
Research Questions:
What is the participants experience with aging?
What are the participants learning activities?
Research Method:
Sample consisted of 19 Malaysian adults older than 60 years of age
(Criterion age set) from across the major ethnic groups (Malay,
Chinese, and Indian) of Malaysia from various work experience and
educational backgrounds.
Data was collected through interviews of one hour in length. All
interviews were audiotaped and transcribed.
The interviews consisted of open-ended questions regarding issues,
concerns, and learning activities of this stage of life. The interviews
were conducted in informal settings (work, home, villages)
Interviews were the primary data source and analyzed using the
constant comparative method created by Glaser & Strauss (1967).
Each research individually analyzed and coded the interviews and then
met to compare analyses. Themes were derived from the analyses to
understand the nature of learning in older adults.
Research Findings:
Three themes emerged from the interviews
Learning is nonformal and embedded in the concerns and activities of
everyday life.
Most of the participants did not come from formal education
backgrounds but gained learning throughout life from various outlets.
Maintaining health was a major focus of many of the participants at
their later stage in life. Learning is experientially based and embedded
more in the living of everyday life. Learning from experiences is
seamless and ongoing.
Learning is communal
Community is a cultural cornerstone in Eastern life. Learning among
older adults occurred most common among a community setting.
Learning was important in providing wisdom and contribution to the
well being of the community.

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Learning is driven by spiritual or religious concerns


Despite many different religions present in Malaysian culture, the participants all
acknowledged learning in spiritual and religious concerns. Religion or spiritual concerns
drove the participants learning more than personal or material gain.
Conclusions:
With the purpose of understanding how culture shapes the nature of
learning in older adulthood, the researchers studied a group of
Malaysians and found that in this culture learning is non-formal and
experimental, communal, and spiritual in nature.
Culture around the world plays a major role in a societys design. This
case has used adult learning to show that there are similarities and
differences between adult learning in Eastern and Western cultures
based on the cultural make-ups of all societies.
History is directly related to understanding the reasons why adult
learning is not associated with formal institutions in Malaysia; focus on
education is considerably recent as compared to Western cultures.
Since adult learning can be done both formally and informally, it was
shown that in Malaysia there are not a lot of support systems and
programs that allows and encourages adult education. For this reason,
adult learning in this country has been shaped by shared life
experiences, personal development, self-willingness, social contact, and
the importance of giving back to the community and teaching the
younger generations.
The culture of this country indicates how people see adult learning (not
accepted through formal institution), what they value most (quality of
life over materialistic pursuits), and that learning happens naturally
(within the frame of their daily activities, social environments, religion,
common values, and beliefs).
It is important to notice that because the Malaysian educational system
is quite recent and due to the evolution in the world, adult learning is
happening not only with the interaction with family and friends, but also
through new experiences such as the use of internet, radio, books,
newspapers, workshops where they find areas of interest and seek the
learning experience for themselves.
There are other factors to consider, such as an increase in life
expectancy, which will indirectly force and allow for adult learning to
rise as elderly people will be productive members of the society during
a longer period of time.
Even though it is predicted and only natural that this study would
provide different results for future generations, it is expected that
subsequent generations will share similar values and continue to be
rooted in their society as they shape its culture.
Validity Issues:
Positive:

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1.
2.

Sample selection criterions were specified and reasonably explained


Use of maximum variation allowed for selection of gender, and ethnicity
in accordance to population size as well as rural/urban areas.
3.
Researchers had no personal relationship with any of the participants
4.
Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed
5.
Informal observation provided confirmatory data
6.
Constant comparative method was used with coding data
7.
Themes, concepts and analysis of data were compared by researchers
8.
Pattern matching and naturalistic generalization - the fact that the
sample group had different backgrounds, yet share most common
values
Questionable/ Suggestions:
1.
Authors possible bias were not addressed
2.
Interpretive validity - Credibility of the researcher/assistant translator as
for training, experience
3.
Translation could be an issue as what was truly said must be translated
accurately
4.
No mention of policies and protocols procedures for the interviews
5.
Participant feedback - No mention of participants reviewing the
collected data
6.
Other forms of instruments could have been collected to analyze and
compare data
7.
Replication - Researchers could have compared other research with
another sample from a different region of the country
8.
The use of triangulation could have been used
9.
Extended field work collecting data over an extended period of time
Merriam Chapter 5- Reading Reflection - A Phenomenological Study of In-Church
and Televised Worship
By: Richard Wolff
The Problem:
The reason for this study is to understand the importance of worship in church to
televised worship service. The purpose is to describe the importance of worship and explain the
experience people get from attending church versus the experience people who watch church
service televised. Wolff does not explain any bias or any ethical issues in this study.
The Purpose:
The purpose is to study one sub-genre of televised worship compared to physical
attendance of church service.
Research Questions:
How do people experience worship in church?
Why do worshipers value the experience of attending personally to a
service?
How does televise worship differ and compare to personal attendance
of a church service?

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The Methods:
The data was collected for the study was done by interviews. These interviews were
transcribed and were open ended in nature. The interviews were used throughout the study and
were discussion based, not question-answer. The interviews collected were from the subjects
that attend church service, but no interviews were done with people that watched the services.
The interviews were used throughout the study. The information used in the paper was direct
quotes from the interviews. The lack of interviews from the television viewers is vital part that is
missing in the study.
The Findings:
This study was done in Athens, Ohio. The people interviewed were mostly white and
Lutheran in denomination. The number of people interviewed was never given, but was from a
small church. The interviews conducted were from people that attended church service and their
quotes were used several times in the study. It is unclear any people were interviewed that
watched the televised service. The evidence does not show the difference between people that
attend church and people that watch. It appears the only knowledge about the televised service is
from the church attenders and they refer to the televised church as soaps.
The Discussion:
The attempt of this study was to study people that attended church and those that watched
church service on television. The study attempted to explain what each group gathered from
their chosen method of service. In my opinion, the researcher failed to do this. One reason for
this is due to the fact that no one was interviewed that had actually viewed their service primarily
by television. The researcher failed to give a discussion section in his paper. The researcher did
explain how attending church was renewal of faith and fulfilling. As this is an excellent point, I
feel the researcher may have had a personal bias in this area. I am sure some people that watch
service get the same fulfillment as attending people do. Also, the research failed to identify who
watches church service and their reasoning for watching. Whether sick, elderly, unable to, etc.,
none of these reasons where discussed in the paper. The researcher did discuss the fulfillment of
attending service personally.
Personal Reflection:
My reaction to this study is that it is incomplete. The researcher did not interview anyone
that watched television as their primary source of religious service. It is unclear why Wolff
added the television part to his study. The reason for the comparison is also unclear. Was Wolff
trying to establish church going attendees having more fulfillments in their religious experience
because they attended church? Also, this study was done in 1989 and much has changed since
then. With the onset of the internet and technology, much has changed in broadcast and the
wealth of information making the access to religious material much more accessible. I would
like to see this same study done today and consider the information from people that use
televised church as their primary source of religious information.
Merriam Chapter 8- Reading Reflection - A Conceptual Model of Multiple Dimensions of
Identity
By: Susan R. Jones and Marylu K. McEwen
This chapter is designed a little different than some of the previous chapters. I will first
reflect on the research designs of previous researchers, and then I discuss the case study done by

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Glaser and Strauss.


The Design:
The development of personal identification or identity development has become an
increased topic over the previous years. An individuals personal identification in the world
affects how a person treats the world as an adult. The first researcher discusses how individual
identities have not been discussed on own they intersect with each other. Reynolds and Pope
(1991) built a model of the frequency of multiple identities interacting with each other. Reynolds
and Pope do use the terms of "multiple oppressions " instead of multiple identities. This model
discusses the individual characteristics that make up and individual. The sexual orientation,
religion, ethnically background, etc. all some of the oppressions discussed in the model.
McEwen (1996) designed a study were these oppressions could intersect other oppressions.
The Problem:
The need to advance the identity development while the intersection of multiple
identities. The understanding of how these identities intersect with each other and affect each
other in the forming of ones self in the world.
The Purpose:
The purpose of this study was to design and more complex understanding of identity
characteristics and how they interact and overlap with other characteristics.
The Research Question:
In the growth into an adult, how does personal characteristics affect the development of
character and how do these characteristics intersect and affect other identity characteristics.
The Methods:
The participants of this study were drawn from a purposeful sample from a large college
on the east coast of the United States. The sample, at first was five, was a group of ten women
ranging in age from twenty to twenty four. The racial background was five white women, two
African American women, one African woman, one from Sri Lankan, and the final was a Asian
Indian The data obtained was through in-depth, open-ended interviews. Three interviews with
each subject were done. Allowing the subjects to communicate their own understanding on the
topics was key to the phenomenological approach used in the interviews. To assure validity and
reliability, the interviews were transcribed and member checked.
The Findings:
There were 10 categories that formed from the interviews to form the model.
Identity dimensions in relation to difference
Racial affects
Multiple layers of identity
Braiding of gender with other dimensions
Importance of cultural differences and cultural values
Family background and experiences
Current experiences
Personal beliefs
Career development
Search for identity
These categories are formed from the research done by Glaser and Strauss (1967)
The Discussion:
The center of the model is the core. This is the inner self of the person studied. The core
values are character traits one how a person is. Examples are kind, selfish, caring, fun loving,

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intelligent, and compassionate. Surrounding the core is a set of characteristics that affect the
core of a person. These characteristics are race, culture, class, religion, gender, and sexual
orientation. These defining characteristics encompass the core and affect the persons
development. These characteristics can intersect each other and can affect other character traits.
Personal Reflection:
This test has not been widely tested or widely applied. This test was only done on ten
women. The researchers did three interviews on each woman account for thirty. Is this sample
large enough to form any kind of generalized criteria for forming this type of model? While I
feel the work is done properly and no biases were created in the research, I feel more work need
to be done on this topic to give more validity to the research done. I am aware that a qualitative
review focuses on one topic and is possible to make general statements based on limited
research, but this study is done on college women between twenty and twenty-four. I think it is
hard to make such statements about such a sizable population with only thirty interviews.
Merriam Chapter 9- Reading Reflection - The Role of the School in the Assimilation of
Immigrant Children: A Case Study of Arab-Americans
By: Ernestine K. Enomoto, Mary Antony Bair
The Problem:
The problem is the tension between those educators who believe in schooling for
assimilation and those who favor cultural pluralism (181-182). This is an exploratory
sociological study that focuses on the ethnic diversity in schools.
The Purpose:
The purpose of this study is to utilize structural-functionalism and reproduction theories
as the sociological framework in examining the structural aspects of schools and its social
transmission of the status quo.(182). In this study, a school is examined to see if Arabic students
are transitioned into becoming Americans.
Research Question:
Do schools assimilate students into the American culture or do the schools allow for
cultural pluralism allowing the Arabic students maintain their uniqueness?
The Methods:
The study was developed by first collecting and observing students in the classroom
environment. The researchers in the classrooms were nonparticipant observers. The information
recorded was transcribed and coded for validity. The observations were made for several days.
The interviews conducted were from the Arabic immigrants, an Arabic community minister, the
director of the community center, and the school liaison. The researchers also collected data
from the schools curriculum and demographic.
The Findings:
After the conclusion of interviews and document collection, the researchers found the
school tracked the students levels of education and grouped them accordingly. The higher-level
groups were given accelerated programs to learn while the lower groups were taught the same
lessons over and over again with hopes of retention. These results do not seem to help answer
the questions asked by the researchers.
The Discussion and Personal Reflection:
The research showed that the school did not promote the Arabic students unique diversity.
The school made the push to assimilate the students into the American culture. The teachers and

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staff made the new students feel welcome. The researchers did make recommendations on how
the school could help make the students feel more welcomed and the important part the students
could play in the school.
I feel as a nation of people it is our goal to allow everyone in this country to display
where they are from and what they believe in. This core belief is one of the basic rights the
founding fathers began this great nation with. By consuming a people's culture and forcing our
own on them, we stuff out one of the fires that made this nation great. As a nation of cultures,
we should embrace any new culture with our own and strengthen the nation as a whole.
Merriam Chapter 10- Reading Reflection - Jermaine- A Critical Case Study of a Gifted
Black Child Living in Rural Poverty
A group work by: Chanc Logue, Kris Tillman, Gayle Valdez, & Curtis Walker
Background:
Americas schools are criticized due to lack of educational opportunities for our nations
children.
This problem is magnified for schools and students within rural settings.
Capable, intelligent young adults are leaving rural districts dues to lack of opportunities ,
creating a cycle of poverty and lack of human capital.
Fewer education related studies are conducted in rural settings.
As a result, little information exists on certain populations of students in rural settings,
such as students identified as gifted.
Poverty creates a myriad of difficulties for school-aged children. Barriers to healthcare
and education are some of the more serious difficulties.
African American children face a higher incidence of poverty than other populations,
especially in rural school districts in the Southern United States,
Americas schools are criticized due to lack of educational opportunities for our nations
children.
This problem is magnified for schools and students within rural settings.
Capable, intelligent young adults are leaving rural districts dues to lack of opportunities ,
creating a cycle of poverty and lack of human capital.
Fewer education related studies are conducted in rural settings.
As a result, little information exists on certain populations of students in rural settings,
such as students identified as gifted.
Poverty creates a myriad of difficulties for school-aged children. Barriers to healthcare
and education are some of the more serious difficulties.
African American children face a higher incidence of poverty than other populations,
especially in rural school districts in the Southern United States,
Research Problem:
Little research exists on special populations, especially gifted
populations in rural districts.
Knowledge needs to be added to the existing body of research on
special populations in rural areas.
If the knowledge of this population is increased, more can be done in

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terms of increasing opportunities for education for not only black


children who are gifted, but for all children in rural areas who lack
equal access to educational services.
Research Purpose:
Thomas Herbert identifies the purpose and goal of his research on two levels.
Goal/Purpose of Critical Theory research is to expose in detail hidden or
unconscious belief systems in order to allow individuals alternat mental
models via self-reflection and social action
The Primary goals of the study:
1. To examine the life of a gifted black child living in rural poverty.
2. Understand how the rural environment affected Jermaine's academic achievement and
creativity.
Research Questions:
The Primary question:
How the rural environment influences academic achievement and creativity of a Black
rural gifted student in poverty.
Herbert highlights the main question or theme of the study at the beginning with the pondering
question As kudzu chokes life out of vegetation, does the isolation of an impoverished, rural
environment have a similar effect on the creativity of a gifted child.
Research Questions Guiding the Study:
1. What relationships guide the behaviors, attitudes, and inspirations of a gifted black child
in an impoverished, rural environment.
2. What factors influence the creativity of a gifted Black child in an impoverished, rural
setting.
Research Method:
Thomas Hebert used a qualitative research design with two components:
Case Study
Critical Ethnographic Research
He chose these features to ensure he focused on Jermaines experiences both as a gifted, black
male and as a resident of a rural community. There were four phases in his data collection
including: 1- entering into the community, 2- observations, 3- interaction with Jermaine and his
teacher for a year, and 4- final community visit and interview with Jermaine. This took place
over a three year period.
Research Findings:
Community: Jermaine and his family were extremely poor. The
community viewed them as odd and never accepted them into the
community. Jermaine and his family were not a part of the church
community even though it was the heart of the town.
Family: Jermaine got his sense of humor from his absent mom and
dearly loved his two uncles.
Creativity: Because of his extra energy, Jermaines creativity often
went unnoticed. However, his portfolio uncovered an ability to
creatively express himself in his writing even as young as first grade.
Extrafamilial Support: Jermaine gained support from a friend Cedric
and his family, his teacher and her family, and Coach Cooper. All of
these individuals took part in taking care of Jermaine and building him

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up.
Self-Identity: Becoming the elementary school quarterback had a huge
impact on Jermaines self-identity. In addition, the love and support
from his extended family helped to encourage Jermaine to keep
working hard. Jermaine's love of reading boosted him to the top
reading level in his class, again boosting his self-identity. He and his
new academic friend won several academic awards.
Conclusion:
What relationships guide the behaviors, attitudes, and inspirations of a gifted black child in an
impoverished, rural environment.
Community: Alienation, due to social status, limits opportunities and
produces solitary behavior.
Familial: Provides support which can help develop a positive selfidentity
Extrafamilial: Mentors create opportunities and provide positive
reinforcement that encourage creativity
Self: Positive self-identify creates characteristics such as resilience
which drives a desire to grow as an individual
What factors influence the creativity of a gifted Black child in an impoverished, rural setting
Socioeconomic: Access to materials which provide an extended view
of the world impact creativity by providing new perceptions
Mentors: Strong support and positive reinforcement encourage
creatives to continue to create
Self-identity: A positive view of self promotes personal development
Personal Reflection:
This study was conducted revolving around African-American youth in rural
communities. A significant number of youth in these areas are poverty stricken. This lack of
resources holds back many of the children from developing their full potential. Educator in these
rural areas allows gifted and challenged children to slip through the system and fail to get the
attention needed. The end result is generations of families on welfare and poverty level due to
lack of opportunities.
This paper focuses on one gift African American boy in on such rural community. This
study was done over a three-year period. The boys name was Jermaine and was gifted child.
Jermaine was from a very poor family, but was very talented in expressing himself in writing.
Jermaine did get support from his uncles, family, friends and a coach at school. Jermaine did
play football in his school. He became the quarterback for his team helping boost his self worth.
He soon became a top reader and won several academic awards due to the encouragement and
positive influence from friends, family, and school personnel.
This study shows greatness can come from anywhere. Even without the resources of
other students, Jermaine was able to become more than his situation and excel in several areas.
It would be interesting to see where in life Jermaine is today.
Merriam Chapter 12- Reading Reflection - Hard and Heavy - Gender and Power in a
Heavy Metal Music Subculture
By:Leigh Krenske and Jim McKay

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The Problem:
The main problem presented in this study is the relationship between males and females
in the heavy metal (HM) scene in music. The subculture designed in this genre of music is
strongly based on an appearance of white males in the rock scene. The males that rule the HM
scene treat females as objects of desires and little more than that. The other problem discussed in
the study is the specific actions done during a HM concert.
The Purpose:
The main purpose of this study is to report the musical subculture surrounding HM. The
researchers try to explain the organizational roles of both males and females in the HM scene.
The purpose is to explain why thee is such a divide in the sexes and why women subject
themselves to this belittling experience. Another purpose of the paper is to explain the lifestyles
of the HM followers and the classifications of people in this subculture. The purpose is to make
an ethnographical theory on the HM scene.
The Research Question:
Who are these people?
Why did I feel uncomfortable?
Where were all the women?
The Methods:
The methods of research done for this study were done at a concert in Queensland,
Australia at a club called Club Thrash. The main part of the research was conducted by a female
at this concert, which was the researcher. Many of the interviews were done during the concert
during breaks from the band. Both females and males were interviewed. The researcher had
difficulty interviewing the males because of the environment and strong heterosexual push for
sexual encounters.
Some interviews with males were done after the concert. Females were done during and
after the concert. The researcher was able to record interviews on a note pad for data analysis,
coding and later transcription. This was a ethnographic study because the researcher spent over
forty hours in the club collecting interviews on scene at the concert. The researcher did
familiarize herself with each documents and local radio from the area. The researcher does
admit some personal bias about being a female in this strong male culture.
The Findings:
The researcher was able to establish a classification to the people attending the HM
culture. There are four types of males that attend these concerts: Metalheads, fanatics, cool
dudes, and hardcore bohemian. There are three types of females: metal wench, glam chicks and
hardcore bohemian. The researcher discovered the entire culture focused on the glamour and
flash of the white males in the bands. In short, males wanted to be them and females wanted to
be with them.
Discussion and Personal Reflection:
I am not surprised at the results of this study. HM was a culture that focused on sex, drugs
and rock and roll. The researcher proved this in the study. It is interesting that little research was
done from the male side. The main interviewer was a female and provided much incite from the
female prescriptive. I believe it would be interesting in getting a male to interview males at an
event and compare interviews. Also what if a male interviewed the females. The researcher did
a good job in this report. Enough time was conducted on scene to make an accurate report and
the information was collected and recorded correctly. Having an active male interviewer would

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help with validity and eliminate any bias.


Merriam Chapter 13- Reading Reflection - Stories of Ones Own- Nonunitary Subjectivity in
Narrative Representation
By: Leslie Rebecca Bloom
The Problem:
The problem in this paper is it to understand how subjectivity can be dynamic and
redefined through the process of qualitative research. Bloom defines and provides a summary of
subjectivity in her research. Subjectivity is the personal values and interests of a reason. In
research, it is important to put aside personal feelings and bias.
The Purpose:
The purpose of the study is to show researchers how their subjectivity can change,
fragment, and influence research. It is necessary in qualitative research for the researchers to
remain subjective. As data is collected and interpreted, opinions form and unforeseen factors can
influence researchers subjectivity.
The Research Questions:
To understand the complexity of subjectivity
How to be more active engagement with analyzing subjectivity
The Methods:
Bloom collected her data through interviews and observations. She conducted her study
over an 18 month time period. Bloom also collected research through literature to add to her
study. She was capable of helping the readers with her rich descriptive writing and allowing the
readers to enjoy each part of the research, using also literature reviews to support her theories.
Her language was thorough, which also helped the readers to understand the terminology in
order to understand the study.
Her story focuses on, from a womans perfective, how men normally dominate the
workplace with leadership positions, yet women are normally taken advantage of. Bloom
realized that she wanted to help other women. During the entire process, bloom conducted
observations and conferences to collect the data necessary to support her findings.
Discussion and Personal Reflection:
All women have to deal with sexual harassment at some point in their lives. The study
done has to do with a females reaction to sexual harassment. The results of study show how
constraints and conformities affect conflicts and how something should be dealt with. Olivia the
supervisor in the corporation fired a man that made numerous advances to several females. The
attitude was that was his personality and was harmless. Several females felt insecure in their jobs
because of the unwanted sexual advancements. Olivia took the steps necessary. The difference
in stories from the first and second story is unneeded. Do the right thing in everything you do.
Merriam Chapter 14- Reading Reflection -Cathy - The Wrong Side of the Tank
By: Juanita Johnson-Bailey
The Problem:
This story is about an African-American woman that is middle aged. She has decided to

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return to school in her late 30s. Bailey has interviewed the subject who is known as Cathy and
writes in narrative analysis. The interviews have been transcribed. The problem in the study is
the struggles a middle aged African-American woman faced returning to school and supporting
two children.
The Purpose:
The purpose of the paper was collect data and tell Cathy's story. (323)
Research Questions:
Who is Cathy?
What we're her reasons for returning to school?
The Methods:
Bailey conducted a three-hour interview with Cathy to obtain most of the information.
The interview was transcribed for future reference. Bailey did use field notes in combination
with the interviews to grasp a close picture of Cathy's life.
The Findings:
Cathy's journey was a challenging one. She lived in the era of segregation. In this time
frame, African Americans were treated as a lower class of people in America. Cathy recalls
situations of "colored bathrooms." These were bathrooms determined by sex as well as race.
Determined to better her life, Cathy applied for a program in college that was already full with
50 students. The school made an exception and added her to the full class making it 51 students.
Cathy discusses her difficulty raising her children and attending class describing her life as a
roller coaster (318).
The Discussion:
The reader can remain interested in this researcher as well and many maybe able to relate
to the story.
Personal Reflection:
This study is an inspiration to everyone, regardless of age, sex, or religion. We should all
endeavor to better ourselves. Rather through an education, travel, or work, the pursuit of all
adults is to be better than the cards life deals you. In this study, Cathy decides to better herself
and obtain a college degree. Although this was not an easy task, she did prevail and obtain her
goal. I feel this is a lesson we all should remember when evaluating our own lives.
Merriam Chapter 15- Reading Reflection - Tootle - A Parable of Schooling and Destiny
By: Nicholas C. Burbules
The Problem:
Burbules analyze the story of Tootle, a children's fairy tale written in 1945 by Gertrude
Crampton. Although the book was written as a children's book, it has a several adult concepts of
behavior told in the story. Burbules is analyzing what society may think about the story.
The Purpose:
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate a style of critical textual analysis that can be
useful in analyzing other cultural artifacts in order to reveal their ideological content and implicit
normative commitments. (330)
The Research Questions:
What is Tootle about?
Why was it written?

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Why has it remained popular so long?


The Methods:
The interpretation method is used by Burbules to analyze the story of Tootle. Burbules
feels the story teaches lessons about learning and teaching children. Burbules also describes a
hierarchy between the humans and the locomotives and their roles in life.
The Findings:
There are four finding that emerges from this study. The first is the study of teaching
children what schools are for. Schools are for learning and learning how to become an adult.
The second is the consequences (good or bad) for following rules or not following rules. The
third finding is a portrait of adulthood and the rewards of growing up to become an adult. The
last theme discovered in the story is the hidden hierarchy in life in the roles played as adults. The
book discusses Bill, who is the overall adult teacher in the school. Bill is also the only person
names in the story. The mayor is described as the overall final authority in all manners.
The locomotives are described as servants or a lesser class that than the humans in the
story. The locomotives are told never to leave the tracks so bad things would happen. Tootle was
caught leaving the track, but because of his status as a flyer. This gave him a bending of the rules
in his favor. It is highly likely that if any of the other locomotives had been caught in the same
manner, they would have been severely punished. The stories underlying social class structure is
the last theme discovered. Also, the locomotives are never told they can become humans only
grown engines.
The Discussion:
The first focus of this story is rules. Staying on track is established as the primary rule to
the locomotives. The locomotives are told to be successful; they must always stay on track.
Deviating from the track would break a rule of the school.
The second rule of the school was to slow down only if a red flag was show. Burbules is
pointing out the influences life can present to all of us. It is our following of the rules that keeps
all adults on track to being productive adults in the world.
The story also focuses on school as the place rules are taught. Through hard work and repetition,
the young locomotives can grow up to be adults all through the teachings at school.
Personal Reflection:
It is amazing how this story written long ago is still being used as a teaching tool.
Although written as a children's book, the underlying messages to adults is moving. To be
successful in life, we must stay on track and abide by the rules. We must ignore our desires and
focus on adulthood. The book does demonstrate the understood hierarchies in life. Tootle was
the prodigal child that wondered off course, but because of his status was allowed to come back
to his chosen path. I do not like Burbules comments on sexual evolution of Tootle.
Tootle is simply maturing to an adult train. Tootle's deviations off the track with the horse
and the meadow were simply adolescent wondering that all people go through. Burbules does
explain the role of the school quite well. To be successful, the engines must do this and this.
The locomotives cannot do this or this. The school repeats these rules over and over to teach the
locomotives through repetition.

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Reference
Merriam, S. B (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.