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10/29/2014

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((Money Rules In The World. Unfortunately money can not handle materials, corrosion,

inspection,weldingandNDTmatters,butsciencecanhandlethem.RogerAlexander))

((Corrosion Reference Books))

Hi. How are you? I hope that everything is well with you.
In this post I will introduce some technical books in the field of corrosion which are known as useful and applicable references in
corrosion.
1- Mars G. Fontana, "Corrosion Engineering"

This book is excellent for understanding basic concepts in corrosion and is recognized internationally.

2- ASM Metals Handbooks, Volume 13, 13A


The American Society for Metals' reference handbooks (published by American Society for Metals). These handbooks are known as an
important reference in all fields of metallurgical science and engineering including welding and brazing, corrosion, corrosion
fundamentals, tests and methods of corrosion prevention, non destructive testings and quality control, heat treatment, alloy phase
diagrams, mechanical testings, failure analysis, fractography, casting, machining processes, wear, lubrication and friction, fatigue,
materials selection, composite materials, surface engineering, powder metallurgy,.
3- NACE Corrosion Engineers Reference Book

This handbook is published by NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers) and is known as a complementary reference for
corrosion. In addition to scientific matters, this handbook tells applications, engineering and industrial matters in corrosion like introducing
industrial standards for corrosion in different industries.
4- Peabody, "Control of pipeline corrosion"

Peabody's Handbook of cathodic protection is known as a good reference in cathodic protection of pipelines. It is a publication of NACE
(National Association of Corrosion Engineers).
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((PIPELINE RULES OF THUMB handbook))


Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the PIPELINE RULES OF THUMB handbook. It is a good reference for pipeline information
like cables and ropes, belts and shafts, pigging, construction, pipe design, electrical design, hydrostatic testing, drying, control valves,
corrosion and coatings, cathodic...more .
est Regsrds,
B
Pejman Malekinejad.
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((AWS Welding Handbooks))


Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the 5 volumes of the AWS Welding handbook (A publication of the American Welding
Society). This handbook is known as the most important and most complete reference in welding (In all fields of welding including
engineering, design and physics of welding, weld inspection, non destructive testings, quality control, welding symbols, residual stresses,
distortion, codes and standards for welding in different industries, cost of welding,safety in welding,) .
Best regards,

Pejman Malekinejad.
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((Standards of Different Industries))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce a table (13.2) from AWS welding handbook. In this table, the institutes which publish standards
are listed. By referring to this page, you can find the necessary standard for every product and industry. For more information please read
the volume 1 of AWS welding handbook (8th Edition), Chapter 13: Codes and Other Standards, which was introduced previously.
Best Regards,

Pejman Malekinejad.

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((API 579 Standard (Fitness For Service)))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the API 579 standard. In welding, after detection of discontinuities by nondestructive testings,
they will be assessed according to the design standard and will be repaired and rewelded if necessary. In corrosion in the same way as
welding, different types of corrosion (after detection by corrosion monitoring methods like visual inspection, thickness measurement,
phased array ultrasonic, guided wave ultrasonic, coupons, hydrogen probe, intelligent pigs,) will be assessed according to API 579
standard and the corroded parts will be repaired or otherwise new working conditions will be applied (Like reduction in working pressure,
replacement of the part or) . API 579 (Fitness for Service) gives some methods for the assessment and repair of pipes, pressure vessels
and storage tanks which are damaged due to corrosion or other reasons like mechanical damage.
Best regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
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((Corrosion Standards))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the NACE Corrosion Engineers Reference Book. This book contains corrosion standards in
different industries . For more information please read the above said book .
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((ASME, AWS, API, ISO and NACE Lists))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the lists of ASME, AWS, API, ISO and NACE Standards. These lists serve as good guides for
these standards and industries.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((API 571 RP- Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry, December 2003))

Hello. In this post I introduce the API RP 571 standard . In general this standard is about the damage mechanisms (which includes
corrosion mechanisms) in different industries (including petroleum industry). It contains Description of Damage, Affected Materials,
Critical Factors, Affected Units or Equipment, Appearance or Morphology of Damage, Prevention / Mitigation, Inspection and
Monitoring, Related Mechanisms, ...
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((The Concept of Inspection (API RP 580)))

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Hi. How are you? In this post I will discuss the concept of inspection. In that case, there is a standard of API RP 580 which is Risk Based
Inspection. We perform inspection where there is the risk for humans, their properties and the environment. I.e. the inspection is based on
risk. For example the pipes, tanks and vessels in petroleum industry are inspected, because there is the risk of explosion and consequently
the humans, their properties and the environment will be in danger. API RP 580 standard discusses the concept of inspection in different
industries like petroleum industry.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((NACE Cathodic Protection Manuals))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce good manuals in the field of cathodic protection. These manuals are very applicable and are
according to the four levels (CP 1, CP 2, CP 3 and CP 4) of NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers) and are approved by this
association.
Best Regards,
Pejman malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((NACE MR 0175/ ISO 15156))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the NACE MR 0175/ ISO 15156 standard. This standard contains requirements for metallic
materials used in petroleum industry and in the environments which contains H2S. NACE MR 0175/ ISO 15156 addresses all mechanisms
of cracking that can be caused by H2S, including sulfide stress cracking, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking and
stepwise ctacking, stress oriented hydrogen induced cracking, soft zone cracking and galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking. For
example the maximum hardness for carbon steels is 22 HRC in this standard.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(( Guideline on Cathodic Protection))
Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce you the handbook of NACE CORROSION ENGINEERS REFERENCE BOOK. It tabulates
the necessary information for the design and maintenance of cathodic protection systems for structures in different environments.
It has calculated and tabulated the current requirements in different environments and for different coating conditions. It includes tables
about ground beds, soil resistivities, water characteristics in different regions of earth
Simply it is a good guideline for cathodic protection. There are lots of cathodic protection handbooks and this handbook is a
complementary to them. The discussed matter is this handbook. It is a publication of NACE (National Association of Corrosion
Engineers). Look at the Cathodic Protection chapter in this handbook.
est Regards,
B
Pejman Malekinejad.
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((Standard WPSs))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the standard WPSs. (WPS=Welding Procedure Specification). The AWS has suggested the use of
standard WPSs. In order to reduce the costs related to the preparation and qualification of WPSs and for the purpose of time and cost
saving, the AWS has published a set of standard WPSs for the most common cases of welding in the industry which does not need further
qualification (PQR). The linked file is a brochure from AWS publications which include the list of AWS standard WPSs. (Note: the
ORDER NO. in these tables is the number of standard which should be referred to in the AWS collection of publication. )
http://www.aws.org/catalogs/PubCat_Summer_2013.pdf

Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
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((API Publications Catalog))
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Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the API Publications Catalog which is linked to this post. It is a guide for API and classifies the
publications in different parts of petroleum industry. By referring to this file you can find the related standards and other publications in
Exploration and Production, Petroleum Measurement, Marketing, Pipeline Transportation, Refining, Safety and Fire Protection, Health
and Environmental Issues,
http://www.api.org/publications-standards-and-statistics/publications/publications-catalog
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((API 1104 Standard-Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities))
Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the API 1104 standard which is Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities. It is used and
referenced by other pipeline standards like ASME B 31.4 and ASME B31.8 for welding. The subjects covered are specifications for
materials and equipment, qualification of welding procedures for welds containing filler-metal additives, qualification of welders, design
and preparation of a joint for production welding, inspection and testing of production welds, acceptance standards for nondestructive
testing, repair and removal of defects, procedures for nondestructive testing, mechanized welding with filler metal additions, automatic
welding without filler-metal additions, alternative acceptance standards for girth welds, in-service welding,
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((NACE RP 0169 Standard-Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems))
Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the NACE RP 0169 Standard which is Control of External Corrosion on Underground or
Submerged Metallic Piping Systems. It includes recommendations, information and tables on different means of controlling external
corrosion (i.e. coatings and cathodic protection) on underground or submerged metallic piping systems as : generic external coating
systems with material requirements and recommended practices for application, references for general use in the installation and
inspection of external coating systems for underground piping, external coating system characteristics relative to environmental conditions,
external coating system characteristics related to design and construction, methods for evaluating in-service field performance of external
coatings, criteria and other considerations for cathodic protection, design of cathodic protection systems, installation of cathodic protection
systems, control of interference currents, operation and maintenance of cathodic protection systems, interference testing, method for
determining probable corrosion rate and costs of maintaining service, contingent costs of corrosion, costs of corrosion control, .
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
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((API 510 Standard- Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: Maintenance Inspection, Rating, Repair and Alteration))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the API 510 Standard which is Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: Maintenance Inspection,
Rating, Repair and Alteration.
It has procedures for maintenance inspection, rating, repair and alteration of pressure vessels. It uses FFS (Fitness For Service according to
API RP 579 standard) concepts for the evaluation of in-service degradation. The topics covered are: inspection practices, modes of
deterioration and failure, corrosion rate determination, maximum allowable working pressure determination, defect inspection, assessment
of inspection findings, internal and external inspection, pressure tests, rating, repair and alteration of pressure vessels, NDT, PWHT,
sample forms for pressure vessel inspection,
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((API 570 Standard-Piping Inspection Code: Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Rerating of In-service Piping Systems))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the API 570 Standard which is Piping Inspection Code: Inspection, Repair, Alteration and
Rerating of In-service Piping Systems. It has procedures for inspection, repair, alteration and rerating of in-service metallic piping systems.
It uses FFS (Fitness For Service according to API RP 579 standard) concepts for the evaluation of in-service degradation. The topics
covered include: inspection and testing practices, RBI, inspection for specific types of corrosion and cracking, injection points, deadlegs,
CUI, service-specific and localized corrosion, environmental cracking, erosion, creep, fatigue, brittle fracture, internal and external
inspection, thickness measurement locations, material verification and traceability, inspection of valves and welds and flanged joints,
frequency and extent of inspection, analysis and evaluation of inspection data, MAWP determination, Repair, alteration and rerating of inservice piping systems, welding, preheat, PWHT, NDT, inspection of buried piping,
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((API 650 Standard-Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage))
Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the API 650 Standard which is Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage. This Standard establishes
minimum requirements for material, design, fabrication, erection, and testing for vertical, cylindrical, aboveground, closed- and open-top,
welded carbon or stainless steel storage tanks in various sizes and capacities for internal pressures approximating atmospheric pressure.
The topics covered in welding part of this standard are: details of welding, inspection, testing, and repairs, repairs to welds and
dimensional tolerances, welding procedure and welder qualifications, qualification of welding procedures, qualification of welders and
identification of welded joints. In the part of inspection and testing of this standard, the following subjects are discussed: methods of
inspecting joints, radiographic method, magnetic particle examination, ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, visual
examination and vacuum testing...
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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((API 653 Standard-Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Reconstruction))

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Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the API 653 Standard which is Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Reconstruction. This
standard provides minimum requirements for maintaining the integrity of in-service above ground storage tanks. The subjects covered
include: suitability for service, brittle fracture considerations, inspection (Inspection frequency considerations, internal and external
inspection, inspection checklists, NDT), materials, design considerations for reconstructed tanks, tank repair and alteration, dismantling
and reconstruction, welding, examination and testing (NDE, radiographs, hydrostatic testing, leak test, ),
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((ASME SECTION VIII Standard- Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels))
Hi. How are you?
Many parts in the petroleum industry are constructed according to ASME SECTION VIII Standard: Rules for Construction of Pressure
Vessels. Examples are pressure vessels, drums, columns, distillation towers, absorption columns, external shell in shell and tube heat
exchangers
Even other parts like storage tanks and external shell of pump use and refer the welding and inspection part of this standard. It contains
mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions and nonmandatory guidance for pressure vessel materials, design, fabrication, examination,
inspection, testing, certification and pressure relief. The subjects in welding part include: welding processes, qualification of welding
procedure, tests for welders ad welding operators, repair of weld defects, PWHT,
The topics in inspection and testing section are: check of welding procedure, check of welder and welding operator qualification, check of
PWHT, NDT, spot examination of welds,
est Regards,
B
Pejman Malekinejad.

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((ASME SECTION IX-Qualification Standard for Welding and Brazing Procedures, Welders, Brazers, and Welding and Brazing
Operators ))
Hi. How are you? I hope that everything is well with you. Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code relates to the
qualification of welders, welding operators, brazers, and brazing operators, and the procedures that they employ in welding and brazing
according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping. It is divided into two parts: Part
QW gives requirements for welding and Part QB contains requirements for brazing. The welding topics includes: weld orientation, test
positions for groove welds, test positions for fillet welds, types and purposes of tests and examinations, tension tests, guided-bend tests,
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notch-toughness tests, fillet-weld tests, rounded indication charts, welding procedure qualifications, preparation of test coupon, welding
variables, temper bead welding, welding performance qualifications, retests and renewal of qualification, welding variables for welders,
welding variables for welding operators, welding data, variables, technique, material groupings, F-numbers, weld metal chemical
composition, specimens, graphics, etching processes and reagents, standard welding procedure specifications (SWPSs), adoption of
SWPSs, use of SWPSs without discrete demonstration, production use of SWPSs,
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((ASME SECTION II Standard-Materials))
Hi. How are you? I hope that everything is well.
In this post I introduce the ASME SECTION II Srtandard-Materials. It has specification for general requirements of materials. It has 4
parts as: A-ferrous materials, B- nonferrous materials, C- welding consumables and D- properties. Different materials are listed and their
properties are given.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((ASME SECTION V Standard-Non Destructive Examination))
In this post I introduce the ASME SECTION V Standard-Non Destructive Examination. Unless otherwise specified by the referencing
Code Section or other referencing documents, this Section of the Code contains requirements and methods for nondestructive examination
which are Code requirements to the extent they are specifically referenced and required by other Code Sections. These nondestructive
examination methods are intended to detect surface and internal discontinuities in materials, welds, and fabricated parts and components.
They include radiographic examination, ultrasonic examination, liquid penetrant examination, magnetic particle examination, eddy current
examination, visual examination, leak testing, and acoustic emission examination.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping))

Hi. How are you? The ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping consists of a number of individually published Sections, each an American
National Standard, under the direction of ASME Committee B31, Code for Pressure Piping. Rules for each Section reflect the kinds of
piping installations considered during its development, as follows:
B31.1 Power Piping: piping typically found in electric power generating stations, in industrial and institutional plants, geothermal heating
systems, and central and district heating and cooling systems;
B31.3 Process Piping: piping typically found in petroleum refineries, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and
cryogenic plants, and related processing plants and terminals;
B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids: piping transporting products which are predominately
liquid between plants and terminals and within terminals, pumping, regulating, and metering stations;
B31.5 Refrigeration Piping: piping for refrigerants and secondary coolants;
B31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems: piping transporting products which are predominately gas between sources and
terminals, including compressor, regulating, and metering stations; gas gathering pipelines;
B31.9 Building Services Piping: piping typically found in industrial, institutional, commercial, and public buildings, and in multi-unit
residences, which does not require the range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered in B31.1;
B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems: piping transporting aqueous slurries between plants and terminals and within terminals,
pumping, and regulating stations.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
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((AWS D 1.1 Standard-Structural Welding Code: Steel))

Hi. How are you? Here I introduce AWS D 1.1 Standard-Structural Welding Code: Steel. This code contains the requirements for
fabricating and erecting welded steel structures. The following is a summary of the code sections: 1. General Requirements. (This section
contains basic information on the scope and limitations of the code.) 2. Design of Welded Connections. (This section contains
requirements for the design of welded connections composed of tubular, or nontubular, product form members.) 3. Prequalification. (This
section contains the requirements for exempting a WPS (Welding Procedure Specification) from the qualification requirements of this
code.) 4. Qualification. (This section contains the qualification requirements for WPSs and welding personnel (welders, welding operators
and tack welders) necessary to perform code work.) 5. Fabrication. (This section contains the requirements for the preparation, assembly
and workmanship of welded steel structures.) 6. Inspection. (This section contains criteria for the qualifications and responsibilities of
inspectors, acceptance criteria for production welds. and standard procedures for performing visual inspection and NDT (nondestructive
testing).) 7. Stud Welding. (This section contains the requirement for the welding of studs to structural steel.) 8. Strengthening and Repair
of Existing Structures. (This section contains basic information pertinent to the welded modification or repair of existing steel structures.)
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((TEMA-Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the standards of TEMA which is Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.
The subjects covered in this standard are: nomenclature, fabrication tolerances, general fabrication and performance information,
installation. operation. and maintenance, mechanical standard TEMA class RCB heat exchangers, flow induced vibration,
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((API 660 Standard- Shell and Tube Heat Esxhangers for General Refinery Services))
Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the standard of API 660 Standard- Shell and Tube Heat Esxhangers for General Refinery
Services. This standard defines the minimum requirements for the mechanical design, material selection, fabrication, inspection, testing,
and preparation for shipment of shell and tube heat exchangers for general refinery services.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
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((API 661 / ISO 13706 Standard-Air Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service))

Hi. How are you? In this post I Introduce the standard of API 661 / ISO 13706 Standard-Air Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery
Service. This International Standard gives requirements and recommendations for the design, materials, fabrication, inspection, testing and
preparation for shipment of air-cooled heat exchangers for use in the petroleum and natural gas industries.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((API RP 576-Inspection of Pressure Relieving Devices))


Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the API RP 576-Inspection of Pressure Relieving Devices. It describes the inspection and repair
practices for automatic pressure relieving devices commonly used in the oil and petrochemical industries. As a guide to the inspection and
repair of these devices in the users plant, it is intended to ensure their proper performance. This publication covers such automatic devices
as pressure-relief valves, pilot-operated pressure-relief valves, rupture disks, and weight-loaded pressure-vacuum vents. The scope of this
document includes the inspection and repair of automatic pressure-relieving devices commonly used in the oil and petrochemical industry.
This publication does not cover weak seams or sections in tanks, explosion doors, fusible plugs, control valves, and other devices that
either depend on an external source of power for operation or are manually operated. Inspections and tests made at manufacturers plants,
which are usually covered by codes or purchase specifications, are not covered by this publication.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((API 662 / ISO 15547 Standard- Plate Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Services))
Hi. How are you? Here I introduce the API 662 / ISO 15547 Standard- Plate Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Services. It gives
requirements and recommendations for the mechanical design, materials selection, fabrication, inspection, testing, and preparation for
shipment of plate-and-frame heat exchangers for use in petroleum, petrochemical, and natural gas industries. It is applicable to gasketed,
semiwelded and welded plate and frame heat exchangers and brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers for use in petroleum,
petrochemical, and natural gas industries.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((API Spec 6A/ISO 10423-Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment))

Hi . How are you? In this post I introduce API Spec 6A/ISO 10423-Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment. It specifies
requirements and gives recommendations for the performance, dimensional and functional interchangeability, design, materials, testing,
inspection, welding, marking, handling, storing, shipment, purchasing, repair, and remanufacture of wellhead and christmas tree equipment
for use in the petroleum and natural gas industries. This specification does not apply to field use, field testing, or field repair of wellhead
and christmas tree equipment. This specification is applicable to the following specific equipment: wellhead equipment (casing head
housings, casing head spools, tubing head spools, cross-over spools, multi-stage head housings and spools); connectors and fittings (crossover connectors, tubing head adapters, top connectors, tees and crosses, fluid-sampling devices, adapter and spacer spools); casing and
tubing hangers (mandrel hangers, slip hangers); valves and chokes (single valves, multiple valves, actuated valves, valves prepared for
actuators, check valves, chokes, surface and underwater safety valves and actuators, backpressure valves); loose connectors (weld neck
connectors, blind connectors, threaded connectors, adapter and spacer connectors, bullplugs, valveremoval plugs); and other equipment
(actuators, hubs, pressure boundary penetrations, ring gaskets, running and testing tools, wear bushings). This specification defines service
conditions, in terms of pressure, temperature, and material class for the well-bore constituents, and operating conditions. This document
establishes requirements for five product specification levels (PSL). These five PSL designations define different levels of technical
quality requirements.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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((API Spec 6D/ISO 14313-Specification for Pipeline Valves))
Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce API Spec 6D/ISO 14313-Specification for Pipeline Valves. It specifies requirements and
provides recommendations for the design, manufacturing, testing, and documentation of ball, check, gate, and plug valves for application
in pipeline systems meeting ISO 13623 or similar requirements for the petroleum and natural gas industries. This specification is not
applicable to subsea pipeline valves, as they are covered by a separate specification (Spec 6DSS). This specification is not for application
to valves for pressure ratings exceeding PN 420 (Class 2500).
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((API Std 598-Valve Inspection and Testing))

Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the API Std 598-Valve Inspection and Testing. It Covers inspection, examination, supplementary
examinations, and pressure test requirements for resilient-seated, nonmetallic-seated (e.g. ceramic), and metal-to-metal-seated valves of
the gate, globe, plug, ball, check, and butterfly types.
Best Regards,
Pejman malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((Common Steel Pipe Standards for Piping Systems))
Hi. How are you? I hope that you are well. In this post I introduce the common steel pipe standards in piping systems. They are as:
--Carbon Steel -API 5L-Specification for Line Pipe: Specifies requirements for the manufacture of two product specification levels (PSL 1 and PSL 2) of
seamless and welded steel pipes for use in pipeline transportation systems in the petroleum and natural gas industries.
ASTM A 106- Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service.
ASTM A 672- Standard Specification for Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for High-Pressure Service at Moderate Temperatures.
ASTM A 53-Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless.
ASTM A 134- Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded (Sizes NPS 16 and Over).
--Alloy Steel-ASTM A 335- Standard Specification for Seamless Ferritic Alloy-Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service.
ASTM A 691- Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High-Pressure Service at High
Temperatures
.

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ASTM A 312- Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((Pipe Dimensional Standards for Piping Systems))


Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the dimensional standards for pipes in piping systems as:
ASME/ANSI B 36.10- Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe:
This standard covers the standardization of dimensions of welded and seamless wrought steel pipe for high or low temperatures and
pressures. The word pipe is used as distinguished from tube to apply to tubular products of dimensions commonly used for pipeline and
piping systems. Pipe NPS 12 (DN 300) and smaller have outside diameters numerically larger than corresponding sizes. In contrast, the
outside diameters of tubes are numerically identical to the size number for all sizes.
ASME/ANSI B 36.19- Stainless Steel Pipe:
This Standard covers the standardization of dimensions of welded and seamless wrought stainless steel pipe. The word pipe is used as
distinguished from tube to apply to tubular products of dimensions commonly used for pipeline and piping systems. Pipe dimensions of
sizes 12 and smaller have outside diameters numerically larger than the corresponding size. In contrast, the outside diameters of tubes are
numerically identical to the size number for all sizes. The wall thicknesses for sizes 14 through 22 inclusive of Schedule 10S, for size 12
schedule 40S, and for sizes 10 and 12 of schedule 80S are not the same as those of ANSI/ASME B36.10M. The suffix "S" in the Schedule
Number is used to differentiate B36.19M pipe from B36.10M pipe. ANSI/ASME B36.10M includes other pipe thicknesses which are also
commercially available with stainless steel material.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((Common Standards for Fittings, Valves, Bolts, Plates and Nuts in Piping Systems))
Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce Common Standards for Fittings, Valves, Bolts, Plates and Nuts in Piping Systems.
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--Wrought Fitting-ASTM A 234- Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature
Service.
ASTM A 403- Standard Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings.
--Forged Fittings and Valve-ASTM A 182- Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for HighTemperature Service.
ASTM A 105- Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications.
--Casting Valve-ASTM A 216- Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding, for High-Temperature Service.
ASTM A 217- Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-Containing Parts, Suitable for HighTemperature Service.
ASTM A 351- Standard Specification for Castings, Austenitic, Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex), for Pressure-Containing Parts.
--Plate-ASTM A 285- Standard Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Low- and Intermediate-Tensile Strength.
ASTM A 515- Standard Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Intermediate- and Higher-Temperature Service.
ASTM A 516- Standard Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Moderate- and Lower-Temperature Service.
ASTM A 283- Standard Specification for Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates.
ASTM A 387- Standard Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium- Molybdenum.
ASTM A 240- Standard Specification for Heat-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for
Pressure Vessels.
--Bolts-ASTM A 193- Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High- Temperature Service.
--Nuts-ASTM A 194- Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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((AWS B1.10 - Guide for the Nondestructive Inspection of Welds))


Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce the standard of AWS B1.10 - Guide for the Nondestructive Inspection of Welds. This standard is
a good guide for different weld discontinuities, NDE methods of visual, penetrant, magnetic particle, radiographic, ultrasonic and eddy
current testing, interrelationships among welding processes; discontinuities; and inspection methods, NDI selection guide (which includes
equipment needed, applications, advantages and limits), NDI symbols and abbreviations
est Regards,
B
Pejman Malekinejad.

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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
((Surface Preparation and Water Jetting Standards))
Hi. How are you? Here I introduce Surface Preparation and Water Jetting Standards. The basic standards for preparing metal substrates are
a joint effort between the Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC), the National Association of Corrosion Engineers International (NACE)
and International Standards Organization (ISO).
SSPC-SP1 Solvent Cleaning
Removal of all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and cutting compounds, and other soluble contaminants from steel surfaces with solvent,
vapor, cleaning compound, alkali, emulsifying agent, or steam.
SSPC-SP2 Hand Tool Cleaning
Removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, loose paint, and other loose detrimental foreign matter by hand chipping, scraping, sanding, and
wire brushing.
SSPC-SP3 Power Tool Cleaning
Removes all loose mill scale, loose rust, loose paint, and other loose detrimental foreign matter by power wire brushing, power sanding,
power grinding, power tool chipping, and power tool descaling.
SSPC-SP5 / NACE 1 / ISO 8501-1 Sa 3 White Metal Blast Cleaning
When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dust, dirt, mill scale, rust, coating, oxides, corrosion
products and other foreign matter.
SSPC-SP6 / NACE 3 / ISO 8501-1 Sa 2 Commercial Blast Cleaning
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When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dust, dirt, mill scale, rust, coating, oxides, corrosion
products and other foreign matter of at least 66-2/3% of unit area, which shall be a square 3 in. x 3 in. (9 sq. in.). Light shadows, slight
streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied coating in less than 33-1/3% of
the unit area is acceptable.
SSPC-SP7 / NACE 4 / ISO 8501-1 Sa 1 Brush-Off Blast Cleaning
When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose
coating. Tightly adherent mill scale, rust, and coating may remain on the surface. Mill scale, rust, and coating are considered tightly
adherent if they cannot be removed by lifting with a dull putty knife.
SSPC-SP10 / NACE 2 / ISO 8501-1 Sa 2 Near-White Blast Cleaning
When viewed without magnification shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dust, dirt, mill scale, rust, coating, oxides, corrosion products
and other foreign matter of at least 95% of each unit area. Staining shall be limited to no more than 5 percent of each unit area, and may
consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, or stains of previously applied
coatings. Unit area shall be approximately 3 in. x 3 in. (9 sq. in.).
SSPC-SP11 Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal
When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free of all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion
products, and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portion of pits if the original surface is pitted.
The surface profile shall not be less than 1 mil (25 microns).
SSPC-SP12 / NACE 5 Surface Preparation and Cleaning of Steel and Other Hard Materials by High- and Ultra High- Pressure Water
Jetting Prior to Recoating
This standard requires water jetting at high- or ultra high-pressure to prepare a surface for recoating using pressure above 10,000 psi.
Water jetting will not produce a profile; rather, it exposes the original abrasive-blasted surface profile. Water jetting shall be performed to
meet four conditions: WJ-1, WJ-2, WJ-3, and WJ-4, and a minimum acceptable surface shall have all loose rust, loose mill scale, and loose
coatings uniformly removed.
SSPC-SP13 / NACE 6 Surface Preparation of Concrete
Provides requirements for surface preparation of concrete by mechanical, chemical, or thermal methods prior to the application of bonded
protective coating or lining systems.
SSPC-SP14 / NACE 8 Industrial Blast Cleaning
Removal of all visible oil, grease, dust and dirt, when viewed without magnification. Traces of tightly adherent mil scale, rust, and coating
residues are permitted to remain on 10% of each unit area of the surface if they are evenly distributed. Shadows, streaks, and discoloration
caused by stains of rust, stains of mill scale, and stains of previously applied coating may be present on the remainder of the surface.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((Common Painting Inspection Tools))


Hi. How are you? I hope that everything is well with you. In this post I introduce the Common Painting Inspection Tools.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((References and Overview of Nondestructive Testing))


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Hi. How are you? Nondestructive Testing (NDT) and inspection techniques for detecting and evaluating flaws (irregularities or
discontinuities) or leaks in engineering systems are reviewed in this post. Of the many different NDT techniques, liquid penetrant and
magnetic particle testing account for about half of all nondestructive tests. Ultrasonic and X-ray methods account for about another third,
eddy current testing about 10%, and all other methods for only about 2%.
The two main and excellent references for Nondestructive Testing (NDT) and inspection techniques are:
1- ASNT's Nondestructive Testing Handbook
(A publication of ASNT: American Society for Nondestructive Testing)

Vol. 1, Leak Testing


Vol. 2, Liquid Penetrant Testing
Vol. 3, Infrared and Thermal Testing
Vol. 4, Radiographic Testing
Vol. 5, Electromagnetic Testing
Vol. 6, Acoustic Emission Testing
Vol. 7, Ultrasonic Testing
Vol. 8, Magnetic Testing
Vol. 9, Visual Testing
Vol. 10, NDT Overview
2-
ASM Metals Handbook, Volume 17: Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control
(
A publication of ASM: American Society for Metals)

Best Regards,

Pejman Malekinejad.

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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((Typical Weld Discontinuities))


Hi. How are you? The typical
weld discontinuities are illustrated here. As Doctor Dirk Klbl said these weld pictures are very clear.
Best regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((Cathodic Protection Network))


Hi. How are you? Here I introduce the Cathodic Protection Network which spreads the science of cathodic protection. Firstly, the
presented data are not simple, elementary and easy matters at all. Instead are very complicated and advanced information. Secondly, these
data are addictive for scientists and engineers. Because they answer many many many difficult questions which are arisen in the mind of
any CP engineer and scientist. Such answers cannot be found easily. Also they have many solutions for CP problems. Therefore I strongly
recommend you to read all these data.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
http://www.rogeralexander1938.webspace.virginmedia.com/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/252315928171578/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/117200661724350/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/188256751261624/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/104488789588530/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/268681196530977/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/530703146987434/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/266427400217657/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/1457303907850763/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/1403584893233570/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/235534443303722/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/CPNUSA/
http://www.pipeline-corrosion-control.com/ActionPlan/

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((Professional Bodies))
Specialists have grouped together in Universities and professional bodies for the purpose of exchanging knowledge.
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As each speciality develops into practical value, these groups take advantage of that to enrich themselves privately.
With the introduction of 'healthy competition' it becomes advantageous to restrict the knowledge to within the group.
In an ideal world this would not be necessary but in the real world, the intellectual property of each group has a value that is now traded as
a commodity.
The mass of knowledge that is possessed by each group represents each individual's 'equity' in that group and so each must pay to enter the
group to buy that 'equity'.
It is now possible to obtain the consent of a group by simply paying without aquiring the necessary expertise. Degrees and memberships
can be bought and their ownership does not necessarily mean that the person is competent.
However, membership of a particular group gives the right to contribute to the group judgements that influence the commercial value of
the group 'product'.
It is this process of power that has restricted the control of corrosion for at least 30 years.
Roger Alexander.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((Spread and Development of the science of Materials, Corrosion, Inspection, Welding and NDT))
I need to Immigrate to USA to spread and develop the science of Materials, Corrosion, Inspection, Welding and NDT. Also I need Money
to do this.
Best Regards,

Pejman Malekinejad.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------`
`
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((COPYRIGHT))

NOTICE: The links to the handbooks, Standards and other staff at this page are removed because of the law of Copyright and Piracy. I do
not have the right to distribute these staff. You must buy these staff from the legal organizations.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

((MY BODY IS VERY VERY VERY HAIRY))


MY BODY IS VERY VERY VERY HAIRY,
Best Regards,
PEJMAN MALEKINEJAD.

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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
((THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS))
Hi.
I love the human beings. I like the universal declaration of human rights. It has 30 Articles.
Article 1.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one
another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 2.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex,
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be
made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be
independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Article 3.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 4.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 6.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
Article 7.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection
against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Article 8.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him
by the constitution or by law.
Article 9.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Article 10.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his
rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
Article 11.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at
which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under
national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at
the time the penal offence was committed.
Article 12.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and
reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Article 13.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
Article 14.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the
purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 15.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
Article 16.
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(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family.
They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
Article 17.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Article 18.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and
freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship
and observance.
Article 19.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to
seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Article 20.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
Article 21.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections
which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Article 22.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international
co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable
for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Article 23.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against
unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of
human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
Article 24.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
Article 25.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food,
clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness,
disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the
same social protection.
Article 26.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education
shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally
accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall
further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
Article 27.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific
advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production
of which he is the author.
Article 28.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
Article 29.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the
purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality,
public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 30.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to
perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((RULES))
Hi. I (Pejman Malekinejad) strongly obey all the rules . And all the readers of this page must obey all the rules.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
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z
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((PROFESSIONAL NETWORKS))
Hi. How are you? Here I introduce famous professional networks.
1- LINKEDIN: This professional network is for the exchange of professional discussions in the different groups. You must search and join
the different groups of your fields and the top professionals will follow, answer and ask different professional discussions. LinkedIn is a
business-oriented social networking service. Founded in December 2002 and launched on May 5, 2003, it is mainly used for professional
networking. In 2006, LinkedIn increased to 20 million viewers. www.linkedin.com
2- FACEBOOK: This network has many professional groups and pages which you must search for the area of your professionalism and
follow their matters. Facebook is an online social networking service headquartered in Menlo Park, California. Its name comes from a
colloquialism for the directory given to students at some American universities. www.facebook.com
3- RESEARCHGATE: ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions,
and find collaborators.www.researchgate.com
4- ACADEMIA: www.academia.edu is a social networking website for academics. It was launched in September 2008 and the site now
has over 11 million registered users as of 2014. The platform can be used to share papers, monitor their impact, and follow the research in
a particular field. Academia.edu was founded by Richard Price, who raised $600,000 from Spark Ventures, Brent Hoberman, and others.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------((I HAVE Schizophrenia


))

I (Pejman Malekinejad) have Schizophrenia.


These are the medical evidences.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

((EFFORT))
Effort is the key to success.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

((HUNGRINESS))
My food is not meat or rice.
Since I have no money, I eat
only half of a tablet of bread in
each day to survive. I do beggar
to survive.
Best Regards,
Pejman Malekinejad.
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(
(ROGER ALEXANDER))
30 years of fun ago I was an old git already. Banging on about something no-one else cared about and tramping the world, making friends,
trying to help others is not a waste of time. Thank you world .... what else can I do for you?
((ROGER ALEXANDER))
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
((HEDGEHOG))
Hi. How are you? In this post I introduce hedgehog
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, which is in order Erinaceomorpha. There are seventeen species of
hedgehog in five genera, found through parts of Europe, Asia, Africa and New Zealand.
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((BERBERIS))
Berberis is a large genus of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 15 m tall found throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the

world.

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((Cactus))
A cactus is a member of the
plant family Cactaceae within
the order Caryophyllales.
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Useful Information

Almost all cacti are succulents.

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