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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in EDLE & CUIN

Date: 10/19/2016

Topic Selected:

What does the research say about advantages and disadvantages of

distance education?
What does the literature/research say about this issue/topic? By using NAU
Library or Online Search engines, conduct a literature review.

You need to include 5 different sources (book, journal article, web article
etc.) in your review. Try to use current sources as much as possible.

You need to summarize and synthesize your sources by discussing a

common theme or issue.

You don't need to critique your sources

You don't need to evaluate your sources (if the sources are trustworthy,
weather the author has a bias or not)

You need to provide background information such as history and


Brief Literature Review:

Distance education traces back to 18th century and distance learning continues to
grow in popularity. (Kentnor, 2015).
Distance education aims to provide instruction in places and times that are
convenient for learners rather than teachers of teaching institutions. (Distance
Education, 1996). It allows to attend a class without going to campus.
We need to organize well some elements such as content, knowledge, design,
communication technologies, interaction, learning environment which are
essential to all distance education organizations and courses. (Distance
Distance education is a highly effective method than face to face education,
especially shy students. It has proved to be advantageous to many shy students,
and distance education provides them with the confidence to do their tasks. In
addition, distance learning affords educational opportunities to individuals unable
to attend conventional classroom settings, and improves opportunities for
students in relation to performance level.

Online education has some advantages and disadvantages. As I synthesize my

Pros: Convenience, affordability, ability to set your own place, cultural diversity,
technology benefits, saving travel time, hybrid courses, participation etc.
Cons: Technical problems, limited social interaction, technology costs,
effectiveness for assessments, course design, online access, etc. While reading
the articles, I knew a new term for me which is hybrid courses. The goal of hybrid
courses is to join the best features of in- class teaching with the best features of
online learning to promote active independent learning and reduce class seat
time. (Garnham and Kaleta, 2002).
In general, advantages of distance education are summed up under four
headings: convenience, affordability, technology benefits and additional benefits.
Besides, disadvantages of distance education are gathered as technical
problems, limited interaction and assessment problems.
To sum up, distance education has also pros and cons as other educational
methods. It provides a lot of opportunities for students, teachers too such as no
travel- housing costs, no discrimination, no immigrant problems, creative
teaching, meeting with people who are around the world and so on. On the other
hand, distance education has disadvantages such as risk of isolation which is no
offline get-together, no campus atmosphere to create social interaction, cost of
computer programs, difficulties of measurements and so on.


I have read several articles and journals about distance education, and learned
new things for me and advantages and disadvantages of distance education or
online learning. I think that online learning is so effective learning and teaching
method than traditional learning and teaching in spite of having disadvantages.
Advantages of online learning outweigh disadvantages of it. You can develop
your computer-based skills thanks to using so many software or online tools such
as Edmodo, Skype, Prezi and so on.
The fact that the primary advantages of distance education is convenience about
location and time. You can work on your tasks anytime you like and create a
comfortable place to attend the class, for example, sitting on a cozy sofa. It is a
very enjoyable way to learn something.
Also, there is some disadvantages of online learning, but when I think of
advantages, it is worth attending online courses.


Cite at least 5 References in APA.

You may use for citing
your sources in APA style.


Moore, M. G. & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education: A systems view.

Belmont: Wadsworth Pub.
Sorrentino, E. (2011, Oct 24). Traditional University vs. Online for a
Degree: Pros and Cons. Retrieved from
Hannay, M. & Newwine, T. (March 2006). Perceptions of Distance
Learning: A Comparison of Online and Traditional Learning. Merlot Journal
of Online Learning and Teaching, Vol.2/No.1.
Kumar, D. (October 2010). Pros and Cons of Online Education. North
Caroline State University, Boston, NC.
ODonoughe, J. Signh, G. & Green, C. (November 2004). A Comparison of
the advantages and disadvantages of IT based education and the
implications upon students. Interactive Educational Multimedia, number 9,
pg. 63-76.
Fedynich, L.V. Teaching beyond the classroom walls: the pros and cons of
cyber learning. Journal of Intructional Pedagogies.
Arkorful, V. & Abadioo, N. (December 2014). The Role of E-learning, the
advantages and disadvantages of its adoption in Higher Education.
International Journal of Education and Research, Vol.2/ No.12.
Kentnor, H.E. (2015). Distance Education and the Evolution of Online
Learning in the United States. University of Denver Sturm College of Law,
Denver, Colorado.