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10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced
Prof
,Dr, Ahmed dyabby
Assuit
Mareana
University
RafaatFaculty
Uner Supervision
of MedicineofDep.
ProfParasitology
.Dr. Ahmed Dyab

I-Introduction of Parasitology
Lecture- A Type of The parasite
By
Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab
Prof of and Head of Parasitology Dep.
Faculty of Medicine
Assuit University

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Human parasitology is the study of those


organisms which parasitize humans. According to
the very broad definition of parasitology,
parasites should include the viruses, bacteria,
fungi, protozoa and metazooa (multi-celled
organisms) which infect their host
species. However, for historical reasons the first
three have been incorporated into the discipline
of Microbiology.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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Concept of Human Parasitology


The Scope of Human Parasitology
Terms of Parasitology
Parasites Harms to Man
Characteristics of parasitic diseases

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Population group of individuals of the same species


living in the same area, potentially interacting

Community group of populations of different species


living in the same area, potentially interacting
.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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Types of ecological interactions


1-competition
2-predation
3-symbiosis
A-parasitism
B-mutualism
C-commensalism
D- Phoresis

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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1-Competition two species share a requirement for a


limited resource reduces fitness of one or both species
. As Cannibalism: When an animal eats the dead or the living
bodies of young individuals of the same species e.g. rodents.

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2-Predation
Predation: The larger and stronger animal (the predator) kills
and eats the smaller and weaker animal (the prey).

herbivory is a form of
predation
10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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3-Symbiosis ( Animal association ) Two different


organisms live together and interact, in this association one
partner lives in or on another ones body. So two species live
together can include
A-parasitism B-mutualism C-commensalism D- phoresis

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Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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A-Parasitism
Parasitism is defined as an association between two organisms belonging to
different species, one of which, the parasite, is smaller and weaker and live in
or on the surface of the body of the larger and stronger one, the host, from
which it obtains its food and upon which it generally inflicts some degree of
injury.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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The amount of harm can vary


-Mosquito bite causes minor irritation
-Some parasites steal nutrients
-Some cause major damage that can result in death of other
organism
Parasite is in wrong host
Parasites in large numbers

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B-Mutualism
Mutualism: Mutual benefit is obtained, which is essential for the life of both
organisms so that they are unable to live apart e.g. termites and the flagellates,
which live in their alimentary tract.
Both organisms benefit from the relationship
Usually obligatory Both partners realy on the relationship and cant live
without the other.

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Mutualism Examples
Coral and Zooxanthelle
Termites and bacteria
Bacteria digest wood
Cleaner fish and the fish
they clean
Leeches and bacteria
Bacteria digest blood
Humans and bacteria
Bacteria make vitamins
out of our wastes
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C-Commensalism
Commensalism: When one of the partners benefits while the other
does not suffer e.g. Entamoeba coli in large intestine of man.
However, under certain conditions, some commensals may become
harmful as in cases of immunosuppression

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Commensalism Examples
Remoras and sharks
*Feed on scraps left by shark
Humans have many commensals
*Intestinal protozoans and bacteri
*Entamoeba Gingivalis Amoeba in the mouth
*Eyelash mites

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D-Phoresis
Two organisms
simply travel together
Neither organism is
helped or harmed
Usually one is
transporting the other

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Examples of Phoresis
Barnacles on a whale
Burrs attached to fur of mammals
Or your socks and shoe laces
Dermatobia (bot fly) eggs on mosquito
Female bot fly lays eggs on female
mosquito Eggs drop off when mosquito
feeds
Fungal spores on legs of house fly

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Predation vs. Parasitism


Predation and parasitism may seem to
be the same.
One organism benefits, other is harmed
Both can result in an evolutionary arms race

The host/prey gets better at avoiding the


parasite/predator so the parasite/predator must
adapt

But there are significant differences.


Predation results in the death of one of the organism.

Parasites usually try to keep host alive.


Predator is larger than the prey.

Parasites are usually smaller than host.


Predator preys on many individuals in a lifetime.

Parasite usually spends entire life in one or two


host
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What is a parasite?

The word "parasite" comes from the Greek


"parasitos", with para meaning "alongside",
and sitos meaning "food" - therefore meaning
"eating at the side of, as one would when
seated at the same table".

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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Types of Parasites
1- Location
Endoparasite
Lives inside the body of the host may be just under
the surface or deep in the body
Tapeworms, flukes, protozoans

Ectoparasite
Stays on outside surface of the host
Mosquitoes, leeches, ticks, fleas, brood parasites
Parasites living inside the body of the host e.g. hookworms are
endoparasites, in contrast to ectoparasites which attach themselves
to the surface of the host (leeches) or live in the skin (scabies).

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Endoparasites are the parasites that live


inside the host for example Hookworms.
Endoparasite feed off the inside body to get
energy.

Hookworms

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Ectoparasites are parasite that live on the


outside body For example some mites are
ectoparasites. Ectoparasites feed or grows
from the energy of the host.

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Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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Types of Parasites
2 Required or not
Obligate Parasite
Requires finding and invading
the host to complete its life cycle
Most of the parasites we will
cover are obligate parasites

Facultative Parasite
May become parasitic if it is
given the chance but does not
require
a
host.
Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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Facultative parasite is one which can lead either a free or


parasitic
existance according to the environmental conditions
(Strongyloides).
An obligatory parasite, however, is incapable of existence if
separated from its host (tapeworms).

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Types of Parasites
3- Amount of time spent
Permanent Parasite
Lives entire adult life stage on or
in a host
Usually endoparasites
One exception is eyelash mite

Temporary Parasite
Spends only a short time on a
host
Usually ectoparasites
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Temporary parasites visit the host from


time to time for a meal (mosquitoes),
while permanent parasites spend the
whole or the
greater part of their life in or on the host
(scabies, threadworms).

A periodic parasite is an obligatory


parasite during certain period of
its life cycle e.g. maggots of some flies

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4.Accidental

Parasites which enter


unusual host are called accidental
parasites (Dipylidium caninum). These
are usually rare parasites of man, as
method of infection is unsuitable for
man. When such parasites adapt
themselves to live in the new host and
flourish in it, they are called
incidental parasites (Fasciola).
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Erratic (Ectopic ) parasite ::


For each parasite, there is a
normal habitat in which it is
usually found. Parasites found in
abnormal habitats (Location) in
the body are called erratic or
ectopic parasites e.g.Ascaris
lumbricoides.
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A-Monoxenous parasite :
Parasites that live in a single host during their
life (e.g. hookworms) are called monoxenous
B-Heteroxenous parasite :
Parasites ,which live in more than one host
during their life cycle (e.g. Taenia spp.), are
called heteroxenous parasites.
C-Autoheteroxenous parasite :

Parasite which utilize final hosts as


intermediate hosts for the next generation (
host act as intermediate and final host ) as
Trichinella spiralis
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Opportunistic parasites are either:


Non-invasive commensals that do not produce
disease, or produce self-limiting mild disease, in
healthy (immunocompetent) host, as they exist in them
in a latent form. However, if the host is
subjected to immunosuppression, the same commensal
causes
acute symptoms of infection e.g. Cryptosporidium and
Toxoplasma.
A pathogenic parasite in immunocomptent host may
produce more severe pathological effects in
immunosuppressed or immunocompromised hosts e.g.
Strongyloides stercoralis, which causes disseminated
strongyloidiasis in AIDS patients.
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Epiparasites is a parasite that feeds off


another parasite. An example of a epiparsite
is a Tetragnatha montana spider parasitized
by an Acrodactyla quadrisculpta larva

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Parasitoids are organisms that make the host


die as a result of parasitism.

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Hosts

Host : An organism that harbors the

parasite usually larger than that In


parasitism, it supplies the parasite
with nourishment and shelter, it is
the injured partner parasite.

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Carrier
.
Carrier : A person who harbours parasite has
no clinical symptoms, is an important
source of infection in epidemiology.

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Reservoir Hosts

Reservoir hosts are the vertebrate


hosts which harbour the same species
of parasite at same stage as a human
host. They are an important source of
infection in epidemiology.

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5-Larval migrans
Larval migrans means that the
larvae living in their abnormal
hosts in which they can not
grow into adults but can
wander
everywhere
and
cause the local and systemic
pathological lesions of the
hosts.

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6-Zoonosis
Zoonosis refers to animals diseases
which can be transmitted to man.
(These animals infected with parasites
are called reservoir hosts.)

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Parasite specificity

Parasite specificity:
- Host specificity: Some parasites are host specific
infecting only man as Taenia saginata, others are
host non-specific, as they can infect a variety of final
hosts as Fasciola spp.and Cryptosporidium sp.
- Organ specificity: Some parasites infect a certain
organ in the body e.g. hookworms in the small
intestine.
-Tissue specificity: Some parasites infect special
cells and do not infect other cells e.g. malarial
parasites in red blood cells and Leishmania in
reticulo-endothelial cells.

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Sources of parasitic infection:

1. Water:
Water is an important vehicle for contamination with
protozoal cysts and helminth eggs.
Water may contain aquatic intermediate hosts of some
helminthes e.g. Cyclops, Cray fishes etc.
Water facilitates infection of some helminthes through
penetration of infective stages into the skin (schistosomes).
2. Soil:
Is essential for development of some nematode eggs
(Ascaris) or larvae (hookworms). Infection to final host is
either by swallowing the ripe eggs or larvae or penetration of
skin or mucous membranes by larvae.
Contamination of soil with excreta of cats is important for
the transmission of Toxoplasma to man and animals. Eggs
of dog and cat ascarids ripen in soil, and if swallowed by man
cause visceral Prof.Dr.
larvaAhmed
migrans.
Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit

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Sources of parasitic infection:

3. Vegetables and fruits:


When human and animal excreta are used as fertilizer, eggs
and larvae of some worms contaminate the vegetables
which can transmit the infection if eaten raw without proper
washing,e.g. Fasciola sp.
4. Animals:
- Eating insufficiently cooked cattle meat (beef) is a source of
infection with Taenia saginata,while pork meat transmits T.
solium and Trichinella spiralis. Fish also transmits
Heterophyes heterophyes and Diphyllobothrium latum.
Raw liver infected with Fasciola cause a serious condition in
man (halzoun).
- Association with animals such as dogs, cats, cattle, can
transmit

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Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
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Sources of parasitic infection:

5. Arthropods: Serve as vectors of parasitic,


bacterial and viral diseases to man either as
mechanical carriers or biological vectors.
6. Contact with infected persons transmits scabies,
lice and pinworms.
7. Blood transfusion: Transmits malaria,
Leishmania and trypanosomes. The same may
occur when contaminated syringes are used by
addicts.
8-Congenital or Transplacental as in Toxoplasma.
9-Connatal transmission: The transmission occurs
during labour through an injured placenta e.g.
malarial parasites.
10- Sexual intercouse transmits Trichomonas
vaginalis, Phthirus
pubis and scabis.
Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit

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Life cycle of parasites:

It is very important to study the life cycle of different


parasites. It is usually divided into three distinct parts:
First part occurs outside its final host in soil or in water or
inside intermediate hosts as snails, arthropods or fish.
Within the end of this part, the infective stage of the
parasite is developed and becomes ready to infect the host.
The study of this part is important for planning measures of
control or prevention of infections.
After exposure to infection, the second part of the life cycle
proceeds inside the body of final host. There is usually a
certain pathway for the parasite from the site of entry until it
reaches its final habitat. In its pathway from organ to organ,
the parasite inflicts certain pathological effects. Therefore,
the study of this part is important for the study of
pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of the parasite.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

After maturation of the parasite, it starts to


prepare for the next generation by shedding
of eggs, larvae or cysts, which usually pass
to the exterior via urine, stool or blood.
These are called diagnostic stages and their
study helps in the laboratory diagnosis of
the parasite.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Mode of infection (Routes of entry):

Mouth, by swallowing food or water contaminated with


parasitic eggs or cysts, or from dirty fingers and unhealthy
eating habits.
Skin, is important route of entry of parasite e.g.:
Cercariae of schistosomes and larvae of hookworms, which
can actively penetrate the skin or mucus membranes.
Contact with skin of infected persons leads to direct
transmission
of ectoparasites as scabies and lice and some protozoan
parasites as cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Blood sucking arthropods transmit protozoan parasites by
inoculating them in the skin.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Mode of infection (Routes of entry):

Body orifices as nose, ear, urethra,


vagina and anal opening, which allow
entry of larvae of flies, protozoa and
sometimes helminth eggs by
inhalation.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Effects of parasites on hosts:

Effects of parasites on hosts:


This depends on several factors
Number of parasites, as few parasites may cause little or
unnoticeable symptoms. Severe manifestations occur in
heavy infections.
Size of the parasite especially when inhabiting vital organ.
Habitat of the parasite has more serious effects when the
brain, liver or heart is parasitized.
Species of the parasite as some parasites are more injurious
than others e.g. hookworms cause much damage to the
intestinal mucosa by their sharp teeth or cutting plates.
Toxins secreted and ex-products of the parasite.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Effects of parasites on hosts:

The parasites may lead to:


Loss of weight especially in children and malnourished
individual, particularly when large number of parasites are
present. This is due to drain of hosts nourishment.
Moreover, parasites may cause loss of appetite.
Anemia may result from parasites feeding on blood and/or
leading to repeated blood loss with urine, stool or sputum
(chronic heamorrhage) e.g. schistosomes. Other parasites
cause anemia by depression of bone marrow (Leishmania).
Diphyllobothrium latum feeds on vitamin B12 leading to
pernicious anemia.
Destruction of tissue due to migration and feeding as in liver
flukes or haemolysis of blood cells as in malaria.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Effects of parasites on hosts:

Mechanical pressure on vital organs as hydatid cyst in liver


or lung and coenurus in the brain leading to serious
disturbances in their functions.
Mechanical obstruction as in cases of some filarial worms
that completely blocks the lymphatics in the groin causing
elephantiasis. Huge number of Ascasis worms leads to
intestinal obstruction while one Ascaris worm may obstruct
the cystic duct leading to acute abdominal manifestations.
Irritation and inflammation may stimulate abnormal
growth. In case of blood flukes there are liver granuloma,
intestinal papillomata and carcinoma. Intestinal irritation
leads to colicky diarrhea or dysentery. Some parasites
cause hepatomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly and generalized
lymph node enlargement.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Effects of parasites on hosts:

Toxic effect from waste products excreted or toxins


secreted lead to severe symptoms as fever and chills in
malaria.
Facilitating entrance of secondary bacterial infection. This
usually occurs with penetrating larvae or through ulceration
of skin or intestinal mucosa.
Allergic reactions in hypersensitive individuals due to
contact with foreign proteins of ectoparasites (mosquito
bites) or endoparasites (nematode larvae) leading to
urticaria, eczema or bronchial asthma.
Nervous manifestations may accompany some parasitic
infections (e.g. pinworms).

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Effects of parasites on hosts:

Congenital anomalies in congenital toxoplasmosis.


Abortion in toxoplasmosis.
Decreased power of mental concentration especially in
children at school age.
Disability to work as in advanced cases of elephantiasis and
chronic schistosomiasis, which passively affect the family
income and in turn the national economy.
Some parasites have a very grave prognosis and are fatal to
their hosts e.g. malignant malaria is one of the great
children killers in Africa. Also, East African sleeping
sickness is known for its acute fatal course.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Routes of exit of parasitic infection:

Routes of exit of parasitic infection:


Stool: Intestinal and hepatic helminths pass their eggs or larvae in stool
of final host. Likewise, stool may contain trophozoites and cysts of
intestinal protozoa.
Urine: Contains Schistosoma eggs, trophozoite of Trichomonas
vaginalis and rarely microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti.
Blood protozoa and microfilariae circulate in peripheral circulation to be
taken by its arthropod vector during its blood meal.
Pulmonary parasites as Paragonimus sp. pass their eggs through
bronchioles to get out with sputum. In children, sputum is swallowed and
eggs appear in stools.
Some parasites are imprisoned in certain tissues or organs until eaten by
a carnivore or predator when the cycle is completed e.g. Toxoplasma is
transmitted from rat to rat through cannibalism. Other examples are
Sarcocystis, hydatid cyst or coenurus.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Diagnosis of parasitic infection:

Diagnosis of parasitic infection:


Clinical diagnosis: depends on clinical examination for certain signs and
symptoms, which may point out to a certain parasite.
Laboratory diagnosis:
Direct diagnosis: By finding characteristic diagnostic stages (eggs, cysts,
larvae) in stool, urine, sputum or blood samples.
Indirect diagnosis: In chronic cases and whenever diagnostic stages are
imprisoned in tissues, serological tests are done ( ELISA), indirect
haemaglution test (IHAT), indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT) and
others) to detect antibodies in serum of final host. These tests have been
improved recently and most of them have a high rate of sensitivity and
specificity. Other tests are now done as estimation of circulating
antigens in blood or presence of coproantigen in stool or even presence
of antigens in urine and saliva.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Diagnosis of parasitic infection:

Biopsy in cases of Trichinella and Onchocerca.


Spinal puncture in cases of trypanosomiasis and
amoebic
meningoencephalitis.
Culture on specific media is rarely done in parasitic
infections. Only in cases of scanty parasitic stages as in case
of leishmaniasis, American trypanosomiasis and chronic
trichomonal vaginitis.
Animal inoculation may be done in trypanosomiasis and
leishmaniasis.
X-ray and the recently introduced sonar and cut scan
examinations are now of great help in parasitic diagnosis.
Sternal puncture for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis,
Toxoplasma and chronic malaria.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Scientific nomenclature:

Scientific nomenclature:
The scientific name of any parasite is the
same throughout the world. Each parasite is
classified into the taxa of phylum, class, family,
genus and species, and is given a binomial scientific
name composed of a generic name and a specific
name according to strict rules. Parasites name must
not have been given to any other parasite. It is
printed in italics or underlined; the generic name
begins with a capital letter and the specific name
with a small letter e.g. Schistosoma mansoni, or
Schistosoma mansoni.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Parasites
Protozoa

Intestinal
10/4/2016

Helminthes

Blood
Urogenital
Cestodes Trematodes Nematodes
and
tissue
Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Protozoa

Intestinal

Blood and tissue

Urogenital tract

Malaria
Entamoeba histolytica
Toxoplasma
Giardia lamblia
Trichononas Vaginalis
Trypanosoma
Cryptosporidium
Leishmaina
Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
10/4/2016

UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Parasitology is divided into:


Parasitology is divided into:
Helminthology: Dealing with study of
parasitic worms.
Protozoology: Dealing with study of
unicellular parasites.
Entomology: Dealing with study of
medically important arthropods as vectors
and intermediate hosts for parasitic
transmission.

10/4/2016

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

www.entomology.cornell.edu
www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds
www.usda.gov
www.dpd.cdc.gov/DPDx
www.nihrecord.od.nih.gov
www.insects.tamu.edu

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Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced
Introduced
by Mareana
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Mareana
Uner
Rafaat
Supervision
Uner Supervision
of Prof .Dr.ofAhmed
Prof .Dr.
Dyab
Ahmed Dyab

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Prof.Dr. Ahmed
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Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit
UniversityIntroduced by Mareana Rafaat Uner Supervision of Prof .Dr. Ahmed Dyab

Thank you

Prof.Dr. Ahmed Dyab Head ofMedical Parasitology Dep. Faculty of Medicine Assuit

Introduced by Martina Tharwat Under supervision of Prpf.Dr.


UniversityIntroduced
.Dr. Ahmed Dyab
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