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Economics of steel-framed buildings in

Europe (ESE)

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Research Fund for Coal and Steel Unit
Contact: RFCS publications
Address: European Commission, CDMA 0/178, 1049 Bruxelles/Brussel, BELGIQUE/BELGI
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European Commission

Research Fund for Coal and Steel


Economics of steel-framed buildings in Europe
(ESE)
B.A. Burgan, J.W. Rackham
The Steel Construction Institute
Silwood Park, Ascot, SL5 7QN, UK

F. Lecomte Labory
ArcelorMittal Long Products Research & Development
Rue de Luxembourg, 66, 4009 Esch-sur-Alzette, LUXEMBOURG

M. Klsak
Pozna University of Technology
5, Piotrowo Street, Pozna, 60-965, POLAND

B. Potjes
Bouwen met Staal
P.O. Box 190, Boerhaavelaan, Zoetermeer, 2700 AD, NETHERLANDS

Contract No RFSR-CT2007-00037
1 July 2007 to 30 June 2010

Final report

Directorate-General for Research and innovation

2012

EUR 25124 EN

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Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2012
ISBN 978-92-79-22430-0
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CONTENTS
Page No.
FINAL SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

PROJECT OBJECTIVES

11

COMPARISON OF INITIALLY PLANNED ACTIVITIES AND WORK


ACCOMPLISHED

13

WP1: Parameters influencing building costs


4.1 Factors which have a direct effect on building costs
4.2 Factors which have an indirect effect on building costs
4.3 Social and environmental factors
4.4 Factors incorporated in the cost tool

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WP2: Methodology for global cost estimation


5.1 Development of costing methodology
5.1.1 Multi-storey buildings
5.1.2 Flat roof industrial buildings
5.1.3 Pitched roof portal frames

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WP3: Identification of exemplar buildings


6.1 Residential/mixed use building
6.2 Commercial office building
6.3 Industrial building

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WP4: Development of the building cost tool


7.1 Development of building cost tool
7.1.1 Scope
7.1.2 Range of application
7.1.3 Simplified architecture of the software
7.1.4 Input data
7.1.5 Industrial halls
7.1.6 Output data
7.1.7 Saving data
7.1.8 Exporting data
7.1.9 Technical requirements for hardware and software

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WP5: Release of web-based building cost tool


8.1 Review and QA of Building Cost Tool
8.1.1 QA of ACE against a UK office building
8.1.2 Modelling of the exemplar residential building using ACE
8.1.3 Modelling of the exemplar commercial building using ACE
8.1.4 Modelling of two flat roof industrial buildings using ACE
8.2 Economic study of steel framed buildings in Europe using the Building
Cost Tool
8.3 Strategies for competitive steel framed buildings
8.3.1 Steel framed multi-storey residential buildings
8.3.2 Steel framed multi-storey commercial buildings
8.3.3 Steel framed industrial buildings

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CONCLUSIONS

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10

EXPLOITATION AND IMPACT OF RESEARCH RESULTS


10.1 Technical and economic potential
10.2 Dissemination of results

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10.3 Publications and conference presentations resulting from the project

89

LIST OF FIGURES

90

LIST OF TABLES

92

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

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REFERENCES

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APPENDIX A EXEMPLAR BUILDINGS


A.1 Residential/ mixed use building
A.1.1 Introduction
A.1.2 Architecture
A.1.3 Main structure
A.1.4 Foundations
A.1.5 Design data
A.1.6 Schedule of key components
A.1.7 Schedule of quantities and costs
A.2 Commercial building
A.2.1 Introduction
A.2.2 Architecture
A.2.3 Main structure
A.2.4 Foundations
A.2.5 Design data
A.2.6 Schedule of key components
A.2.7 Schedule of quantities and costs
A.3 Industrial Building
A.3.1 Introduction
A.3.2 Architecture
A.3.3 Main structure
A.3.4 Foundations
A.3.5 Design Data
A.3.6 Schedule of quantities and costs

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APPENDIX B USING ACE


B.1 Introduction
B.2 Start ACE
B.2.1 Choice of language:
B.2.2 Calculation mode
B.2.3 Menu modules
B.3 Basic prices
B.4 Input data
B.4.1 Define geometry
B.4.2 Define orientation and configuration (scheme) of floor system
B.5 Results
B.5.1 Run application
B.5.2 Edit summary report
B.5.3 Select and edit Technical detailed report
B.5.4 Save the data

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FINAL SUMMARY
1.

Objectives

The objective of this project is to provide practitioners with an easy to use Building Cost Tool to enable
them to develop cost-effective design solutions for steel-framed buildings and make economic
comparisons between alternative schemes. This cost tool is supplemented by guidance to designers on
economic design in steel, as well as exemplars of different building types. The tool also can be used by
designers to demonstrate to decision makers and investors the economic benefits of steel construction in
the commercial, industrial and residential sectors.

2.

WP1: Parameters affecting building costs

The objective of this work package was to identify the key factors that influence building costs. The
factors were divided into three categories; factors directly affecting building costs and factors indirectly
affecting building costs and social and environmental factors that could influence building costs.
Factors affecting direct building costs included: legislation, codes and standards, country, structure and
external finishing. Sub-categories of the structure and external finishing included the substructure,
upper floors and frame, roof, external walls, doors and windows. The upper floors and frame category
was further divided to incorporate the type of floor, e.g., composite floors, rolled I-beams, plated
sections, cellular beams, trusses, pre-cast units and integrated floor systems.
Factors which have an indirect effect on building costs are time related; e.g. construction programme,
early revenue from building use and cost of borrowing. Social and environmental factors include such
issues as choice of material, material sources, transport demands associated with the use of the building,
building fabric issues associated with the local climate, etc.
It was decided at the outset that the costing methodology and the cost tool would focus on those factors
that can define the building in sufficient detail and which have an important direct effect on the building
cost. This achieves a balance between complexity and accuracy of estimated cost at preliminary
design stage.

3.

WP2: Methodology for global cost estimation

The main objective of work package 2 was to develop costing methodologies covering the factors
selected in WP1 for inclusion in the cost methodology. A further objective was to compile a data base of
key rates from a number of European countries.
The costing methodology was developed for multi-storey commercial, multi-storey residential and
single storey industrial buildings. Direct costs were calculated using the methodology developed. The
structure costs are divided into four basic components: steel supply, fabrication, surface treatment and
erection.
For multi-storey buildings, the cost can be calculated for alternative structural design concepts. These
concepts include a number of simplifying assumptions, such as simple beam connections and steel and
concrete grades. The member design (beams and columns) is always based on the Eurocodes. The
industrial building design is based on a series of pre-designs that have been prepared during the project
and are used as a basis for calculating scheme costs.
The cost methodology uses a database of key cost rates. This was compiled during the project from a
variety of sources for the UK, Belgium, Luxembourg, Portugal, Netherlands, Poland, France, Germany
and Spain. A spreadsheet was developed to calculate the cost of a complete building by using the
database of key rates. Material and manpower cost rates were used to build up the cost for the steel
elements, connections, floor slabs, etc, and this data was then used to calculate the cost of the erected
structure. The erection cost is constant for beams and columns with similar weight, and the transport
cost is a function of the weight (/kg) up to a given distance. The cost of corrosion protection is

assumed to be a constant value per meter. The fire protection cost depends on steel profile shape and on
protection type.
The faade and ground floor costs are modelled separately, and the roof is assumed to be 60% of the
cost of an upper floor. The methodology allows for the inclusion of the cost of column footings, and
selection can be made out of three types of soil. An overhead figure is included as a fixed percentage of
the combined cost of the erected frame and its corrosion and fire protection.
For industrial buildings, the methodology covers rectangular flat roof and pitched roof buildings. Flat
roof structures are assumed to be braced in the two orthogonal directions, and have roof beams with
simply supported end connections, whereas the pitched roof structures are assumed to be portal frames
with moment resisting connections.
A summary of the cost methodology is provided in a separate document (Technical Notes) which is
available on the web page (www.arcelormittal.com/sections).

4.

WP3: Identification of exemplar buildings

The objective of this work package was to identify three exemplar steel framed buildings that could be
used to check and demonstrate the use of the Building Cost Tool. One multi-storey residential, one
multi-storey commercial and a single storey industrial building were identified. The residential building
was hypothetical, but the others were actual buildings.
The residential building is a six-storey structure designed for a London location, and is about 17 62 m
plan area with ground floor retail outlets. The structure is designed as a braced frame, with composite
beams and composite floors using steel decking for the upper floors, but the ground floor is of
reinforced concrete construction. The building walls are of lightweight construction, with lightweight
internal partitions and lightweight external cavity walls which support insulated rendered cladding. The
roof construction is the same as the floors below, but with a built-up flat roof covering laid to falls. The
building was designed in detail (both architecturally and structurally), and the floor and structural
member sizes were established. Quantities were estimated for both the structure and foundations. Costs
were then established using those quantities and current cost rates appropriate for London. In addition,
estimates were made of non-structural elements (e.g., architectural and mechanical and electrical items).
The commercial building identified is the Centre Acier ArcelorMittal (CAAL) in Lige, Belgium. It is
an administrative office building of ArcelorMittal and is built along the river Meuse. It has five-storeys
(ground floor, plus four storeys) and provides accommodation for 300 people. The building is 18 80
m in plan and has a glazed faade. The main structure comprises a steel frame with composite (cellular)
beams and composite floors with steel decking.
The industrial building identified is a flat roof building constructed in about 2005 and located in
Emmen in the Netherlands. It is mainly a single storey building, but a small part for offices consists of
two storeys. The rectangular plan form is approximately 56 m long by 20 m wide, and the height of the
building is 6 m. The main structure is made of portals with moment resisting beam-to-column
connections. The portals provide stability against wind loads across the building. Stability in the other
direction is provided by bracing. The building comprises 33 tonnes of structural steel.
The costs analysis of all three buildings is presented in Appendix A.. The total cost for the complete
building, as well as the cost per m2 for the structure etc, is presented in each case.

5.

WP4: Development of a building cost tool

The objectives of this work package were to develop the cost tool and to use the exemplar buildings as
to demonstrate and check the tool.
The cost tool (ACE) was developed to provide cost and weight estimates for multi-storey buildings and
simple industrial buildings with open spaces (halls). It can also serve as a cost calculator for alreadydesigned solutions. It was structured in four modes: ACE Single Module; ACE Multi-Module; Beam
Calculator and Industrial halls. ACE Single Module provides a quick cost and weight estimate for one

module of a floor system. ACE Multi-Module provides an estimate for the whole building. Beam
Calculator provides the cost of floor systems already designed (with data for the beams and slabs
imported from external software. Industrial Halls provides cost and weight estimates for industrial
buildings of simple geometry with flat or pitched roofs.
The software comprises pre-processing, calculation and post-processing components. The preprocessing component handles the input data, including: language, type of analysis (e.g., multi-module),
cost data, geometrical data (column grid), beam and column type, fire protection, loads, floor systems,
bracing, foundations and non-structural items such as services and faade. The calculation component
performs the analysis at ULS and ensures that the SLS criteria are met by searching through the profile
database. The post-processing component can generate a summary output report or a detailed output
report for every beam and column, as well as cost breakdown for all key components. A detailed
explanation of the technical basis of the analysis of the cost tool is given in the Technical Notes on the
website.
The analysis of the exemplar buildings was used in the quality assurance checking of the software and
demonstration of its application.

6.

WP5: Release of web-based building cost tool

The objectives of work package 5 were to develop an web page that could host the deliverables in
English, French, Dutch and Polish (including the cost tool and a user guide).
Following the development of the tool, the partners carried extensive testing of the tool and reported
errors and suggested improvements. The tool was used to analyse and calculate the cost of the exemplar
residential and commercial buildings as well as a further 4-storey office building in the UK. In the case
of industrial buildings, two buildings that had been designed and costed independently using preexisting Dutch software were used to check the methodology and accuracy of ACE for industrial
buildings.
The tool was also used to provide data to establish recommendations for scheme design of steel framed
residential, commercial and industrial buildings.
A web page has been developed at www.arcelormittal.com/sections for disseminating the project
deliverables; the Strategy Report, the Exemplar Buildings Report, a software user guide and the
Technical Notes can be downloaded from the web page. To access these deliverables, the user should
follow the Steel Research Reports link on this page and then the Steel Structures and Eurocodes link.

7.

Conclusions

The project achieved its main objective of developing a tool to enable designers to develop costeffective design solutions and cost estimates for steel-framed buildings in the commercial, industrial
and residential sectors. This was achieved by:

identifying parameters influencing building costs

developing a costing methodology

establishing cost rates for building activities and materials for a number of European countries

developing the software tool (ACE)

identifying exemplar buildings where full costs were available to provide quality assurance to the
cost tool and to demonstrate its application

using the cost tool to help develop recommendations for economic scheme design of steel framed
buildings

establishing a web page where users can access the cost tool, information on the exemplar
buildings and the design recommendations (Strategy report).

The web page and the cost tool are now available for use by designers, and default prices contained in
the tool can be edited so that it can costs can be kept up-to-date.

INTRODUCTION

There have been significant developments in the structural design of steel-framed buildings in recent
years and design information now exists in the Eurocodes and the output of RFCS/ECSC projects. The
Eurocodes provide the designer with a wide range of approaches for the design of steel-framed
buildings. However, information on the building cost benefits of steel solutions has remained lacking.
Often, steel has not been specified in multi-storey construction because designers have:

Not considered steel as a possible solution, owing to its perceived complexity and their
unfamiliarity with its economic design, or

Prepared a steel solution but have rejected it at the preliminary design stage, owing to the use of an
inappropriate design approach making it economically uncompetitive.

A market survey carried out in nine European countries showed that there was a general need for
information on costs and economics in steel construction.1
There are both direct and indirect relationships between structural design efficiency and cost. What
might be considered as an efficient design in terms of structural performance may not necessarily be
cost-effective overall (e.g. a structurally efficient un-braced frame with composite beam-to-column
joints may be more costly to construct owing to the complexity of the connections). Some studies have
considered the influence of service integration within the floor2,3. The outcome from those studies
complements and informs this project.
As well as identifying factors that affect direct building costs (i.e., weight of structural materials,
building height, fire protection, etc.), it is important to consider other costs that are impacted by the
structural form used. For example, although it is commonly perceived that one of the advantages of
steel is the speed of construction, the effect of speed on cost has sometimes been overlooked (cost of
site management, on-site facilities, reduced cost of borrowing to finance the building development and
financial benefit of early rental to tenants).
The competitiveness of steel construction is also strongly influenced by general market conditions. The
demand from China over the past few years caused steel costs throughout the world to climb at
unprecedented rates. These market conditions gave rise to a perception that structural steel solutions are
more expensive compared to those using other materials. The current market turmoil has added to the
uncertainty about the competitiveness of steel construction.
This project provides a costing tool for designers of steel framed buildings in Europe, which enables
them to develop cost-effective steel solutions at the concept stage of a project. It was developed using
cost-modelling techniques for the overall building cost and a simple facility for incorporating up to date
material costs and labour rates. The cost tool can be used to derive cost estimates for multi-storey
commercial and residential buildings, and single-storey industrial buildings. It permits the overall cost
optimisation of these building types by allowing comparison of alternative schemes. The tool is
validated using relevant cost and construction data from exemplar buildings of the building types
covered within the scope of the project. It should lead to a greater understanding by practitioners of the
economics of steel construction in buildings, and will improve opportunities in a sector where the
market share for steel across Europe4 is only 25%.

PROJECT OBJECTIVES

The overall objective of this project is to provide practitioners with an online building cost tool to
enable them to develop cost-effective design solutions for steel-framed buildings and to enable
economic comparisons to be made.
The technical objectives are:

To indentify parameters influencing the cost of buildings in Europe;

To develop a software tool that will analyse typical single storey industrial buildings, multi-storey
commercial buildings and multi-storey residential buildings according to a range of prescribed
input parameters, including geometry, structural form and loading;

To obtain the relevant cost data for several European countries which can be used in calculating
building costs and updated when necessary;

To identify three exemplar buildings with full cost data: a single storey industrial building, a multistorey commercial building and a multi-storey residential building and to use these to demonstrate
the cost components of such buildings;

To make the key project deliverables easily available via a website. These include the cost tool,
strategies for economic design of buildings, design and cost data for the selected exemplar
buildings, a user guide and technical notes that give the background to the cost tool.

The commercial objectives are:

To support designers in convincing decision makers and investors to work with steel in the
commercial, industrial and residential sectors; and ultimately,

To contribute to improving the market share for steel framed buildings in Europe from the current
relatively low level of 25% by facilitating a greater understanding of the economics of steel
construction.

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COMPARISON OF INITIALLY PLANNED


ACTIVITIES AND WORK ACCOMPLISHED

The project achieved all its objectives as foreseen in the contract, although the timing of the various
deliverables varied (in some cases significantly) from the original plan. In particular, finalisation of the
costing methodology and completion and quality assurance of the software were completed very late in
the project, although the overall timeframe of the project was such that it was possible to accommodate
this.

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WP1: PARAMETERS INFLUENCING BUILDING


COSTS

The objective of this work package was to identify parameters that affect building costs of steel framed
buildings, with particular emphasis on: single storey industrial buildings; multi-storey residential
buildings, and multi-storey commercial buildings. The reason for identifying these parameters is to
select those that are most important for inclusion in the cost methodology (WP2) and the cost tool
(WP4). The parameters were divided into:

Factors that affect direct building costs.

Factors that affect indirect building costs.

Social and environmental sustainability factors that affect building costs.

These key factors were expanded into a larger agreed list, summarised below.

4.1

Factors which have a direct effect on building costs

The following are factors which affect the direct building costs:
Legislation, codes/standards

Loading.

Efficiency of design codes.

Fire regulations.

Factors related site location (country, climate, soil)

Area of erection (cost variations related to country and region within the country).

Site location (urban or rural, site access, storage of materials, suitability of ground for crane, etc.).

Factors related to structure and external finishing


General

Use of building.

Size of building (floor area economies of scale).

Shape of building (regular, irregular).

Geometry of structure:

building grid (regular, irregular, span, beam spacing).

height of building (no. of floors, floor-to-floor height).

Fire resistance period specified for each part of the structure.

Substructure

Foundation type (e.g., piles + pile caps + ground beams + suspended ground floor slab, pad bases +
ground-bearing ground floor slab) depends on:

type of soil.

resistance of soil.

depth of foundations.

Upper floors and frame structure (Steel):

Form of structural frame (braced, unbraced).

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Type of floor system (composite beams + slab, rolled I-beams, plated sections, cellular beams,
trusses, pre-cast units, slimfloor systems depends on under-floor services requirement).

Propping & precambering.

Connection complexity (pinned, moment resisting).

Corrosion protection specification (paint systems, galvanising).

Fire protection specification (coatings on-site/off-site, board).

Steel grade.

Transport cost (related to component size, weight, distance to site).

Erection cost.

Frame stability (bracing systems).

Upper floors and frame structure (Concrete)

Form of structural frame (e.g. braced by shear walls).

Type of floor system (reinforced concrete slab, ribbed slab, precast slab).

Concrete grade.

Roof

Roof type/pitch (flat slab, lightweight steel).

Roof covering.

External walls, doors and windows

Type of cladding/wall construction (brick and block cavity wall + brickwork supports + insulation
+ plasterboard, curtain wall with integral glazing panels, sandwich panel with steel/aluminium
finish etc).

4.2

Factors which have an indirect effect on building costs

The following time related factors indirectly affect building costs:

Time taken for construction (cost of preliminaries).

Cost of borrowing.

Early/late selling or letting.

4.3

Social and environmental factors

The following are particular social and environmental factors which were identified as influencing the
cost of a building:

Location of building commuting, transport, energy usage of tenants.

Frame material economy least weight solution can cost more to design and fabricate, but cheaper
to deliver.

Weight of structural materials (e.g., lighter material may incur lower transportation costs and lead
to smaller/cheaper foundations).

Use of recycled materials may limit design options:

Aggregate substitutes in concrete (e.g., pulverized fuel ash/china clay stent waste rock
separated from the useable china clay).

Use of local suppliers may cost more, but reduce transport carbon footprint.

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Improved thermal efficiency high insulation, use of thermal storage in fabric can cost more to
build but reduce energy consumption when the building is in use.

Building height tall buildings are less energy efficient, but more economic in use of land.

Use of brownfield sites costs more to prepare site.

Use of standardised components for possible re-use.

Use of recyclable materials.

Conservation of water rainwater harvesting systems, grey water recycling (rain water used for
WCs), low water usage appliances.

Use of reduced water run-off measures green roofs, reed bed drainage/balancing ponds.

Use of low energy lighting.

Use of energy generating systems photovoltaic panels/wind turbines/solar heating are expensive
to incorporate, but may be offset by government grants.

Use of sustainable materials not necessarily as durable and may cost more to source and
maintain.

Timber from sustainable sources.

Use of increased glazing area to improve natural lighting, but may be offset by solar gain.

4.4

Factors incorporated in the cost tool

The factors with a direct effect on building costs (section 4.1) formed the basis for the cost
methodology (WP2) and the cost tool (WP4). Indirect factors and social and environmental factors
cannot be incorporated without significantly increasing the complexity and affecting the usability of the
cost tool.

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WP2: METHODOLOGY FOR GLOBAL COST


ESTIMATION

The objectives of this work package were:

To develop a costing methodology for different frame variants, dealing with connection costs and
variations in structural steel sections.

To identify the most effective building solutions in terms of economy of material and cost
effectiveness.

To develop cost modelling methodologies to enable the assessment of the impact of the structural
options on the total building cost.

From the results of WP1, to quantify the parameters influencing the cost of a building through the
development of key rates in a variety of European countries.

To develop a cost estimation spreadsheet that would incorporate a data base of key rates in Europe,
which could be updated readily to reflect the fluctuation in rates.

5.1

Development of costing methodology

The philosophy of the design process of a building is to optimise the design in order to achieve a
minimum cost solution commensurate with the specification. Traditionally, the measure used to judge
the economy of the structural design is the quantity of steel in the structure, expressed as tonnes per
square metre of floor area. Therefore, the optimisation of a design has meant the minimisation of the
quantity of material used.
However, although a designer can optimise the structural frame to provide a least weight solution, if no
account is taken of the number and complexity of the connections the optimal structural solution may
be economically uncompetitive.
A cost methodology can be adapted to suit different stages of design; for example

Stage 1 Pre-design costing estimated from professional know-how, experience and reference
projects. Costs are typically given in /m2 or /ton.

Stage 2 Indicative Costing based on experience, design tables, portal frame design guidance. At
this stage, types and details of connections are known.

Stage 3 Detailed costing with rates from tenders and Bills of Quantities.

The cost methodology adopted for the costing tool takes into account the direct costs described in WP1.
Direct costs can be readily assessed, while indirect costs must be considered on a case-by-case basis.
Indirect costs can be included as specific sums, if required.
The structure costs are divided into four components:

Steel supply.

Fabrication.

Finishing.

Erection.

The cost tool (see WP4) calculates the building cost based on a concept design developed by the cost
tool based on user input and a number of simplifying assumptions. The concept design process and
costing methodology adopted vary according to the building type and these are discussed in the
following sections.

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5.1.1

Multi-storey buildings

Design
The concept design of multi-storey buildings uses an analysis process which makes the following
assumptions for the choice and design of beams:

Simply supported end conditions.

Steel grades are in accordance with EN 1991-1: S235, S355 and S460 Histar.

Concrete strength is class: C30/37 or C40/45.

IPE, HEA, HEB and HEM I-profiles, cellular beams and slim floor beams.

Cellular beams are always secondary beams.

One commonly used steel deck profile.

19 mm diameter shear studs; height defined according to slab thickness (slab/studs: 12 cm =


75 mm, 14 cm = 100 mm, 20 cm = 150 mm, >25 cm = 175 mm according to EN 1994-1).

Primary beams are always non-composite.

Design is performed according to EN 1993-1, EN 1994-1 and in accordance with requirements of


EN 1991-1.

The concrete slab is designed in accordance with the appropriate EN (1994-1 for composite or 1992-1
for reinforced concrete); possible configurations are

Composite concrete slab on steel deck (concrete density is taken as 2500 kg/m3).

Precast slab.

Hollow core slab (a 50 mm concrete topping is always assumed).

Table 5.1 gives an example of the beam/slab combinations assumed in the concept design.
Table 5.1

Beam/slab combinations
Non-composite

Composite

I profiles

Steel deck

Precast slab

Hollow core slab

Steel deck

Precast slab

Cellular beam

Steel deck

Precast slab

Hollow core slab

Steel deck

Precast slab

Hollow core slab

Slim floor

Columns are automatically loaded at each level by the permanent and variable loads applied to the floor
surface. Simple load combinations and EN 1993-1 formulae for elements in compression (with
reduction due to buckling) are then used. The same steel grades for beams and columns are assumed.
Building height is limited to 20 storeys.
For ULS checks, the safety factors are the following:

Permanent load with the safety load factor equal to 1,35.

Variable load with the safety load factor equal to 1,50.

The slab weight is added automatically with the safety factor load equal to 1,35. For SLS checks, the
safety factors are all equal to 1,00.
The methodology allows for the inclusion of the cost of column footings. These are sized on the basis of
soil strength and column axial load.
Wind bracing is allowed for using an empirical adjustment to the weight of steel.

20

The composite beam design routine is an important feature of the cost tool; it considers both the
construction and normal design stages. Where propping or pre-cambering is necessary, the choice is
based on a cost analysis of the two options: usually longer beams (over 6 m) are cheaper if precambered. The logic used in this routine is illustrated in the flow chart shown in Figure 5.1. [The term
profile in the figure refers to the beam section size.]

Figure 5.1

Composite beam design routine flow chart

Cost methodology
The cost methodology for multi-storey buildings uses a database of key rates to produce a cost
estimation spreadsheet covering all the key cost items. For example, it uses the cost of materials for
steel sections and the associated fabrication labour costs to calculate the cost per tonne of fabricated

21

steelwork. Certain cost items (roof, foundations, services and preliminaries) can also be entered directly
by the user.
Database of rates
The database of key cost rates was compiled from a variety of sources, including cost information from
tendered projects and from discussions with steel fabricators and assistance from ECCS. Rates are
included for:

Manpower (different categories).

Shear studs.

Bolts.

Cranes.

Steel.

Floor components.

In-situ concrete.

Transport.

Propping.

Overheads.

Fire protection.

Corrosion protection.

These are shown in Table 5.2 for the UK, Belgium, Luxembourg, Portugal, Netherlands, Poland,
France, Germany and Spain. Such information clearly becomes out-of-date in time, and needs to be
updated periodically. In a few cases, rates for certain items in certain countries could not be obtained.
These are also highlighted in Table 5.2. In any event, all of these figures can be updated or modified by
the user of the cost tool (see WP4).

22

23

/ m3

/ m2

/ m2

/ m2

/ m2

/ ton

ton

ton

m3

m2

m2

m2

m2

unit

m3

ton

Reinforcement in slab

Reinforcement in precast
slab

concrete screed

precast slab 5cm

Hollow core 12

Hollow core 16

Hollow core 20

Hollow core 27

Hollow core 32

Hollow core 40

Concrete

concrete

reinforcement

/ ton

m2

Steel decking

timbering (in situ)

/ m2

concrete steel deck

/m

/ m3

/m

/m

/m

/ ton

/m

/ m3

m3

concrete precast slab

/ ton

/ ton

/ ton

/ ton

ton

ton

Steel quality S355

ton

ton

Steel quality S235

Steel for angles

unit

Floor

/ day

/ day

/ unit

/ unit

/ unit

/ unit

/h

Cost/unit

Steel quality S460

day

unit

bolts M22-60 (Grade 8.8)

day

unit

bolts M20-60 (Grade 8.8)

Big crane 100 ton

unit

bolts M16-60 (Grade 8.8)

Crane 40 ton

unit

unit

45

500

105

52

47

45

36

27

15

14

85

575

500

12.5

110

110

650

615

575

525

1500

680

0.54

0.52

0.51

40

Belgium

Database of key rates used in the cost tool

Stud

manpower (mh)

Basic costs

Table 5.2

45

800

100

49

44

40

33

30

29

18

80

800

800

10.5

100

100

800

850

800

750

1100

650

1.4

0.95

0.4

40

Luxembourg

28.9

577.8

95.6

66.7

61.1

57.8

50.2

49.4

47.8

25

75.6

577.8

577.8

25

95.6

95.6

994.4

not in UK

988.9

922.2

1222.2

550

0.9

0.8

0.7

44.4

UK

12.5

620

103

52

46

36

36

32

29

25

60

670

670

104

104

575

700

650

600

1300

650

0.61

0.34

0.2

14

45

690

95

55

50

46

38

34

30

19

75

690

690

10

95

95

620

670

620

570

1500

600

0.52

0.51

0.5

47

Cost/unit

Netherlands

/ unit

Portugal

587

85

35

30

29

25

22

22

20

67

899

587

12.5

67

67

699

837

837

812

599.5

299.8

0.94

0.52

0.27

0.56

7.5

Poland

35

570

78

55

48

37

36

33

30

25

62

570

570

9.27

78

78

480

560

522

470

1500

850

0.51

0.49

0.22

0.9

29

France

36

432

122

44

40

37

30

27

24

15

64

432

432

10

122

122

464

581

541

493

1362

697

0.51

0.49

0.39

0.93

37

Germany

31

713

108

38

34

32

26

23

21

13

56

713

713

10

108

108

506

722

672

612

1191

616

0.45

0.43

0.34

0.82

32

Spain

24

/ m2

kg

m2

Spray

Promat (15 mm)

unit

m2

m2

Rock wool (25 mm)

Corrosion protection

primer

finish

/ m2

kg

Intumescent paint

Gypsum board (12 mm)

/ kg

unit

Fire protection material

3
Luxembourg

0.5

2.6

0.7

15

48

0.5

2.9

29

0.7

17

14

Belgium

missing values

estimated values

/ m2

/ m2

/m

/ kg

Overhead

/%

unit

Overhead

/m

Portugal

2.5

1.6

3.96

6.35

0.6

6.5

15

17

assume 1 = 0.9

UK

3.1

4.9

1.7

3.9

0.7

12.2

13.3

14

25.3

22

366
34.3

20

250

Netherlands

6.5

/ unit

0.5

2.5

30

0.65

6.5

/ unit

11

/ unit

12

4.4

43.3

20

400

40

40

870

beam

37.3

20

320

20

20

240

47

Cost/unit

Netherlands

4.5

43.3

20

400

50

50

600

21.25

Portugal

/ unit

/ m2

/ ton

/ day

40

40

850

40

UK

m2

18, 20 ou 22 tons

50

50

600

40

Luxembourg

unit

day

tons

1 truck

/h

/h

/ day

40

Belgium

slab

6h

1 truckdriver

0.125 day

1 truckdriver

1 crane

/h

/ unit

Cost/unit

Propping

Transport

truckload

transport

loading/
unloading

unit

transport shop to site

1 craneman

unit

Basic costs

France

0.5

2.5

0.6

6.5

15

13

4.5

30.4

18

200

24

24

1200

29

France

assume 1 = 4.0031 zl

Poland

2.25

1.5

2.35

2.5

30

0.7

6.5

15

10

3.5

30

20

240

10

10

280

12

Poland

Germany

0.5

2.6

0.7

15

15

32.2

20

247

36

36

868

37

Germany

Spain

2.7

1.7

0.34

1.72

0.45

4.51

15

12

4.5

31.7

18

219

32

32

766

32

Spain

Cost information spreadsheets


A spreadsheet was developed to calculate the cost of a complete building by considering the parameters
of direct cost identified in WP1, using the database of key rates in Table 5.2. Material and manpower
cost rates were used to build up the cost rate for the steel elements, connections, floor slabs, etc., as
shown in Table 5.3. This data was then used to calculate the cost of the erected structure.
Table 5.3

Structural cost estimation spreadsheet

PRICES for one country

TOTAL

Quantity

Manpower

(UK, Netherland Poland, Belux, France, Germany, Spain)


qu/unit unit

unit
1

piece

pc

beam

pc

Studs (databases for studs in shop or on site)


Pre-cambering
4
Connections
4.1 Beam-column with angles
(databases for several choices of profile)
handling beam
bolts ex: M16-60 (Grade 8.8)
punching holes
cut beam
assembling +handling angles
angles ex: (L 100x100x8 length = 2*135 mm)

Beam-beam with angles


(databases for several choices of profile)
handling beam
bolts M22-60 (Grade 8.8)
punching holes
cut beam and create cope at beam-end
assembling +handling angles
angles ex: (L 100x100x10 length = 2*700 mm)

pc
piece
pc
pc
pc
pc
pc
kg
pc
pc
pc
pc
pc
pc
kg

piece

PRICES for one country

piece
pc
pc
pc
pc
pc
m
kg

TOTAL

Quantity

Manpower

(UK, Netherland Poland, Belux, France, Germany, Spain)


qu/unit unit

unit

Erection (databases for several spans)

Corrosion protection <100 kg/m

mh/unit

mh

Material
Subcontractor

/qu mat ()
/qu mat ()

ton

erection manpower
crane

pc
day
ton
m2/ton
m2/ton

primer
finishing
7

Engineering/drawing cost
1 hr engineering and drawing/ 5 hrs fabrication

8
8.1

8.2

8.3

Floor system
Floor "precast slab 5 cm"
databases for several slab thickness
propping
precast slab
reinforcement in precast slab
reinforcement on top of precast slab
Crane Work
concrete
Floor with "steel decking"
databases for several spans
propping
steel decking
concrete
reinforcement
Concrete and "hollow core slab
(databases for several concrete grade and slab thickness)
hollow core slab 20 cm
chape compression 3 cm
Crane Work
reinforcement

m2
m2
m2
kg
kg
h
m3
m2
m2
m2
m3
kg
m2
m2
m3
h
kg

Cost estimate for floor systems


The cost estimate for different floor systems are based on the following assumptions:
Beams and columns:
Material cost depends on:

/qu mat ()

Column-column
(database for several choices of profile)
handling column
bolts ex: M20-100 (Grade 8.8)
drilling holes
cut beam
assembling +handling end/base plate
welding end/base plate (plate = 32mm; continuous fillet weld)
end plate (ex: plate = 32 mm)

Subcontractor

ton
ton
ton

Material
/qu mat ()

ton

4.3

mh

Material: databases for several steel quality (S235, S355, S460)


and profiles ex: <100 kg/m and >100 kg/m
handling
beam S235, S355, S460
transport shop to site

4.2

mh/unit

Profile weight (2 ranges: < 100 kg/m and > 100 kg/m)

25

Steel grade (S235, S355, S460 Histar)

Manpower

Shear studs (beams only):


Cost depends on:

Stud type (welded in shop),

Number of studs,

Manpower,

Slab type.

The cost of propping is a function of span and slab type, but not all beams require propping; those that
do are identified in the software. The erection cost is constant for beams and columns with similar
weight, and the transport cost is a function of the weight (/kg). The cost of corrosion protection is
assumed to be a constant value per meter length of a given profile. The fire protection cost depends on
steel profile shape and on protection type, and is explained later in the section.
The overhead is a constant percentage of the following items: beam and column costs, fire protection
cost, corrosion protection cost, connection cost and erection cost.
Concrete slab:
The concrete class is linked to the steel grade as follows:

C30/37 S235,

C30/37 S355,

C40/45 S460.

The slab cost is estimated in the following way:

Concrete slab the cost is the sum of the concrete volume and reinforcement (by default 1.0% of
section area),

Steel deck: the cost is linearly dependent on the deck span,

Pre-cast slab: cost is a constant value corresponding to a pre-cast slab of 5.0 cm,

Hollow core slab the cost is extrapolated from several pre-defined costs.

The variation in slab cost with span for different types of floor is illustrated in Figure 5.2 based on an
assumed set of cost rates.
Floor with hollow core slab
Floor with steel deck

Floor with precast slab

40
20
0
10

20

30

40

Floor thickness (m)

Figure 5.2

50

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

80
Price (EUR)

60
Price (EUR)

Price (EUR)

80

60
40
20
0

0,0

2,0

4,0

6,0

8,0

Floor span (m)

10

15

20

25

Floor thickness (cm)

Variation in floor slab cost with span for different floor types

Connections:
Beam-to-beam and beam-to-column connections are assumed to be pinned. For column-to-column
joints, a rigid splice connection is assumed in order to provide continuity of stiffness and the proper

26

transmission of forces. The following connection types (A to C), shown in Figure 5.3, are used as a
basis for calculating the connection prices. Type A is assumed for beam-column connections where the
beam weight is under 100 kg/m, and Type B for beams weighing at least 100 kg/m. Each connection
type has a different price, which changes linearly as a function of beam weight and manpower. The
variation in connection price with member size for different types of connection is illustrated in
Figure 5.4, based on a given set of rates (and the time it takes to carry out each of the operations
involved in making the connection, e.g. cropping, cutting, drilling, etc.) and material costs for angles,
bolts, etc.

Figure 5.3

Types of connection:
A/ beam-column weak axis, beam under 100 kg/m, B/ beam-column strong axis, beam
over 100 kg/m, C/ beam-beam
Beam-beam connection
160

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Price (EUR)

Price (EUR)

Beam-column connection

120
80
40
0
0,0

0,0

50,0

100,0

150

50,0

100,0

150,0

Profile height (cm)

Profile height (cm)

Figure 5.4

Variation in connection price with member size

Engineering and manpower


The cost of Engineering (design office/detailing) and other Manpower required are included in
other cost components (material, transport etc.).
Fire protection materials:
The required fire resistance of steel structures in terms of fire resistance classes R is given by
national regulations and prescribed in EN. The assessment of the fire resistance of structural elements is

27

based on standard fire tests in furnaces. The cost methodology caters for the following fire protection
materials:

Intumescent paint,

Sprayed material,

Rigid panel/box.

Fire protection classes included are:

R30,

R60,

R90,

R120.

In practice, the cost of the fire protection will depend upon the:

Cost of manpower

Cost of scaffolding

Cost of material.

The cost of the material will depend upon the type, thickness required and the surface area to be
covered. Columns will normally require all 4 sides to be protected, but beams would normally only
require protection on 3 sides.
In order to estimate price of fire protection, a set of empirical formulae has been developed with the
following input parameters:

beam height

material price and man-hour rate.

The adopted solutions are presented in Table 5.4, Table 5.5 and Table 5.6. Separate formulae have been
developed for gypsum boards, intumescent paint and sprayed material.

28

Table 5.4

Cost calculation for fire protection using gypsum-based boards


Cost calculation for fire protection

Parameters from the costing list:


mh
= manhours
promat15 = cost EUR/m2 for 15 mm thickness
Input:
h
= height of the beam in m
matnet = promat15 x 1.1 x 0.9/15
Cost calculation
NB: Costs are calculated using following equations varying according:
- fire protection resistance: R30, R60 or R120
- the sections HEA, HEB, HEM, I and HD
General equation is:
Cost
=
a
x h x matnet +
b
x matnet +
where a, b, c, d are function of sections and fire protection resistance

x h x mh +

x mh

Cost for Columns:


HEA
30 =
HEB
30 =
HEM
30 =
I
30 =
HD
30 =

31.20
31.20
31.28
35.42
44.75

x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +

5.52
5.63
5.65
1.76
3.42

x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

HEA
HEB
HEM
I
HD

=
=
=
=
=

30.24
39.00
39.10
38.15
62.33

x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +

7.34
7.04
7.04
4.98
1.37

x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +

0.01
0.00
0.00
-0.03
0.00

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.52
0.50

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

HEA
120 =
HEB
120 =
HEM
120 =
I
120 =
HD
120 =
Cost for Beams:
HEA
30 =
HEB
30 =
HEM
30 =
I
30 =

35.53
35.90
40.47
66.82
8.31

x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +

21.56
17.39
8.31
13.73
26.73

x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +

-0.54
-0.29
-0.01
-0.34
-0.57

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.89
0.70
0.51
0.98
0.76

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

32.60
32.60
32.64
34.71

x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +

2.34
2.46
2.47
0.52

x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +

0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

HEA
HEB
HEM
I

60
60
60
60

=
=
=
=

39.80
39.80
39.85
28.82

x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +

3.09
3.06
3.07
3.52

x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +

0.07
0.07
0.07
0.04

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.47
0.47
0.47
0.48

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

HEA
HEB
HEM
I

120
120
120
120

=
=
=
=

38.89
39.94
38.51
56.66

x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +
x h x matnet +

9.60
5.98
3.92
8.57

x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +
x matnet +

-0.19
-0.01
0.06
-0.60

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.64
0.52
0.47
0.90

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

60
60
60
60
60

29

Table 5.5

Cost calculation for fire protection using intumescent paints


Prices for fire protection (intumescent paints)

Parameters from the price list:


Output:
Prices in EUR/M
mh
= manhours
matP
= price material paint EUR/kg
Input:
h
= height of the beam in m
Prices calculation
NB: Prices are calculated using following equations varying according:
- fire protection resistance: R30, R60 or R120
- the sections HEA, HEB, HEM, I and HD
General equation is:
a
x h x matP +
b
x matP +
c
x h x mh +
Cost
=
where a, b, c, d are function of sections and fire protection resistance
Prices for Columns:
HEA
30 =
HEB
30 =
HEM
30 =
I
30 =
HD
30 =

x mh

1.94
1.94
1.95
2.07
2.53

x h x matP +
x h x matP +
x h x matP +
x h x matP +
x h x matP +

0.55
0.58
0.59
0.12
0.76

x matP +
x matP +
x matP +
x matP +
x matP +

0.28
0.28
0.28
0.28
0.36

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.45

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

HEA
60 =
HEB
60 =
HEM
60 =
I
60 =
HD
60 =
Prices for Beams:
HEA
30 =
HEB
30 =
HEM
30 =
I
30 =

2.37
2.37
2.38
1.72
3.09

x h x matP +
x h x matP +
x h x matP +
x h x matP +
x h x matP +

0.71
0.71
0.71
0.53
0.92

x matP +
x matP +
x matP +
x matP +
x matP +

0.18
0.17
0.17
0.11
0.22

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.71
0.71
0.71
0.72
0.92

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

1.62
1.62
1.62
1.73

x h x matP +
x h x matP +
x h x matP +
x h x matP +

0.46
0.49
0.49
0.10

x matP +
x matP +
x matP +
x matP +

0.23
0.23
0.23
0.23

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.29
0.29
0.29
0.29

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

HEA
HEB
HEM
I

1.98
1.98
1.98
1.43

x h x matP +
x h x matP +
x h x matP +
x h x matP +

0.61
0.60
0.61
0.70

x matP +
x matP +
x matP +
x matP +

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.27

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.59
0.59
0.59
0.60

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

60
60
60
60

=
=
=
=

30

Table 5.6

Cost calculation for fire protection using spayed materials


Prices calculation for fire protection (Spray)

Parameters from the price list:


Output:
Prices in EUR/M
mh
= manhours
matSP = price material spray EUR/kg
Input:
h
= height of the beam in m
Prices calculation
NB: Prices are calculated using following equations varying according:
- fire protection resistance: R30, R60 or R120
- the sections HEA, HEB, HEM, I and HD
General equation is:
a
x h x matSP +
b
x matSP +
c
x h x mh +
Cost
=
where a, b, c, d are function of sections and fire protection resistance

x mh

Prices for Columns:


HEA
30 =
HEB
30 =
HEM
30 =
I
30 =
HD
30 =

12.48
12.48
12.50
13.29
16.24

x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +

2.53
2.67
2.68
0.56
3.48

x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +

0.31
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.40

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.08

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

HEA
HEB
HEM
I
HD

=
=
=
=
=

21.77
21.77
21.79
15.76
28.33

x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +

5.57
5.52
5.54
6.36
7.20

x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +

0.42
0.42
0.42
0.23
0.55

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.13

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

HEA
120 =
HEB
120 =
HEM
120 =
I
120 =
HD
120 =
Prices for Beams:
HEA
30 =
HEB
30 =
HEM
30 =
I
30 =

34.03
34.94
33.70
49.58
43.81

x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +

7.70
4.80
3.15
6.87
4.09

x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +

0.72
0.67
0.60
0.54
0.78

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.21
0.17
0.16
0.30
0.20

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

10.40
10.40
10.41
11.07

x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +

2.11
2.22
2.23
0.47

x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +

0.26
0.26
0.26
0.26

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

HEA
HEB
HEM
I

60
60
60
60

18.14
18.14
18.16
13.13

x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +

4.64
4.60
4.61
5.30

x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +

0.35
0.35
0.35
0.19

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

HEA
HEB
HEM
I

120
120
120
120

28.35
29.12
28.08
41.31

x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +
x h x matSP +

6.42
4.00
2.62
5.73

x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +
x matSP +

0.60
0.56
0.50
0.45

x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +
x h x mh +

0.18
0.14
0.13
0.25

x mh
x mh
x mh
x mh

60
60
60
60
60

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Faade, roof and ground floor


The cost of the faade is included using a budget cost/m2 for the faade. In the cost tool, this figure is
provided by the user. It is used to calculate the total cost of the faade based on the perimeter and height
of the building. The ground floor can either be included using a specific cost/m2 or it can be costed on
the same basis as the upper floors; an option is provided for this in the software. The roof is assumed to
cost 60% of a normal floor; this figure is then increased by an allowance for waterproofing.
Foundations
The methodology allows for the inclusion of the cost of column footings. Three types of soil are
allowed for and the resistances are given in Table 5.7. More specialist foundation types are outside the
scope of the methodology (and the cost tool).

31

Table 5.7

Soil parameters
Soil

Soil Resistance
q (Mpa)

Sand

0.5

Gravel

0.6

Clay

0.35

Loads on foundations are assumed to be axial and they are equal to the value in the lowest column. The
shape of the pad footing is as shown in Figure 5.5.

Figure 5.5

Shape of standard pad footings

The value of A is calculated from the following formula:


A

N
q

where:
A

the principal length of the foundation

axial load

soil resistance

The volume of the foundation is given by:


VC = A2 B + (0.25A) 2 B
The total cost of concrete is obtained by multiplying the volume by the unit cost from the database of
key rates where:
B

is the height of the foundation, and it is set to 0.35 A.

The weight of the reinforcement:


WR

= 100 VC

WR is multiplied by the unit cost of steel reinforcement from the database of key rates in order to obtain
the total cost of reinforcement.

32

The total cost of a footing is the sum of the two calculated components.
Wind bracing
Allowance can be made for wind bracing either through a percentage increase in weight or cost of
steelwork. This increase is given by a non-linear function dependent on the building height, and
whether K-bracing or X-bracing is specified. The cost is based on indicative values from engineering
practice and should be considered as a rough estimate.
Services and preliminaries
The cost methodology provides for the cost of services to be added as a user defined specific item
per m2 of floor area. Preliminaries mostly comprise the cost of site management and provision of site
facilities; the methodology allows the user to specify a percentage rate of the total cost for
preliminaries.

5.1.2

Flat roof industrial buildings

Design
The main structure of flat roof industrial buildings consists of portals and bracing. The portals consist
of beams and columns which are connected with non-rigid connections. The columns are also
connected to the foundations with non-rigid connections. The portals are stabilised by roof bracing. In
addition, vertical bracing is necessary on at least three facades of a typical rectangular building. The
forces in the roof bracing are transferred to faade bracing, and finally to the foundations.
Cost methodology
The calculation of the cost of the steel structure of flat roof industrial buildings is divided into the four
parts: materials, fabrication, finishing and erection.
Materials
The cost of materials comprises the sum of the cost of the columns, beams, bolts and secondary steel.
The cost of the beams and columns depends on the cost per kg and the steel grade. There are two
categories; one for sections with a weight lower than 100 kg/m (light sections) and one for those above
this 100kg/m (heavy sections). There are also different costs for each of the commonly used steel grades
of S235, S355 and S460. Consequently, there are six different cost components in total. The costs vary
by country and are included in the database of key rates, as shown in Table 5.2. The secondary steel
(including bracings) is assumed to be 35% of the cost of the beams and columns.
Fabrication
All the work carried out in the fabrication shop, cost of transport and cost of design, detailing and
drawing is included in the costs for fabrication as follows:
Connections:
Only simple beam-to-column connections are assumed for these buildings in the cost methodology.
There are two types of simple connection assumed within a typical frame; end plate connections
between the column and the beam at the column head, and base plate connections between the column
and the foundations. For each type of connection, an algorithm has been developed to allow for the man
hours needed to fabricate the connection. The cost of the connection increases with the weight of the
connected beam and column. The total cost of the connections is equal to the total number of man hours
for the connections in a building multiplied by the rate per man hour.
The formulae used in the model for costing the connections are shown in Table 5.8, and a graphical
presentation is given in Figure 5.6 and Figure 5.7.

33

Table 5.8

Formulae for costing connections

Connection

Formula [man hours]

Lower limit

Upper limit

End plate connection

0.0111x + 0.4335

0.70

2.65

Base plate connection

0.0002x2 + 0.0135x + 0.1975

10.90

x = weight of beam [kg/m]

Figure 5.6

Costing methodology for beam-to-column connection

Figure 5.7

Costing methodology for column base plate connections

Transport:
The cost of transport is based on the number of lorry journeys between the fabrication shop and the
building site. The total cost is the number of journeys multiplied by the cost for each. The cost rate per
journey is based on a vehicle with a capacity of 20 tonnes of steel travelling up to 100 km from the
fabrication shop, and the cost is included in the database of key rates.
Design, Detailing and Drawing:
This is related to the cost of the connections, and the cost rate is taken 0.05/kg steel.

34

Finishing
The cost components for finishing comprise corrosion protection and fire protection.
Corrosion protection:
The corrosion protection is assumed to be provided by a two-layer coating. The cost of coating is the
cost per square metre of surface area multiplied by the total protected surface area. The cost of the
coating can vary between the different countries and is included in the database of key rates.
Fire protection:
It is assumed that intumescent coatings will be used to provide fire protection for the steel frame at
thicknesses appropriate for fire resistance categories of either R30 or R60.
Erection
It is assumed that the steel structure will be assembled by a team of three erectors, two mobile working
platforms and one crane. The cost of the team per day is included in the database of key rates. The
calculation of the cost per day for a team is given in Table 5.9. The unit cost is obtained from the
database of key rates.
Table 5.9

Calculation of erection costs of flat roof portal frames


Numbers

Manhours

Unit cost

Subtotal

Erectors

24

24A

Mobile electric working platforms

16

16B

Crane

8C

Total

24A + 16B + 8C

An erection team can assemble a number of steel elements per day. The number of elements depends on
the weight of each element, and therefore the total erection time in days can be calculated. The total
erection time multiplied by the cost per team will give the total cost of erection. The formula used for
calculating the number of elements which a team can erect per day is given in Table 5.10.
Table 5.10

Erection

Formula for calculating the rate of erection of elements


Formula

Lower limit

Upper limit

0.022x + 46,3

18.8

43.6

x = weight of beam (kg/m)

This formula is presented graphically in Table 5.9.

35

Figure 5.8

5.1.3

Formula for calculating the rate of erection of elements graphical representation

Pitched roof portal frames

Design
The pitched roof portal is the most common form of the portal frame. The main components and
terminology of a pitched roof portal frame are highlighted in Figure 5.9 The use of haunches at the
eaves and apex reduce the required depth of the rafter and achieve an efficient moment connection at
these points. Often, the haunch is cut from the same size of section as the rafter.
A typical pitched roof portal frame and its connections are shown in Figure 5.9 to Figure 5.12.
Apex

Eaves

Roof pitch

Rafter

Apex haunch
Eaves haunch
Column

Figure 5.9

Single-span symmetric portal frame

Haunch
Compression stiffener

Figure 5.10

Single-span symmetric portal frame

Note: the haunch is considered to be the same size rolled section as the rafter.

36

Figure 5.11

Apex connection

Base plate
Welding
Figure 5.12

Base plate connection

Analyses have been carried out to establish a series of single span frame designs (including appropriate
connection details) within a range of parameters. The parameters that were varied and their range are as
follows:

Span range: 12 -30 m, in steps of 3 m

Steel grade: S235

Steel sections: I-sections only

Frame spacing: 6 m

Eaves height: 4, 6 and 8 m (from base to rafter centre-line)

Roof pitch: 3 (= 5%)

Haunched connections in the rafters at the eaves and apex

Base connections: pinned

Loadings considered:

Roof:

0.25 kN/m2

Cladding:

0.15 kN/m2

Wind:

0.9 kN/m2

Snow:

0.5 and 1 kN/m2

The frame member designs for this range of parameters are shown in Table 5.11. This data has been
incorporated into a database for use in the cost calculations using the database of rates in Table 5.2. The
connection data for each frame is contained in a separate database. The data for a typical connection is
shown in Figure 5.13.

37

Figure 5.13

Typical connection data

38

Table 5.11

Pre-design table for pitched roof portal frames

Span
[m]

Eaves height
[m]

Snow load
[kN/m]

Rafter

Column

Haunch
length [m]

Weight [kg]

12.0

4.0

0.5

IPE 240

IPE 300

0.6

712

1.0

IPE 270

IPE 330

0.6

832

6.0
8.0
15.0

4.0
6.0
8.0

18.0

4.0
6.0
8.0

2.10

0.96

1131

0.6

1195

0.5

IPE 330

IPE 450

2.0

1893

1.0

IPE 330

IPE 450

2.05

1896

0.5

IPE 270

IPE 330

0.85

947

1.0

IPE330

IPE360

0.75

1208

0.5

IPE300

IPE360

0.75

1330

1.0

IPE330

IPE400

0.85

1546

0.5

IPE330

IPE450

2.55

2065

1.0

IPE360

IPE500

0.9

2315

0.5

IPE330

IPE360

0.9

1360

1.0

IPE360

IPE450

0.95

1671

0.5

IPE330

IPE400

1698

1.0

IPE400

IPE450

0.9

2144

IPE400

IPE450

0.9

2448

IPE400

IPE500

2661

0.5

IPE360

IPE400

1.05

1757

1.0

IPE400

IPE500

1.45

2174

0.5

IPE360

IPE450

1.2

2158

1.0

IPE450

IPE500

1.05

2748

0.5

IPE400

IPE500

1.05

2859

1.0

IPE450

IPE550

1.05

3336

0.5

IPE400

IPE450

1.3

2260

1.0

IPE450

IPE500

1.8

2677

0.5

IPE400

IPE500

1.4

2722

1.0

IPE500

IPE550

1.2

3487

0.5

IPE450

IPE550

1.2

3576

1.0

IPE500

IPE600

1.2

4166

0.5

IPE450

IPE500

1.75

2902

1.0

IPE500

IPE550

2.2

3429

0.5

IPE450

IPE550

1.45

3410

1.0

IPE550

IPE600

1.35

4380

8.0

0.5

IPE500

IPE600

1.35

4447

1.0

IPE550

IPE750X137

1.35

5089

4.0

0.5

IPE500

IPE550

3678

1.0

IPE600

IPE600

1.5

4749

0.5

IPE500

IPE600

1.5

4247

1.0

IPE600

IPE750X137

1.5

5402

0.5

IPE500

IPE600

1.75

4750

1.0

IPE600

IPE750X137

1.5

5939

4.0

4.0
6.0
8.0
4.0
6.0

30.0

IPE 360
IPE 360

1.0

8.0

27.0

IPE 270
IPE 300

0.5

6.0

24.0

0.5
1.0

6.0
8.0

39

Cost methodology
The factors influencing the cost of a pitched roof portal frame structure are similar to those for flat roof
structures, although portal frames are more complex because of their connections. The total cost is a
function of the material quantity, fabrication, steel transport and erection. The material and transport
depend on the steel cost and weight. The columns, rafters and connections are included in the cost
calculation, and three types of connections are considered: base plate, eave and apex connections. The
manpower is considered by taking into account the cutting, drilling, handling (including crane),
assembling and welding for fabrication and erection of the columns, the rafters and the connections.
The total cost of one portal frame is the cost of two columns and two rafters, derived as follows:
Columns
The cost calculation for a column is divided into three parts:

Main column length: man-hours for cutting, drilling and handling + quantity of steel + transport

Base plate: man-hours for flame cutting, drilling, assembling, welding and handling + quantity of
steel + transport

Stiffeners: 4 stiffeners (at column head), man-hours for flame cutting, assembling, welding and
handling + quantity of steel + transport

Rafters
The cost calculation for a rafter is divided into five parts:

Main rafter length: man-hours for cutting and handling + quantity of steel + transport

Eaves haunch: man-hours for flame cutting, straightening, assembling, welding, handling +
quantity of steel + transport

Eaves haunch extended end plate: man-hours for flame cutting, drilling, assembling, welding,
handling + quantity of steel + transport

Apex haunch: man-hours for flame cutting, straightening, assembling, welding, handling + quantity
of steel + transport

Apex end plate: man-hours for flame cutting, drilling, assembling, welding, handling + quantity of
steel + transport

An example of a summary of cost calculation for one portal frame is given below in Table 5.12.
Table 5.12

Example: Portal frame of 24 m span, 8 m height, snow load = 0.5 kN/m2


Manpower

Material

Steel transport

Total

unit

Mh/qty

/qty.

/qty

/qty

Cost ()

Weight (kg)

Column IPE 550

1 pc

5.6

223

563

29

815

894

Rafter IPE 450

1 pc

8.5

340

674

32

1045

1070

Portal frame

28.1

1126

2474

121

3720

3927

These results are calculated taking into account:


Man hour (mh) = 40/hour
Steel = 600/tonne

40

WP3: IDENTIFICATION OF EXEMPLAR


BUILDINGS

The objectives in this work package were:

To provide three examples of steel framed buildings that can be used to demonstrate the building
cost tool.

To provide a report outlining the designs and quantities for these buildings in English, French,
Dutch and Polish.

One residential, one commercial and an industrial building were defined (including both architectural
and structural schemes) during the project as exemplar buildings. The residential building was
hypothetical, but the others were actual buildings. In the former case, the building was designed to
derive structural member sizes and floors. Quantities were calculated for both the structure and
foundations. Costs were then derived based on those quantities and applicable cost rates for the
geographical location of the building. In addition, estimates were made of non-structural elements (e.g.,
architectural and mechanical and electrical items with budget cost estimates for each). The costs were
aggregated to give a total cost as well as costs per m2 of floor area for the structure and for the complete
building in each case.

6.1

Residential/mixed use building

This is a hypothetical six-storey residential building with the following features:

Rectangular plan form of approximately 17 m depth and 62 m length.

Ground floor retail outlets.

Glazed faade to retail outlets and insulated rendered cladding to residential levels.

The building provides residential accommodation on the upper five storeys, which is based on three
modules served by two independent stair cores. The middle module consists of four identical two
bedroom flats, and the end modules are based on a mix of two- and one-bedroom flats. Access to the
flats is at the rear of the building via the core areas, each of which has stairs and a lift. The retail ground
floor area provides for five retail outlets, with double door access from the front of the building.
The building walls are based on lightweight construction, with lightweight internal partitions and
lightweight external cavity walls which support insulated rendered cladding. The roof construction is
the same as the floors below, but with a built-up flat roof covering laid to falls.
The building is designed to meet the current acoustic requirements of Part E of the UK Building
Regulations, and the residential accommodation has an acoustic battened floor on top of the structural
slab, with a suspended ceiling below. The building requires one hour fire resistance, and protection to
the steelwork is by board generally, but the columns are concrete cased in the retail area. There is also a
requirement to provide acoustic insulation to the columns, which is combined with the fire protection
material.
An architectural front elevation and section are shown in Figure 6.1. More detailed drawings, design
data, quantities and costs are given in Appendix A.

41

Figure 6.1

6.2

Residential building architectural elevation and section

Commercial office building

The commercial building chosen is the Centre Acier ArcelorMittal (CAAL) in Lige, Belgium. The
CAAL building is an administrative office building of ArcelorMittal and is built along the river Meuse.
It has five-storeys (ground floor, plus four storeys).
The main features are:

Rectangular plan form of approximately 18 m depth and 80 m length

Steel structure

Glazed faade

The construction of the building started in April 2007 and was completed in September 2008. Key
requirements for this building were:

Security

Sustainability

Flexibility and adaptability of the building

Intensive use of steel as a showcase for ArcelorMittal

Figure 6.2 shows a 3D model of the building. More detailed drawings, design data, quantities and costs
are given in Appendix A.

42

Figure 6.2

6.3

Commercial building Centre Acier ArcelorMittal Lige

Industrial building

The industrial building is a flat roof building constructed in about 2005 and located in Emmen in the
Netherlands. It is mainly a single storey building, but a small part for offices consists of two storeys.
The rectangular plan form is approximately 56 m long by 20 m wide. The height of the building is 6 m.
Figure 6.3 shows the completed building. More detailed drawings, design data, quantities and costs are
given in Appendix A.

Figure 6.3

Industrial building Netherlands

43

WP4: DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUILDING COST


TOOL

The objectives for this work package were:

To develop a web-based building cost tool, which would be available in 4 languages: English,
French, Dutch and Polish (it would also allow translations into other languages at a later stage)

To include the exemplar buildings as examples of the use of the building cost tool to provide a
check on the operation of the tool and to act as demonstration case studies for reference by users of
the tool.

7.1

Development of building cost tool

This section describes the scope and operational aspects of cost tool. A simplified step-by-step user
guide is given in Appendix B. The cost tool has been given the name ACE and this name will be used
to refer to the cost in the remainder of this report.

7.1.1

Scope

ACE provides both steel weight and cost estimates of multi-storey buildings and simple industrial
buildings. It can also serve as a cost calculator of already designed solutions.
ACE offers four operating modes:

ACE Single Module provides quick cost and weight estimates for one module (unit bounded by a
grid of main beams) of a floor system based on I-profiles,

ACE Multi-Module provides quick cost and weight estimates for a complete building based on
I-profiles,

Beam Calculator provides the cost of floor systems already designed (through a facility for
importing data for the beams and slabs from third party software).

Industrial buildings - quick cost and weight estimation for simple geometries of industrial buildings
with flat or pitched roof.

In Single/Multi-module modes, two different approaches are used for beams and columns; beam weight
is estimated according to a database created using available engineering software5,6,7. Columns are
calculated using simplified rules according to EN 1993-18.
The mode is selected using the screen shown in Figure 7.1.

45

Figure 7.1

7.1.2

New task window - mode selection

Range of application

ACE is intended for calculating the steel weight and cost of buildings within the following parameter
limits:

Structure limited to 20 storeys.

Maximum dimensions of beam modules: 20 20 m (40 20 m for cellular beams).

Maximum distance between secondary beams: 6.0 m for steel decks, 10.8 m for precast slab and
16.2 m for hollow core slab.

Minimum dimensions of beam modules: 3.6 2.4 m; minimum distance between secondary
beams: 2.4 m.

Steel grades according to EN 100259: S235, S355 and S460 Histar.

User defined permanent and variable loads.

Simplified method used for column design class 4 cross-sections excluded.

7.1.3

Simplified architecture of the software

The architecture of the software comprises pre-processing, calculation and post-processing components.
Pre-processing is where the input data is handled, including: language, operating mode (single module,
multi-module, beam calculator or simple industrial buildings), database of key rates, geometrical data
(column grid), beam and column type, fire protection type, loads, floor systems, other non-structural
items such as cost of services, bracing, foundations and faade.
The calculation component performs the analysis at ULS and ensures that the SLS criteria are met by
searching through the profile database. This is followed by cost calculation using the cost spreadsheets,
the quantities calculated by the analysis and any user defined input values (e.g. budget estimates for
services cost).
Post-processing is divided into two steps: generation of a summary output for general results, and a
detailed output for beams and columns, as well as price breakdown for all key components.

46

7.1.4

Input data

The following input data is required in the ACE Single Module and ACE Multi-Module operating
modes:

Unit dimensions.

Beam type.

Slab type.

Steel grade for beams and columns.

Fire protection.

Number of storeys.

Foundations.

Faade.

When operating the software in Beam Calculator mode, the input file is directly imported from the
following third party software:

ArcelorMittal Beams Calculator (compatible version v. 2.10); or

Arcelor Cellular Beams (compatible version v. 2.40b).

ACE Single Module


ACE Single Module deals with one single module of floor. The user defines the length of primary
beams (L1) and secondary beams (L2), as shown in Figure 7.2 (a is the beam spacing).

Figure 7.2

Single Module definition of beam geometry possible configurations

Possible configurations are automatically chosen by ACE, according to the limits in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1

Possible configurations for beams in the Single Module in ACE

Scheme

Range for beam span L1(m)

Application

2.4 6.0/10.8

2.4 16.2

4.8 12.0/20.0

4.8 20.0

Hollow core slabs

7.2 20.0

Steel decks and precast slabs

7.2 20.0

Hollow core slabs

Steel decks/precast slabs


Hollow core slabs
Steel decks/precast slabs

47

ACE imposes limits on beam module dimensions; the upper limit is 20.0 m 20.0 m (40.0 m 20.0 m
for cellular beams) and the lower limit is 3.6 m 2.4 m. The maximum lengths of secondary beams
L2 are:

Slim floor = 12.0 m.

I-profiles = 20.0 m.

Cellular beams = 40.0 m.

The values of a (= slab span) varies depending on the slab system, as follows:

Steel deck 2.4 to 6.0 m.

Precast slab 2.4 to 10.8 m.

Hollow core slab 2.4 to 16.2 m.

Schemes 2 & 3 are not practical for slim floors, so only scheme 1 is available for these.
Other input data are defined by the user in Horizontal and Vertical data screens, as shown in
Figure 7.3 and Figure 7.4, including:

Type of beams and slabs.

Steel grade and concrete class.

Fire protection.

Loading.

Figure 7.3

ACE Single Module Horizontal input data screen

The Vertical input data is divided into two screens (as shown in Figure 7.4):

Foundations, faades, ground floor, roof, columns and bracing.

Floor height.

The roof, foundations, ground floor and bracing are not included in this mode, but are available in ACE
Multi-Module mode. The faade cost may be calculated if desired, based on an input cost/m2 by the
user.

48

Figure 7.4

ACE Single Module Vertical input data screen 1

The user must define the parameters necessary to estimate floor height for the design of the columns, as
shown in Figure 7.5 to account for:

Finishing: walking surface material, special acoustic floor etc.

Services: space for air conditioning ducts, pipes etc.,

Free space: space between floor and false ceiling (net office height)

Number of levels in the building

The whole floor (floor-to-floor) height is automatically calculated by ACE, and it is assumed that
column splices are provided at every second level.

49

Figure 7.5

ACE Single Module Vertical input data screen 2

Further input data concerning the cost of internal finishing, services and site preliminaries are required,
as shown in Figure 7.6.

Figure 7.6

Input screen for non-structural data

ACE Multi-Module
ACE Multi-Module deals with the design and cost of multi-storey buildings of a regular shape. The
geometrical plan data is input based on a common grid layout of columns can be added or deleted at
grid intersection points using selected icons in the main window, but the software will not allow

50

columns at other points. The main window has icons to define input data, run the analysis and view a
model of the geometry, and to select the output, as shown in Figure 7.7. The limitations on the primary
and secondary beam spans, and on beam spacing when no secondary beams are used, is set according to
the form of construction (as for the Single Module mode - see Table 7.1). Modules can be oriented
horizontally, with secondary beams aligned parallel with the x-axis and the floor between spanning in
the y direction, or vertically, with secondary beams aligned parallel with the y-axis and the floor
between spanning in the x direction.

Figure 7.7

ACE Multi-Module main window

The horizontal input data (for beams and slabs, fire protection and loading) is as required for the Single
Module mode (see Figure 7.3). The vertical input data is more detailed than that required for the Single
Module mode, and incorporates more options for cost calculation. Vertical input data screen 1 for the
Multi-Module is shown in Figure 7.8. The roof, foundations, ground floor and bracing may be included
in the overall cost. The faade cost is entered as a rate /m2 of faade area, although the output expresses
the value in terms of useable area. The user is also given the option to specify column splices at every
level, or every second or third levels. Vertical input data screen 2 is identical to that for the Single
Module (Figure 7.5), and a further screen of input data for the costs of services and preliminaries is also
provided (as shown in Figure 7.6.

51

Figure 7.8

ACE Multi-Module mode vertical input data screen 1

Beam Calculator
Beam Calculator can calculate the cost of beams or a floor module, and uses data from third party
software: ArcelorMittal Beams Calculator5 and Arcelor Cellular Beams6. The module options are
similar to those available in the Single Module mode, as illustrated in Figure 7.9. Primary beams must
be I-sections, but secondary beams can be I-section or cellular beams. If the beams are composite, the
data concerning the slab is also imported. For non-composite beams, the slab data needs to be defined.
Columns can be included in the cost by defining the sections to be assumed.

Figure 7.9

Beam calculator main window

52

7.1.5

Industrial halls

This module gives a steel weight and cost estimate of simple industrial buildings. The range of input
data has been chosen to cover common cases.
Fat roof industrial buildings
Range of application:

column height: 5.0 to 10.0 m,

frame span: 10.0 to 24.0 m,

frame spacing: 5.0 to 7.0 m,

steel grade: S235,

fire protection: intumescent paint R30-R60.

Prices can be input for roofing, faade, foundation, ground floor, finishing and services, as shown in
Figure 7.10.

Figure 7.10

Flat roof input window

The secondary steelwork is not assessed directly, but 35% of steel is added to the frame weight to allow
for this.
Pitched roof industrial buildings
Range of application:

column height: 4.0 to 8.0 m,

53

frame span: 8.0 to 30.0 m,

frame spacing: 6.0 m,

steel grade: S235,

fire protection: intumescent paint R30-R60.

The same cost variables are input as for flat roofs, and a similar 35% allowance is made for secondary
steelwork. The input window for pitched roof halls is shown in Figure 7.11.

Figure 7.11

7.1.6

Pitched roof input window

Output data

Once calculations are executed, the user can proceed to a review of the output results. This consists of
summary results and a detailed technical report. The summary results provides the plan dimensions of
the floor, and confirms the floor and faade area, loading and other input data. Possible cost solutions
are presented in the summary, as shown in Figure 7.12.

Figure 7.12

Example of summary output from ACE

54

A code is presented for each solution to indicate the structural type, beam orientation and material
grade, as follows:

Numbers 1, 2 or 3 at the beginning of the code stand for 'scheme 1', 'scheme 2' and 'scheme 3'
respectively.

INS: I-profile, non-composite, steel deck

INP: I-profile, non-composite, precast slab

INH: I-profile, non-composite, hollow core slab

ICS: I-profile, composite, steel deck

ICP: I-profile, composite, precast slab

ICH: I-profile, composite, hollow core slab

ANS: cellular beam, non-composite, steel decking

ANP: cellular beam, non-composite, precast slab

ANH: cellular beam, non-composite, hollow core slab

ACS: cellular beam, composite, steel deck

ACP: cellular beam, composite, precast slab

IFB: integrated floor beam

SFB: slimfloor beam

Numbers 2, 3 or 4 at the end of the code stand for 'S235', 'S355', 'S460' respectively.

X: X orientation of secondary beams

Y: Y orientation of secondary beams

The output table gives the floor (storey) height, which is dependent on the particular solution because
the depth of the beams is a variable and is chosen by ACE. The steel weight and other component costs
are presented per square meter of useable (gross, including the ground floor) floor area. The cost of the
steel frame is the erected cost, including beams, columns, bracing, connections, studs, corrosion
protection, transport, erection, propping/pre-cambering, roof, and all associated labour costs.
The detailed technical report provides a list of the beam section sizes and shows the numbers of shear
connectors (if any), steel grade etc, and it also provides a list of column section sizes and details of the
internal forces. It gives a breakdown of the steel weight and steel cost of the components of the
building, as shown in Figure 7.13.

Figure 7.13

Steel weight and price breakdown in detailed technical report

55

7.1.7

Saving data

Both the summary and detailed technical reports can be printed and saved in Microsoft Word or plain
text documents. Calculations of cost are given in these reports, but no material costs are output. The
database of key rates can be printed separately, and/or saved in a format (file.prc) which is usable by
the software. Details of a particular building or module can also be saved in a format (file.ace), for
later use or further analysis in ACE.
ACE may be terminated by using Exit in the Main Toolbar, from File Menu, or simply using
standard Windows options. In order to re-analyze any saved file, a standard Open option is provided.
The user is always asked to save data if the session is being quit without saving (Exit or New
option).

7.1.8

Exporting data

Although ACE is a pre-design tool, a final design can be carried out by exporting beam data to one of
the following design software packages:

ArcelorMittal Beam (non-composite and composite I-profiles); or

Arcelor Cellular Beams (non-composite and composite cellular beams).

The user may choose the Export beam option, and the beam to be exported; ACE will automatically
proceed to the appropriate software. ACE is designed to create file formats which can be read in the
above software tools. Figure 7.14 shows the export mode window for the Single Module analysis
option.

Figure 7.14

Export beam option in ACE Single Module

Once a successful export is confirmed by ACE, the user has two options:
(i)
(ii)

go back to ACE to perform another analysis, or


run external software in order to perform a final design of the exported beam.

56

Figure 7.15

7.1.9

ACE Report on successful export

Technical requirements for hardware and software

ACE requires Windows operating system, up to the latest version. Storage requirements are minimal
(20MB).
ACE can be downloaded from the www.arcelormittal.com\sections. In order to install the software, the
user needs to run the SETUP file and follow the instructions. This procedure enables all files to be
installed into a default directory C:/Program Files/ACE, or a user-defined alternative.

57

WP5: RELEASE OF WEB-BASED BUILDING


COST TOOL

The objectives of this work package were to:

To provide an internet site in English, French, Dutch and Polish incorporating the Building Cost

To prepare a user guide and technical notes giving the background to the cost tool.

To provide a report in English, French Dutch and Polish on economic design of steel framed
buildings in Europe, which will offer advice on how steel can be made more competitive.

8.1

Review and QA of Building Cost Tool

The exemplar buildings were used in the final testing of ACE, but it should be noted that different
approaches to cost estimation in different countries made it difficult to produce exact estimates. A key
point was to check that the structure is designed adequately in ACE according to the structural design
criteria and assumptions set in ACE; a good correlation has been achieved.
It is important that the user checks the database of key rates and amends default values as appropriate.
This is because costs vary in time and between countries.
As well as comparisons with the exemplar buildings, ACE has been tested against:

a 4-storey office building in the UK, as described in Section 8.1.1; and

two flat roof industrial buildings, which were designed and costed using independent software.

A comparison of these results is presented in Section 8.1.4.

8.1.1

QA of ACE against a UK office building

A 4-storey office building in the UK was used to test ACE. The building is rectangular in form and is
13.5 m wide by 48 m long, as shown in Figure 8.1.

Stairs

Column

E E

6m

Toilets
7.5 m

T
Lift
13.5 m

6m

Void for
services

48 m
Figure 8.1

Schematic floor plan of UK office block

The building has the following features:


Structure The structure is a steel frame with composite cellular beams and 130 mm thick composite
slabs. The slabs span 3 m and are formed using 60 mm deep trapezoidal steel decking. The cellular
beams are used as long-span secondary beams spanning between relatively heavy primary edge beams,
as shown in Figure 8.2.

59

6.0 m
2
2 0 54
3 UC
U 7
C 3
4
S3 6 (1&
55 (3& 2)
4)

254 x 146 UB31 S275

Side bracing

457 x 152 UB52


S275

PART PLAN
A193 mesh

130
NWC
slab

650

Floor zone
= 150 mm raised floor
+ 130 mm slab
+ 660 mm beam
+ 150 mm ceiling & lighting
=1090 mm 1100 mm

660

2 No. 19 x 100lg
studs @ 300ctrs

450
Circular
opening

2
20 5 4
3 UC
U 7
C 3
5
S 3 2 ( 1&
55 (3& 2)
4)

Decking
0.9 mm thk

Slab

356 x 127 UB33 S275

20

20 3
3 UC
U 4
C4 6
(
S3 6 ( 1&
55 3 & 2)
4)

6.0 m

254 x 146 UB31 S275

356 x 171 UB51


S275

20

20 3
3 UC
U 6
C 0
S3 46 (1
55 ( 3 & 2
& )
4)
254 x 146 UB31 S275

203x133 UB25
S275

20 No. holes @ 650ctrs.

203x133 UB25
S275

575

406 x 178 UB60 S275

Lifts &
Toilets

2
2
20 03
20 54
Wall bracing
3 UC
3 UC
U 6
U 7
C 0
C 3
46 (1
46 ( 1
S3
S2
&
&
55 (3& 2)
75 (3& 2)
4)
4)
457 x 191 UB74 S275 + 457 x 191 UB82 S275
Cellular beam

406 x 178 UB60 S275

7.5 m

457 x 191 UB67 S275

Side bracing

Slab

457 x 152 UB52


S275

356 x 171 UB45 S275

Stairs

2
20 54
3 UC
U 7
C5 3
S3 2 ( (1&
55 3& 2)
4)

3.0 m

2
20 03
3 UC
U 4
C 6
4
S3 6 ( (1&
55 3 & 2 )
4)

3.0 m

SECTION A-A

Figure 8.2

Typical structural floor plan

Fire safety - The fire resistance period is 60 minutes and the building is not sprinkler-protected.
Cladding - Traditional brickwork is used with regular individual windows occupying 25% of the faade
area. The bricks are special quality facing bricks with some featured string courses and stone lintels.
The cladding is supported at each floor level by a stainless steel angle, with additional vertical wind
posts at approximately 3 m spacing.
Floor-to-ceiling height The building has a floor-to-ceiling height of 2.7 m, with a raised access floor
of 150 mm depth.

60

Foundations The building is founded on pad footings on sand, and the ground floor is
ground-bearing.
Roof - An additional mansard roof structure comprising steel portals, purlins and tiles is provided for
architectural purposes. The roof area is not suitable for occupancy and is discounted in the gross floor
area.
Loads - The imposed load is 3.5 kN/m2 plus 1 kN/m2 for partitions and 0.7 kN/m2 for the ceiling,
services and raised floor.
Steel grade - S355 steel generally, but S275 steel is used for beams which are controlled by
serviceability criteria.
Bracing Diagonal cross-flats are used as bracing against wind load.
Fire protection - Board fire protection is provided for the columns, but intumescent coatings applied
on site for the fire protection of the long-span secondary beams.
Ground slab - The ground floor is a reinforced concrete slab. Additional concrete work is required for
the lift shafts.
In order to provide a realistic comparison, some default cost values in ACE have been amended to
reflect the values used in the real building, as shown in Table 8.1.
Table 8.1

Amended cost rates for the 4-storey UK office block

Cost item edited

Edited value

ACE default value

0.73

0.85

26.9

12.5

Fire protection paint (/m )

13.3

2
Fire protection panel (/m )

13.3

29

Steel S355
Steel decking (/m2)
2

The cost data for the building was compared to the output from the Cost Tool, and the values are
compared in Table 8.2. [Note that costs are expressed as cost per useable floor area, which is the value
output in ACE and is defined as the gross floor area (including the ground floor).]
Table 8.2

Comparison of key values for a UK office building with output values from ACE

Item

UK office block

ACE

3.8

3.36

Steel weight (kg/m )

51.0

45.8

2
Steel frame (/m )

65.91

53.31

16

16.5

39.32

38

Ground floor (/m )

32.7

29.9

2
Roof waterproofing (/m )

30.9

30.9

Faade (/m )

292.6

258.4

Internal finishing (/m2)

226.1

226.1

Services (/m )

347.6

347.6

2
Preliminaries (/m )

110.5

112.5

1215

1113

Floor height (m)


2

Fire protection (/m2)


2
Slab (/m )
2

Total (/m )
1
2

includes overheads
includes decking (33.1) and concrete + reinforcement (19.4)

61

From a review of the table, it is seen that a notable difference is in the storey height. The real building
has 660 mm deep main beams with 450 mm deep openings for services, and a 130 mm deep slab, which
gives a total depth of 1100 mm for the floor zone. ACE calculates a 120 mm deep composite slab with
510 mm deep beams. From a detailed review of the output it was noted that the overall weight of the
beams is predicted accurately, but it explains the cheaper faade cost in ACE. The overall weight
predicted by ACE underestimates the actual weight by 10%. However, the real building has 8 extra
columns which couldnt be modelled in the regular grid system in ACE. The design of the roof in the
real building was assumed to be the same as the floors, whereas ACE assumed a light weight roof. Also,
the shallower floor slab designed by ACE, and the lighter roof construction leads to much lighter
columns. This explains the difference. It can be seen that the overall cost estimate from ACE is within
about 8%, but the cost of the frame is predicted to be less than the real building. This is due to the
assumptions made in calculating the cost of the fabricated elements and the fact that ACE works on an
idealised grid (e.g. trimming around lift shafts, etc is not modelled in ACE).

8.1.2

Modelling of the exemplar residential building using ACE

The exemplar residential building was described briefly in Section 6.1, but more detail is available in
Appendix A.1, which also includes the full cost data. The building is a rectangular block of six storeys,
with an overall plan area of 17 m by 61.7 m.
Input data and geometry
For the purposes of modelling in ACE, the building geometry is slightly simplified in the stairs and
service areas in order to regularise the grids. The model of the plan grid is shown in Figure 8.3.

Figure 8.3

ACE model of exemplar residential building grid

The relevant horizontal input data screen is shown in Figure 8.4. As the building has limited servicing,
but a need to keep floor zones to a minimum, IPE sections have been de-selected. Floors comprise
composite beams and composite slabs with steel decking. A drawing of the steelwork framing
arrangement is shown in Figure A.4.

62

Figure 8.4

Exemplar residential building - horizontal input data

63

Vertical input data screens are shown in Figure 8.5 to Figure 8.7. The input values for waterproofing
the roof and the facade cost rate are per m2 roof area and faade area respectively. The faade area
assumes a floor-to-floor height of 3.07 m. Splices are assumed at every other level.

Figure 8.5

Exemplar residential building - vertical input data screen 1

64

Floor depths required for finishing and services are shown in Figure 8.6.

Figure 8.6

Exemplar residential building - vertical input data screen 2

65

The cost of internal finishing, services and preliminaries is shown in Figure 8.7. The cost values are
based on useable (gross, including the ground floor) floor area.

Figure 8.7

Exemplar residential building - vertical input data screen 3

In order to provide a realistic comparison, some of the default values of cost rates in ACE have been
amended to the values used in the actual building, as shown in Table 8.3.
Table 8.3

Amended cost rates for the Exemplar residential building

Cost item edited

Edited value

ACE default value

Concrete slab (/m3)

145

105

S355 steel (/kg)

1.0

0.85

Steel decking (/m )

26.9

12.5

Fire protection panel

29

24

Output
The output data (part) from the analysis is shown in Figure 8.8, and key values are compared with the
actual values for the building in Table 8.4. The output shows two schemes were analysed by ACE; one
with the primary beams in the X-X direction and the other with them in the Y-Y direction, with 8%
difference in frame cost. The more economic solution is the first of the two, and this is the direction of
secondary beams in the actual scheme.

66

Figure 8.8

Exemplar residential building - output data (part)

The cost data for the actual building does not include the ground floor, so, for a meaningful comparison
the output values from ACE, the cost of the preliminaries and the total cost output from ACE have been
adjusted in Table 8.4. The cost for the actual building originally included 40,000 for balconies, but this
has been omitted here for comparison purposes.
Table 8.4

Comparison of key values for the Exemplar residential building with output values
from ACE

Item

Actual building costs

ACE

3.07

3.11

44.8

31.62

79.1

85.131

8.7

10.83

47.22

44.72

22.99

Roof waterproofing (/m2)

22.06

22.07

129.2

130.91

216.4

216.4

262.4

262.4

99.4

100.6 (104.5)

864.4

874 (900.08)

Floor height (m)


2

Steel weight (kg/m )


2

Steel frame (/m )


2
Fire protection (/m )
2
Slab (/m )
2
Ground floor (/m )

Faade (/m )
2

Internal finishing (/m )


2

Services (/m )
2
Preliminaries (/m )
2

Total (/m )

Figures in brackets are with the ground floor cost included


1
includes overheads
2
includes decking, concrete and reinforcement

From a review of the values in the table it can be seen that the overall cost estimate from ACE is within
about 1%, but with some variation for the various elements. The fire protection cost is overestimated by
ACE, but the actual protection could not be precisely modelled in the software because only one option
is allowed for beams, and only one for columns. In the real building, some columns were concrete
encased, and others had plasterboard protection. Similarly, the beams had two types of protection; either
mineral wool or board protection.

67

The frame cost prediction is within 8%, although the frame weight is underestimated by ACE by about
30%. This is mainly due to the choice of secondary beams as IPE members by ACE, whereas heavier,
shallower sections were chosen in practice to minimise the floor depth. This is slightly countered by
ACE designing the primary beams as non-composite, which made them heavier than in the real
building. A significant factor is that the roof in the real building was designed with the same steelwork
as a floor, whereas ACE assumes a design based on lighter loading. This meant that ACE calculates a
considerably lighter structure for the roof. This also has a knock-on effect for the weight of the
columns.

8.1.3

Modelling of the exemplar commercial building using ACE

The exemplar commercial office building is described briefly in Section 6.2; more detail is available in
Appendix A.2, which also includes the full cost data. The building is a rectangular block of five storeys,
with an overall plan area of 15.6 m by 79.2 m.
Input data and geometry
For the purposes of modelling in ACE, the building geometry is slightly simplified into rectangular
areas, in order to regularise the grids. The model of the plan grid is shown in Figure 8.9.

Figure 8.9

ACE model of exemplar commercial office building grid

The relevant horizontal input data screen is shown in Figure 8.10. Floors comprise composite cellular
beams and composite slabs with a steel decking. Drawings of the typical floor plan arrangements are
shown in Figure A.5 and Figure A.6.

68

Figure 8.10

Exemplar commercial office building - horizontal input data

The main Vertical input data screen is shown in Figure 8.11. The input values for waterproofing the
roof and the facade cost rate are per m2 roof area and per m2 faade area respectively. The faade area
assumes a floor-to-floor height of 3.30 m. Splices are assumed at every second level.

69

Figure 8.11

Exemplar commercial office building - vertical input data screen 1

Floor depths required for finishing and services are shown in Figure 8.12.

70

Figure 8.12

Exemplar commercial office building - vertical input data screen 2

The cost of internal finishing, services and preliminaries are not considered in this example because the
actual costs are not available.
Output
The output data (part) from the analysis is shown in Figure 8.13, and key values are compared with the
actual values for the building in Table 8.5. The prices are expressed as /m2 gross area. The output
shows one scheme analysed by ACE; with the primary beams in the X-X direction. The solution (code
3ACS3-Y), according to the codes explained in the legend (see below)

Figure 8.13

Exemplar commercial office building - output data (part)

Notes on Figure 8.13.


Codes:
1. X - X direction orientation of secondary beams, Y - Y direction orientation of secondary beams
2
2. Price breakdown per m of usable floor area
3. steel frame = erected steel frame cost includes beams, columns, bracing, connections, studs, corrosion protections, transport,
erection, propping/precambering and all associated labour cost and roof
Legend for the code applied in column 'Code':
ACS - cellular beam, composite, steel deck
Figures 1, 2 or 3 at the beginning of the code stand for 'scheme 1', 'scheme 2', 'scheme 3', respectively.
Figures 2, 3 or 4 at the end of the code stand for 'S235', 'S355', 'S460', respectively.

71

Table 8.5

Comparison of key values for the Exemplar commercial office building with output values
from ACE

Item

Actual building costs

ACE

3.3

3.33

Steel weight (kg/m )

45.7

43.3

2
Steel frame (/m )

96.51

102.81

Fire protection (/m2)

20.1

19.4

2
Slab (/m )

48.72

41.82

Roof waterproofing (/m )

10.8

10

329.8

337.3

506

511

Floor height (m)


2

2
Ground floor (/m )

Foundations
2

Faade (/m )
2

Internal finishing (/m )


2

Services (/m )
2

Preliminaries (/m )
2

Total (/m )

Prices per m of total useable (gross, including the ground floor) area
Figures in brackets are with the ground floor cost included
1
includes overheads
2
includes decking, concrete and reinforcement
3
excludes ground floor, foundations, internal finishing, services and preliminaries

The actual cost data for the building does not include the ground floor, foundations, internal finishing,
services and preliminaries, so, for a meaningful comparison with the output values from ACE, the total
cost from ACE has been adjusted in Table 8.5.
From a review of the values in the table it can be seen that the overall cost estimate from ACE is within
1% of the actual value, but with greater variations for some individual elements. The frame cost
prediction is 6.5% higher, although the frame weight is underestimated by ACE by about 5%.

8.1.4

Modelling of two flat roof industrial buildings using ACE

The cost tool has been used to analyse the costs of two flat roof industrial buildings, which have also
been designed and costed using independent software Portalen, which is a frame analysis and costing
program owned by Bouwen met Staal. The buildings comprise portals with non-rigid connections. The
columns are also connected to the foundations with non-rigid connections, and the structure is stabilised
by roof and wall bracing. The buildings have a single large internal area.
The key design data for the buildings is presented in Table 8.6.
Table 8.6

Design data for industrial buildings comparison

Design data

Building 1

Building 2

Column height (m)

6.0

7.0

Frame span (m)

15.0

25.0

Frame spacing (m)

5.0

5.0

2
Total hall area (m )

375

500

Steel grade

235

235

Number of frame spacings

72

The key comparisons of the output data from the analysis by ACE, and independently using Portalen
are shown in Table 8.7.
Table 8.7

Comparison of key output data

Output data

Building 1

Building 2

Portalen

ACE

Portalen

ACE

Column size

HE140A

HE140A

HE160A

HE160A

Roof beam size

IPE360

IPE360

IPE500

IPE500

2
Portal weight (kg/m )

18.45

26.88

Allowance for bracing and


secondary steelwork (kg/m2)

6.46

9.41

Total steel weight (kg/m2)

24.9

36.28

1850-2100

1801

2950-3400

3177

Total cost per portal ()

Note: the allowance for bracings and secondary steelwork is 35%.

The comparison shows that the frame sizes are estimated accurately by ACE, and the overall costs
(expressed as a rate per portal) are reasonably accurate, although the cost for Building 1 is slightly
outside of the range predicted by the independent software.

8.2

Economic study of steel framed buildings in Europe using


the Building Cost Tool

Although the use of this tool will provide an overall cost of a building, the different components are not
all independent and some optimisation will be necessary by the user. For example, the cost of a beam
depends on the steel grade, member length and profile weight. Heavy profiles are slightly more
expensive per kg than small sections, but lighter beams may be used if composite rather than noncomposite design is adopted. The balance between the higher cost of a heavier non-composite beam
compared to the combined cost of a lighter beam with shear studs is then a matter for the designer to
consider when attempting to optimise the cost of the structure. This is illustrated by the results of a
comparison between composite and non-composite short and long span beams shown in Figure 8.14,
where a is the beam spacing and L is the span. It shows the breakdown of the cost of each scheme into
its respective elements.

73

100

Other s
80
Relative price

Slab
Connections

60

Fire pr otection
Studs

40

Beams & c olum ns


20

0
a=3 .0 m, L=6.0 a =3.0 m , L=6.0 a=3.0 m , L=1 4.0 a=3.0 m, L=14.0
m;
m; compo site
m;
m; com posite
noncomposit e
noncom posite

Figure 8.14

Components of cost for composite and non-composite floor systems

It can be seen from the figure that the concrete slab plays an important role in the cost of the total floor.
The slab depth also affects the total height of the building, which impacts on the cost of the facades.
The connections represent a disproportionately high percentage of the total cost of a short beam, but
that diminishes with increasing beam span for similar types of beam.
Propping of slabs and beams increases the total cost of a floor by a small percentage, but may have a
significant impact on the speed of construction. Engineering and overheads have little to do with the
specific floor system, and so they are not taken into account in the analysis.
The total weight of the structure, including floors has a direct impact on the cost of the foundations. It is
evident that a dense mesh of columns reduces the weight of the beams (beams are shorter), but only
detailed analysis of foundations would determine which floor solution gives the optimal result as far as
foundations are concerned: a cheap floor may result in expensive foundations. In practice, technical
aspects often dictate which solution best suits a given set of technical and practical conditions (e.g.,
crane capacity for erection, time, steel deck availability etc).
The methodology therefore recognises the interdependency of different components and the impact
such interdependency has on the overall building cost, but it must also be remembered that costs differ
from one country to another, so each analysis must be adapted to local material and labour costs.

8.3

Strategies for competitive steel framed buildings

Trial designs of single-storey industrial buildings, multi-storey commercial and multi-storey residential
buildings were carried out using ACE. A separate Strategy Report was prepared summarising
recommended design strategies for economic design, and accompanies this Final Summary Report as a
deliverable from this project. This report is intended as an aid to designers of steel framed buildings in
Europe to achieve efficient and competitive designs.
The report sets out the general benefits of steel construction and highlights the particular benefits for the
specific types of building covered. It also gives an introduction to ACE and explains the parameters
affecting the cost of construction that are within the designers control. The options in ACE for

74

designing different parts of a structure, such as foundations, framing and floor type etc. are explained,
so that cost comparisons may be made.
Three building types are covered in detail. For multi-storey residential and commercial buildings,
general structural framing advice is given, followed by information on the optimum design of
alternative practical floor types. Key aspects of the floor construction are explained, and guidance is
given on sizing of the structural members and other main components. An optimum design strategy for
the framing of each floor type is recommended for use with ACE. Additional advice is given on fire
safety, acoustic floor treatments for residential buildings and on the options for services integration in
commercial buildings.
Advice on concept design is given for single-storey industrial buildings, and different framing options
are presented. Advice is confined to pitched and flat roof portal frames to reflect the scope of ACE, but
these are also the most commonly used systems for this building type. Many variations on pitched roof
portals are covered, and guidance is provided on their most efficient use. A design table for single span
pitched roof portal frames is presented for estimating purposes. Advice is also given on practical
connections and fire safety.
The following sections provide a summary of the design advice given in the strategy report.

8.3.1

Steel framed multi-storey residential buildings

Framing options
For multi-storey residential buildings requiring open plan space, a steel structure is an ideal solution. It
can be used with various types of floor construction, including composite floors, precast concrete slabs,
integrated (or slim floor) construction and inverted steel beams. Beams in residential buildings are
usually arranged to align with walls between dwellings (separating walls), but floor systems with
integrated beams can accommodate internal walls anywhere. Columns are normally HE/UKC sections
or Square Hollow Sections and are designed to fit within the width of a separating wall, where possible.
Most multi-storey frames are three dimensional structures with orthogonal horizontal grids, i.e., with
primary and secondary beams in two directions at 90o. Sway stability and the resistance to horizontal
forces need to be considered separately in these two principal directions. Different solutions may be
appropriate in the two directions.
Residential buildings that have to accommodate parking at ground level, or within a basement, will
require a grid that is compatible with the access and parking bay layout. Alternatively, heavy transfer
beams can be used to span the car park area, and so provide freedom of column layouts above the car
park, but this would be expensive. The layout of car parking bays will in part be determined by access
arrangements, whether through the front, rear, or side of properties.
Frames are often classified as braced or unbraced, depending on whether physical bracing is provided,
or whether the structure is joined to a stiff core, which usually encompasses lifts, vertical services and
stairs. Examples of bracing and the use of a concrete core are shown in Figure 8.15. Where
cross-bracing is unacceptable for the use of the building, it may be replaced by bracing in the form of
stability portals. Braced frames are most economically designed using simple connections, where the
beam to column connections are nominally pinned and only transmit shear from the beam ends to the
columns. They are also relatively easy to analyse and to fabricate.
The stiff core or braced bays need to be positioned roughly symmetrically about the overall plan of the
building, because asymmetrical bracing layouts will cause increased forces in the bracing. Where the
building is divided into sections by expansion joints, each section should be considered as a separate
building. Floors act as diaphragms to transfer the overall horizontal actions to the stiff cores or braced
bays. The bracing arrangement should be considered at the concept stage to minimise conflict with the
window layout. Cross-flats provide a neat solution in medium rise residential buildings up to about
8 storeys because they can be contained within the wall thickness.

75

Storey heights depend on the choice of floor structure and the specified floor-to-ceiling height, but
typical values are 2500 mm (floor-to-ceiling) plus 450 mm to 550 mm (floor zone) which leads to a
storey height of about 3-3.1 m.
Key

1. Concrete core walls

2. Doorways

(a)

(b)

A-A

faade
Figure 8.15

Effective positioning of resistance to sway forces:


(a) Concrete core surrounding stairs, lifts, service shafts etc.,(b) Stiff core of cross braced
panels, (c) Stiff panels not grouped as a core(a) nominally pinned, (b) rigid

Suggested design strategy for framing for the most economic construction:

Design a column grid to be compatible with basement/ground floor parking, when there is a
parking requirement

Use braced frames in simple construction

Use of symmetric bracing arrangements

Design for 3-3.1 m storey height

76

Floor systems
A number of floor systems are considered economic for multi-storey residential buildings and have
been reviewed using the cost tool..
Composite beams and composite slabs and steel decking
Composite beams and slabs with steel decking and in-situ concrete are widely used in steel
construction. Composite beams are steel beams designed to act compositely with an in-situ floor slab by
the use of welded shear connectors. The shear connectors are normally welded through the deck, but
may be pre-welded or shot-fired to the beam. The composite action greatly increases the strength and
stiffness of the steel beams, which improves their spanning capability. The steel decking is used to act
as permanent formwork and as reinforcement to the slab. Primary beams can be composite, but may
be selected as non-composite because of the increased number of shear connectors and amount of
transverse reinforcement required for these members. For this reason, the cost tool ACE always treats
primary beams as non-composite. The decking is an integral part of all the composite systems and its
design largely depends on the spacing of the beams and the depth of the slab, but is normally governed
by the loads (wet weight of concrete, operatives and equipment) it supports during construction.
Suggested design strategy for composite beams and composite slabs and steel decking for the most
economic construction:

Assume a 130-150 mm concrete slab depth


Choose the decking thickness to meet span requirements for the grid at, ideally, 2.5-3.75 m spacing
of beams (without needing propping)

Choose a beam span in the range 4.5-7.5 m and use UKC or HE sections with a span to depth ratio
in the range 25-30 for composite beams. Where non-composite primary beams are used, a span:
depth ratio of 18 is suggested as a trial size.

Non-composite downstand beams with precast slabs


Precast concrete floor slabs are supported on the top flange of steel beams in this form of construction,
and in some cases, may be designed to act compositely with the steel beams by use of shear connectors
that are pre-welded to the top flange. Precast concrete slabs can be used with downstand beams, where
the floor slab lies on top of the beam section, or integrated beams, where the steel section lies within the
floor slab, as described later. Beam arrangements which maximise the span of the units are likely to be
the most efficient. The temporary condition during construction, when the units are placed on one side
of the beam only, may govern. The use of downstand beams inevitably produces a greater overall floor
zone than alternative systems such as integrated or slimfloor beams.
Suggested design strategy for the most economic construction:

Maximise the span of the precast units, where possible.


Assume beams for a span to depth ratio of approximately 18 for IPE sections, and 25 for UKC/HE
sections for scheme design
The overall floor zones given in Table 8.8 should be used for steel beams supporting precast hollowcore
concrete slabs.
Table 8.8

Overall floor depths for steel beams supporting hollowcore slabs

Beam Span(m)

Slab Span(m)

Overall Floor Depth(mm)

600

700

800

10

800

77

Integrated floor beams with composite slabs or precast units


Integrated beams support a precast concrete slab or deep composite slab so that the beam and slab
occupy the same depth. These sections are normally constructed using IPE sections cut at mid-height
and welded to a bottom flange plate. A common variation (also covered by ACE) is HE or UC sections
with a welded bottom plate (known as a slim floor beams). Variants not covered by ACE include Rolled
ASB beams of asymmetric cross section (known as Asymmetric Slimflor Beams), RHS with a welded
bottom plate, often used for edge beams, and Top Hat Q-beams fabricated from plates, which have the
profile of a top hat in cross-section.
Integrated beams can be used in deep composite slabs, where deep steel decking is designed to act
compositely with the concrete slab to create an overall floor depth in the range 300 to 350 mm.
Suggested design strategy for the most economic construction:

Use beam arrangements involving a central spine beam (where possible) within a depth range of
about 250 to 350 mm

Where precast units are used, choose the span of the units in the range 6-7.5 m but ensure that the
depth of the slab and beam are compatible; this will normally involve a larger unit span than beam
span

Where deep composite slabs are used, (ideally) limit the slab span to 6 m (to avoid propping) and
ensure 70-90 mm concrete cover to the decking profile. Keep slab span to depth ratio in range 2023.

Design edge beams as non-composite downstand beams where the architecture will allow,
otherwise use RHS members with a welded plate for greatest efficiency

Use inverted T sections as column tie members

Slimfloor beams with composite slabs or precast units


Slimfloor beams are similar to Integrated beams in that the steel beam section lies within the depth of
the floor. They can also be used with precast units or deep composite slabs. Slimfloor beams comprise a
rolled HE or UKC section with a plate welded to the underside. The plate extends at least 100 mm on
each side of the rolled section to support the floor units or decking, and is normally either 12 mm or
15 mm thick. Section sizes can vary up to 350 mm deep, but for most residential applications they
would be in the 200 to 300 mm range.
Suggested design strategy for the most economic construction:

Use beam arrangements involving a central spine beam (where possible) within a depth range of
about 250 to 350 mm

Choose the span of the units in the range 6-7.5 m but ensure that the depth of the slab and beam are
compatible

Design edge beams as non-composite downstand beams where the architecture will allow,
otherwise use RHS members with a welded plate for greatest efficiency

Use inverted T sections as column tie members

8.3.2

Steel framed multi-storey commercial buildings

Framing options
The framing options for multi-storey commercial buildings are similar to those for multi-storey
residential buildings in terms of bracing, stability and connections, as outlined in Section 8.3.1.
However, they differ because the grid sizes, loading and floor-to-floor heights are larger with
commercial buildings, apart from the differences in spatial requirements and layouts. Most commercial
buildings require floor spans in excess of 12 m, and there is a trend towards 15-18 m column-free spans.
The floor zones in commercial buildings have to accommodate a range of services, and with long
spanning floor systems and relatively deep beams, it is important to consider the integration of the

78

services in the floor zone at the conceptual design stage. Floor-to-floor heights are normally around
4.2 m.
The columns and other vertical load-bearing elements of the structure are generally designed to have the
minimum impact on the useable space of the building and therefore are of the minimum size possible.
The size of the columns clearly depends on the height of the building and the floor area supported.
H sections are usually orientated so that the larger (primary) beams frame into the column flange. This
makes connection detailing considerably easier. H sections are the simplest solution for columns. The
same column serial size is normally chosen at all floor levels, although the weight of the section can be
varied. This approach simplifies column splices. For economy and convenience of erection, columns
are placed in lengths equivalent to 2 or 3 times the floor height.
Floor systems
A particular feature of the floor systems in a modern commercial building is the way the services are
accommodated. Most commercial buildings require some form of mechanical ventilation and air
conditioning. The provision of this is of critical importance, as it affects the layout and type of members
chosen in the structure. The basic choice is either to integrate the services within the structural depth of
the beam or to place them beneath it. Generally, a zone of 450 mm permits services to be placed below
the beams. An additional 15-200 mm is usually allowed for fire protection, ceiling and lighting and 2550 mm deflection.
Various forms of structure-service integration are illustrated in Figure 8.16, where the structural zone is
denoted 1 and the service zone 2. The forms comprise full separation of the zones for services and
the structure (Figure 8.16(a), partial separation, where some services pass through openings in the web
of the beams Figure 8.16(b), and full service integration, where the services are entirely contained
within the structural zone Figure 8.16(c).
For the schemes with composite beams, the primary beams are assumed to be non-composite in ACE
because of the increased number of shear connectors and transverse reinforcement required.

79

(a)

1
2

(b)

1&2

(c)
Key
1.
2.

Structural zone
Services zone

Figure 8.16

Options for service-structure integration

Short span composite beams without web openings and composite slabs
Composite beams and slabs with steel decking and in-situ concrete are widely used in steel framed
commercial buildings. Short span composite beams, up to 7.5 m span, can provide relatively shallow
floor zones without the need to pass services through openings in the beam web.
Composite slabs with deck profiles between 50 to 80 mm deep used in residential buildings are also
suitable for commercial buildings. Slab spans of 3 to 4 m are most common, leading to typical slab
depths of 130 to 150 mm. Secondary beams should be spaced closely enough to avoid propping the
decking, as propping can be expensive and disruptive on site. Edge beams can be designed as
non-composite, although shear connectors may be required to transfer wind loads to the floor, and to
enable it to act like a large diaphragm.
Suggested design strategy for the most economic construction,

Assume a 130-150 mm concrete slab depth

Assume S275 secondary beams of 6-15 m span at about 3 m spacing, and S355 primary beams of a
span 2 to 3 times the secondary beam spacing

Choose the decking depth and thickness, and reinforcement to meet the loading requirements and
fire resistance for the span (without needing propping) using manufacturers design tables or
software

Assume secondary beam depth equals span/24, and primary beam depth equals span/18

Assume shear connectors at 300 mm spacing for secondary beams.

Long span composite beams with web openings and composite slabs
Long span composite beams offer an efficient floor solution with large column-free areas. Services may
pass through openings in the web because of the depth of the sections, which minimise the depth of the

80

floor zone. The construction consists of composite beams using rolled steel or fabricated sections
supporting a composite slab.
Web openings can be circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, and can be up to 80% of the beam
depth. Openings should be located in areas of low shear, and web stiffeners may be required around
large openings. They can have a length/depth ratio typically of up to 3.5.
Suggested design strategy for the most economic construction,

Assume a 130-150 mm concrete slab depth

Assume S275 secondary beams of 9-15 m span at about 3-4 m spacing, and S355 primary beams of
6-9 m span

Choose the decking depth and thickness, and reinforcement to meet the loading requirements and
fire resistance for the span (without needing propping) using manufacturers design tables or
software

Assume secondary beam depth equals span/22, and primary beam depth equals span/18

Assume shear connectors at 300 mm spacing for secondary beams.

Composite cellular beams and composite slabs


Modern cutting technology and fabrication techniques have been used to produce beams with repeated
openings of a regular shape throughout their length. Although this has been done in the past to produce
castellated beams with hexagonal openings, or cells, modern techniques are used to create repeated
circular, elongated or rectangular cells. These beams are known as cellular beams and they have become
very popular in long-span construction because of their efficient creation of regular openings for
circular ducting, and they are also chosen because of their aesthetic appeal.
Cellular beams may be produced by automatic cutting and re-welding of hot rolled sections, or by direct
fabrication from plates. Use of the cutting and re-welding process allows beams to be made from
different sizes of top and bottom chords (from different sections) in order to gain maximum efficiency.
However, the range of size and spacing of the regular openings for beams made in this way is limited by
the cutting and re-welding process.
Suggested design strategy for the most economic construction:

Assume a 130-150 mm concrete slab depth

Assume S355 secondary beams of 10-18 m span at about 3-4 m spacing, and S355 primary beams
of 9-12 m span at 6-9 m beam spacing

Choose the decking depth and thickness, and reinforcement to meet the loading requirements and
fire resistance for the span (without needing propping) using manufacturers design tables or
software

Assume secondary beam depth equals span/22, and primary beam depth equals span/18

Assume shear connectors at 300 mm spacing for secondary beams.

Non-composite beams with precast units


The system of non-composite beams and precast units used for residential buildings (described in
Section 8.3.1) also applies to commercial buildings, but spans tend to be much longer in commercial
buildings.
Suggested design strategy for the most economic construction:

Choose a 6, 7.5 m span grid

Choose precast units using manufacturers data for the correct fire resistance; normally 150 and
200 mm deep for 6 m and 7.5 m units respectively

Consider shelf angles if floor zone is critical

81

Design beams based on span: depth ratio of 15, and a minimum flange width of 180 mm (min
IPE 400)

Check beam torsional loading condition during erection of precast units, or allow for temporary
bracing.

Integrated beams or slim floors with composite slabs or precast units


Integrated floor beams are equally suitable for commercial buildings as for residential buildings, except
that acoustic layers are not normally required above the structural floors.
Suggested design strategy for the most economic construction:

Use beam arrangements involving a central spine beam (where possible) within a depth range of
about 250 to 350 mm

Where precast units are used, choose the span of the units in the range 6-7.5 m but ensure that the
depth of the slab and beam are compatible [this will normally involve a larger unit span than beam
span]. Concrete topping is recommended for good dynamic performance.

Where deep composite slabs are used, (ideally) limit the slab span to 6 m (to avoid propping) and
ensure 70-90 mm concrete cover to the decking profile. Keep the slab span: depth ratio in the range
20-23.

Design edge beams as non-composite downstand beams where the architecture will allow,
otherwise use RHS members with a welded plate for greatest efficiency to resist torsion at the
construction stage

Use inverted T sections as column tie members

8.3.3

Steel framed industrial buildings

The development of a design solution for a single storey building, such as a large hall or industrial
facility is more dependent on the activity being performed and future requirements for the space than
other building types, such as commercial and residential buildings. Although these building types are
primarily functional, they are commonly designed with strong architectural involvement dictated by
planning requirements and client branding. However, in order to make the scope of the cost tool
manageable within the timescale of this project, the tool provides cost data based on standard economic
designs for industrial buildings with either pitched roof portal frames or flat roof column-and-beam
structures only.
Pitched roof portal frame
The pitched roof portal frame is the most common form of the portal frame and is described in
Section 5.1.3.
The suggested design strategy of a straightforward single span pitched roof portal frame which has been
adopted in the standard designs incorporated in the cost tool is:

Choose a span between 15 m and 50 m (25 to 35 m is the most efficient).

Choose an eaves height between 4 m and 10 m (5 m or 6 m is commonly adopted).

Choose a roof pitch between 5% and 10% (5% or 6% is commonly adopted).

Specify a frame spacing between 5 m and 8 m (typically 6 m, but greater spacing is associated with
the longer span frames).

Use haunches in the rafters, at the eaves, and (if necessary) at the apex, for economic connections

Flat roof column-and-beam structures


Flat roof column-and-beam structures for industrial buildings are described in Section 5.1.2. For simple
column and beam structures, the columns are connected to the beams using pinned connections, and
bracings are required in both directions; in the roof as well as in the walls in order to provide stability
for horizontal loads. For that reason, it is often used for predominantly enclosed halls (i.e., no

82

substantial openings). This fact also has to be taken into account during the installation stage by
providing temporary bracings.
Suggested design strategy for the most economic construction:

Trial the beam and column sizes given in Table 8.9.

Use grade S235 steel

Use pinned bases

Table 8.9

Suggested pre-design table for flat roof column and beam structures with pinned bases

Span
[m]

Eaves height
[m]

Beam

Column

10

IPE270

HE120A

IPE270

HE140A

IPE270

HE180A

10

IPE270

HE220A

IPE300

HE120A

IPE300

HE140A

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

IPE300

HE180A

10

IPE300

HE220A

IPE360

HE120A

IPE360

HE140A

IPE360

HE180A

10

IPE360

HE220A

IPE400

HE120A

IPE400

HE140A

IPE400

HE180A

10

IPE400

HE220A

IPE450

HE120A

IPE450

HE140A

IPE450

HE180A

10

IPE450

HE220A

IPE500

HE120A

IPE500

HE140A

IPE500

HE180A

10

IPE500

HE220A

IPE500

HE120A

IPE500

HE140A

IPE500

HE180A

10

IPE500

HE220A

IPE550

HE120A

IPE550

HE140A

IPE550

HE180A

10

IPE550

HE220A
2

Data assumes frames @ 5 m centres and 0.56 kN/m snow load

83

CONCLUSIONS

This report summarises the results of a 3 year European RFCS research project studying the economics
of steel framed buildings in Europe. The market for steel framed buildings in Europe is not fully
developed, and the economics of steel framed buildings in some countries are not fully understood.
However, with a unified approach to design through implementation of the Eurocodes now available,
the opportunity exists for information on the economics of steel framed construction to be given to
designers and procurers of buildings so that this form of construction is considered at the preliminary
design stage. This project was conceived to provide this information.
The project achieved its main objective of providing practitioners with a web-based tool to enable them
to develop cost-effective design solutions for steel-framed buildings in the commercial, industrial and
residential sectors and to enable an estimate of the cost of such buildings to be estimated. This was
achieved by:

Identifying parameters influencing building costs

Developing a methodology for calculating the cost of the building using preliminary design
information

Establishing cost rates for building activities and materials for a number of European countries

Implementing the methodology and cost rates into preliminary design and cost estimation software

Identifying exemplar buildings where full costs were available to test the cost tool and to
demonstrate it use

Using the cost tool to assist in developing design strategies for economic design of steel framed
buildings and summarising these strategies in the form of simple guidance to provide designers
with a starting point for framing the building

Establishing a web page to host the cost tool, information on the exemplar buildings and the design
strategies; the software and information are available in English, French, Dutch and Polish.

The web page and cost tool are now available to designers. Default cost data contained in the tool can
be edited by the user, so that it will not become out of date.

85

10

EXPLOITATION AND IMPACT OF RESEARCH


RESULTS

10.1 Technical and economic potential


This is the first time that a general costing tool is being made available across Europe in a common
format for preliminary design of typical steel framed buildings. The cost tool will lead to realistic cost
estimates for steel framed buildings to counter the often held perceptions and prejudices of clients and
designers who are not familiar with steel construction. The cost tool will also enable more economic
solutions to be found.
The information provided by the Strategy Report will guide designers through alternative solutions that
they may not have been considered at preliminary design stage. This will help to advance the design
solutions in steel, leading to more efficient design in the commercial, industrial and residential sectors.

10.2 Dissemination of results


A web page has been created at www.arcelormittal.com/sections for disseminating the project
deliverables. From this page, the Strategy Report and the Exemplar Buildings report can be downloaded
in four languages; English, Dutch, French and Polish. ( Figure 10.1 and Figure 10.2).

Figure 10.1

Web page for project documents - initial screen

87

Figure 10.2

Webpage to access project documents

The cost tool ACE is available from the menu Download Centre as shown in Figure 10.3. ACE relies
on price lists, which can be accessed and edited by the user, but cost data is also updated periodically on
the website. It is therefore important to update ACE periodically through the website to ensure that the
most up-to-date rates are being used and accurate cost estimation is provided. The cost data can only be
accessed through ACE, via the web site. Information is given about the last update when selecting cost
data for a particular country.

88

Figure 10.3

Webpage to access cost tool ACE

10.3 Publications and conference presentations resulting from


the project
There have been no papers or conference presentations during the project, although a number of
discussions were held with fabricators, designers and contractors during the development stages. The
purpose of these discussions was to validate the costing methodology and the cost rates as well as to
make potential users aware of the development of the cost tool.
The dissemination of this work and the demonstration of the cost tool may form the basis of a new
application for a research grant following the completion of this project, but the work packages in this
project cover the development stages only.

89

LIST OF FIGURES
Page No
Figure 5.1
Figure 5.2
Figure 5.3
Figure 5.4
Figure 5.5
Figure 5.6
Figure 5.7
Figure 5.8
Figure 5.9
Figure 5.10
Figure 5.11
Figure 5.12
Figure 5.13
Figure 6.1
Figure 6.2
Figure 6.3
Figure 7.1
Figure 7.2
Figure 7.3
Figure 7.4
Figure 7.5
Figure 7.6
Figure 7.7
Figure 7.8
Figure 7.9
Figure 7.10
Figure 7.11
Figure 7.12
Figure 7.13
Figure 7.14
Figure 7.15
Figure 8.1
Figure 8.2
Figure 8.3
Figure 8.4
Figure 8.5
Figure 8.6
Figure 8.7
Figure 8.8
Figure 8.9
Figure 8.10
Figure 8.11
Figure 8.12
Figure 8.13
Figure 8.14
Figure 8.15

Figure 8.16
Figure 10.1
Figure 10.2
Figure 10.3
Figure A.1
Figure A.2
Figure A.3
Figure A.4
Figure A.5
Figure A.6
Figure A.7

Composite beam design routine flow chart


21
Variation in floor slab cost with span for different floor types
26
Types of connection: A/ beam-column weak axis, beam under 100 kg/m,
B/ beam-column strong axis, beam over 100 kg/m, C/ beam-beam
27
Variation in connection price with member size
27
Shape of standard pad footings
32
Costing methodology for beam-to-column connection
34
Costing methodology for column base plate connections
34
Formula for calculating the rate of erection of elements graphical representation 36
Single-span symmetric portal frame
36
Single-span symmetric portal frame
36
Apex connection
37
Base plate connection
37
Typical connection data
38
Residential building architectural elevation and section
42
Commercial building Centre Acier ArcelorMittal Lige
43
Industrial building Netherlands
43
New task window - mode selection
46
Single Module definition of beam geometry possible configurations
47
ACE Single Module Horizontal input data screen
48
ACE Single Module Vertical input data screen 1
49
ACE Single Module Vertical input data screen 2
50
Input screen for non-structural data
50
ACE Multi-Module main window
51
ACE Multi-Module mode vertical input data screen 1
52
Beam calculator main window
52
Flat roof input window
53
Pitched roof input window
54
Example of summary output from ACE
54
Steel weight and price breakdown in detailed technical report
55
Export beam option in ACE Single Module
56
ACE Report on successful export
57
Schematic floor plan of UK office block
59
Typical structural floor plan
60
ACE model of exemplar residential building grid
62
Exemplar residential building - horizontal input data
63
Exemplar residential building - vertical input data screen 1
64
Exemplar residential building - vertical input data screen 2
65
Exemplar residential building - vertical input data screen 3
66
Exemplar residential building - output data (part)
67
ACE model of exemplar commercial office building grid
68
Exemplar commercial office building - horizontal input data
69
Exemplar commercial office building - vertical input data screen 1
70
Exemplar commercial office building - vertical input data screen 2
71
Exemplar commercial office building - output data (part)
71
Components of cost for composite and non-composite floor systems
74
Effective positioning of resistance to sway forces: (a) Concrete core surrounding
stairs, lifts, service shafts etc.,(b) Stiff core of cross braced panels, (c) Stiff panels
not grouped as a core(a) nominally pinned, (b) rigid
76
Options for service-structure integration
80
Web page for project documents - initial screen
87
Webpage to access project documents
88
Webpage to access cost tool ACE
89
Building front elevation and section
96
Plan form of ground floor retail area
97
Plan form of residential levels with dimensions
98
Steelwork framing (part) plan for the residential levels
99
Ground floor plan
105
Second floor plan
106
Industrial building elevations Netherlands
113

90

Figure A.8
Figure A.9
Figure B.1
Figure B.2
Figure B.3
Figure B.4
Figure B.5
Figure B.6
Figure B.7

Building layout
Structural plan
New task window: choice of a session mode
Main window of a Multi module session
Main window of a Single module session
Three types of scheme
Main window: definition of a complete floor system
Legend
Example of the summary table in the summary report: one solution is shown

91

114
115
120
120
121
122
123
124
125

LIST OF TABLES
Page No
Table 5.1
Table 5.2
Table 5.3
Table 5.4
Table 5.5
Table 5.6
Table 5.7
Table 5.8
Table 5.9
Table 5.10
Table 5.11
Table 5.12
Table 7.1
Table 8.1
Table 8.2
Table 8.3
Table 8.4
Table 8.5
Table 8.6
Table 8.7
Table 8.8
Table 8.9
Table A.1
Table A.2
Table A.3
Table A.4
Table A.5
Table A.6

Beam/slab combinations
Database of key rates used in the cost tool
Structural cost estimation spreadsheet
Cost calculation for fire protection using gypsum-based boards
Cost calculation for fire protection using intumescent paints
Cost calculation for fire protection using spayed materials
Soil parameters
Formulae for costing connections
Calculation of erection costs of flat roof portal frames
Formula for calculating the rate of erection of elements
Pre-design table for pitched roof portal frames
Example: Portal frame of 24 m span, 8 m height, snow load = 0.5 kN/m2
Possible configurations for beams in the Single Module in ACE
Amended cost rates for the 4-storey UK office block
Comparison of key values for a UK office building with output values from ACE
Amended cost rates for the Exemplar residential building
Comparison of key values for the Exemplar residential building with output values
from ACE
Comparison of key values for the Exemplar commercial office building with output
values from ACE
Design data for industrial buildings comparison
Comparison of key output data
Overall floor depths for steel beams supporting hollowcore slabs
Suggested pre-design table for flat roof column and beam structures with
pinned bases
Ground conditions
Summary of design data
Key components
Summary of design data
Key components
Design data

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


ACE

The web-based building cost tool, developed during this project

92

20
23
25
29
30
31
32
34
35
35
39
40
47
61
61
66
67
72
72
73
77
83
96
100
100
107
107
116

REFERENCES
1

Euro-build in steel: evaluation of client demand, sustainability and future regulations on the next
generation of building design in steel, CEC 7210-PR/381.

Steel intensive systems for shallow floor construction incorporating long span composite slabs
with deep steel decking, CEC 7210-SA/621/837

Servicing in modern commercial buildings and design of structural floor systems in steel, CEC
7210-SA/833

Statistical report 2004, European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS\CECM\EKS),


September 2004.

Arcelor Mittal Beams calculator v.1.02 Users Manual

Arcelor Cellular Beams v. 2.20 Users Manual

IFBWIN v. 5.20 Users Manual

EN 1993-1.3: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures


Part 1.3: 2006 General rules - supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting

EN 10025: 2004 Hot rolled products of structural steels technical delivery conditions

93

APPENDIX A EXEMPLAR BUILDINGS


This appendix presents the full details of the exemplar buildings.

A.1

Residential/ mixed use building

A.1.1

Introduction

This is a six-storey residential building with the following features:

Rectangular plan form of approximately 17 m depth and 62 m length

Ground floor retail outlets

Glazed faade to retail outlets and insulated rendered cladding to residential levels

A.1.2

Architecture

The building provides residential accommodation on the upper five storeys which is based on three
modules served by two independent stair cores. The middle module consists of four identical two
bedroom flats, and the end modules are based on a mix of two- and one bed-roomed flats. Access to the
flats is at the rear of the building via the core areas which each have stairs and a lift. The retail ground
floor area provides for five retail outlets, with double door access from the front of the building.
The building walls are based on lightweight construction, with lightweight internal partitions and
lightweight external cavity walls which support insulated rendered cladding. The roof construction is
the same as the floors below, but with a built-up flat roof covering laid to falls.
The building is designed to meet the current acoustic requirements of Part E of the UK Building
Regulations, and the residential accommodation has an acoustic battened floor on top of the structural
slab, with a suspended ceiling below. The building requires one hours fire resistance, and protection to
the steelwork is by board generally, but the columns are concrete cased in the retail area. There is also a
requirement to provide acoustic insulation to the columns, which is combined with the fire protection
material.
Drawings of the building front elevation and cross-section are presented in Figure A.1, and layouts of
the retail and residential accommodation are given in Figure A.2 and Figure A.3 respectively.

A.1.3

Main structure

The structure is designed as a braced frame, with composite beams and composite floors using steel
decking for the upper floors, but the ground floor is of reinforced concrete construction. The floor
beams are a mixture of Universal Beam and Universal Column sections, while the all columns are
Universal Column sections. Lateral loads are resisted by cross bracing located in the service cores. A
typical arrangement for steelwork for the residential floors is shown in Figure A.4.

A.1.4

Foundations

It is assumed that the foundations will be piles with pile caps and a system of ground floor beams. If the
site is assumed to be near the river Thames in London, the soil profile is as given in Table A.1.

95

Table A.1
Stratum

Ground conditions
Top Elevation (mOD)

Made Ground

+5.0

Alluvial Clay

+3.0

Terrace Gravel

+1.0

London Clay

-4.0

Lambeth Beds

-19

Figure A.1

Building front elevation and section

96

Figure A.2

Plan form of ground floor retail area

97

Figure A.3

Plan form of residential levels with dimensions

98

A.1.5

254 x 146 UB31 S275


+ T12 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

2500

Figure A.4

2500

3500

254 UC73 S275


+ T12 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

3500

254 x 146 UB31 S275


+ T12 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

2500

Design data

A summary of the key design data is given in Table A.2.

99

2500

17000

Steelwork framing (part) plan for the residential levels


5400

254 x 146 UB37 S275


+ T10 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

203 UC 46 S355 (4th and 5th storeys)


203 UC 46 S355 (2nd and 3rd storeys)
254 UC 73 S355 (ground and 1st storeys)

203 UC46 S275


+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs

Column C -

30850

Column D -

Column B -

7500

254 x 146 UB37 S275


+ T10 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

254 UC73 S275

254 UC73 S275

NWC slab
135 mm deep
and CF70/1.2
decking

254 UC73 S275

7500

254 x 146 UB37 S275


+ T10 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

254 UC73 S275

254 UC73 S275

254 UC73 S275

254 UC73 S275

254 UC73 S275

254 x 146 UB37 S275


+ T10 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

254 x146 UB31 S275

203 UC 46 S355 (4th and 5th storeys)


203 UC 46 S355 (2nd and 3rd storeys)
203 UC 52 S355 (ground and 1st storeys)

CL

5400

254 x 146 UB37 S275


+ T10 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

A193
mesh

Ceiling

F.F.L.

254 UC 107

PMF CF70

C 254 x146 UB31 S275

254 x146 UB31 S275

C 254 x146 UB31 S275

254 x146 UB31 S275

+ T10 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

B 254 x 146 UB37 S275

203 UC 46 S355 (4th and 5th storeys)


203 UC 46 S355 (2nd and 3rd storeys)
203 UC 46 S355 (ground and 1st storeys)

A
203 UC52 S275
+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs

203 UC 46 S355 (4th and 5th storeys)


203 UC 52 S355 (2nd and 3rd storeys)
254 UC 73 S355 (ground and 1st storeys)

7750

254 x 146 UB37 S275


+ T10 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

254 x 146 UB31 S275

2200

254 UC73 S275

203 UC46 S275


+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs

Column A -

254 UC89 S275


+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs

254 UC89 S275


+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs

254 UC73 S275

254 x 146 UB31 S275

254 UC73 S275

254 x 146 UB37 S275


+ T10 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

254 UC107 S275


+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs

254 x 146 UB31 S275

254 x 146 UB31 S275

Void

152 x 89 I

254 UC73 S275

203 UC46 S275


+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs
254 x 146 UB31 S275

254 x 146 UB31


S275

150 x 90 I

D
203 UC46 S275
+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs
254 UC89 S275
+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs

Stair

Lift

254 x 146 UB37 S275

178 x 102 I

D
203 UC52 S275
+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs

254 UC89 S275

254 UC73 S275

254 UC73 S275

254 x 146 UB37 S275


+ T10 'u' bars @ 300 ctrs

Composite beam + composite slab scheme - upper floors and roof framing plan (part)

203 UC46 S275


+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs

203 UC46 S275


+ T12 bars @ 300 ctrs

NW concrete
slab

88

135

70

560

Table A.2

Summary of design data

Item

Quantity

Comment

1.

No of storeys

5 + 1 commercial

6 floors in total

2.

Floor zone

550 mm approx

Includes slab depth plus acoustic floor above


and suspended plasterboard ceiling below

3.

Floor-ceiling zone

2500 mm

Residential levels

3100 mm

Retail level

4.

Building height

18.3 m approx

Excluding roof pitch

Fire resistance

R60

One hour on all levels

Imposed floor loading

1.5 +1kN/m

Residential generally in apartments

2.5 +1kN/m

Residential communal area

Retail (ground floor)

4.0 +1kN/m
2

7.

Wind loading

0.8 kN/m

Generally on faade

8.

Cladding

75% of faade area

Insulated render

25% of faade area

Double glazing

Ground floor (retail)

Full height glazing

A.1.6

Schedule of key components

A schedule of key construction components is given in Table A.3.


Table A.3

Key components

Item

Construction

1.

Superstructure

Composite downstand beams, UC columns and a braced steel core.

2.

Foundation construction Piles, reinforced concrete pile caps and ground floor.

3.

Residential floors

Structural floor, plus a battened floor (70 mm overall) and suspended single layer
plasterboard ceiling with 75 mm void (88 mm overall).

4.

Walling

See specification below:

Separating Walls

2
Double layer light steel wall (250 mm width and 8 kg/m steel weight per unit wall
area) consisting of two C-sections 75 mm deep with a 50 mm gap between and a
double layer of 12 mm fire resisting plasterboard on each side. 75 mm mineral wool
batts in each leaf between the vertical sections.

External Walls

Insulated render (on 100 mm EPS insulation) attached to 10 mm cement particle


board (CPB), screw-fixed to single layer light steel wall (125 mm width and 5 kg/m2
steel weight per unit wall area), with a 15 mm cavity between the CPB and the Csections. The single layer wall comprises two layers of 12 mm fire resisting
plasterboard on the inside, attached to 100 mm deep C-sections, with100 mm
mineral wool batts in the depth of the sections. Wall 250 mm o/a.

Partitions

2
Single layer light steel wall (125 mm width and 3 kg/m steel weight per unit wall
area) comprising one layer of 12 mm plasterboard on each side.

5.

Stairs

Pre-cast concrete

6.

Fire protection and


acoustic insulation

Beams and secondary steelwork ~15 mm thick board fire protection


Columns ~ Residential floors 30 mm mineral wool + 2 layers 13 mm plasterboard
Columns ~ Retail floor concrete encased

7.

Roofing

Flat roof as floor construction but with built-up adhered roofing system laid to falls

100

A.1.7

Schedule of quantities and costs

The full schedule of quantities and costs for the building are given below.
Residential Building
Steel framed composite beam & composite slab structure
Code Description
SUBSTRUCTURE (excluded)
1.0
Note: foundations and ground floor slab not included

GFA=

Qty

Rate

Code Description
ROOF
3.0
20mm thick polymer modified asphalt roofing including
felt underlay, insulation and either breather membrane
or vapour barrier
Rainwater goods
Access hatch
Note: Roof slab measured in Upper floors and
Frame.
Code Description
EXTERNAL WALLS, DOORS AND WINDOWS
4.0
Insulated render on 100mm EPS insulation, 2 layers of
15mm plasterboard internally
Cavity barrier
Double glazed polyester pc aluminium windows
Retail
Windows Flats
1200x1200
1200x2000
Doors Flats
Balcony access glazed
Entrance doors solid, fire door

101

Cost
0

Total
Code Description
FRAME AND UPPER FLOORS
2.0
Structural Steelwork
Universal Beams (S275)
Universal Columns. G S355
Joists; channels; angles; tee section (S275)
Flats (S275)
Fire Protection
Mineral wool
Fire protection to columns 2 layers plasterboard
Beamclad (was Conlit 150)
300x300mm concrete encasement incl light mesh
Other structural items
PMF CF70
Concrete slab, pumped, g35
100 x 19 dia shear connectors
A193 reinforcement mesh
Reinforcement bars
Balcony support steel and decking

m2

6,293

0
2

Rate GFA

/m

0.00

Qty

Unit

Rate

Cost

54.9
217.0
0.8
9.2

t
t
t
t

1,480.00
1,505.00
1,570.00
1,865.00

81,280
326,585
1,256
17,158

456
456
2,896
13

m2
m2
m2
m3

9.50
22.00
11.40
140.00

4,332
10,032
33,014
1,820

6,015
660
15,438
6,015
3.9
60.0

m2
m3
Nr
m2
t
Nr
Total

25.00
130.00
1.40
4.50
1,030.00
600.00

150,375
85,800
21,613
27,068
4,051
36,000
800,384

Rate GFA

/m2

127.19

Qty

Unit

Rate

Cost

1,129
161
2

m2
m
Nr

95.00
85.00
2,000.00

107,255
13,685
4,000

Total

124,940
2

Rate GFA

/m

19.85

Qty

Unit

Rate

Cost

2,723
944

m
m

130.00
7.80

354,016
7,366

163

m2

650.00

105,950

100
60

Nr
Nr

615.00
1,020.00

61,500
61,200

60
60

Nr
Nr

1,000.00
830.00

60,000
49,800

Residential Building
Steel framed composite beam & composite slab structure
Code Description
Entrance door Retail, glazed
Rear door Retail, solid, security
Entrance door Flats at ground level, solid, security
Stairwell access doors solid with vision panels, fire
door

Code Description
INTERNAL PARTITIONS, FINISHES & STAIRS
5.0
Light steel frame studs, 2 layers of plasterboard & 1
layer of 15mm plywood both sides, mineral wool in
cavity Retail level
Light steel frame studs, 2 layers of acoustic
plasterboard, mineral wool in cavity Flats
compartment walls
Light steel frame studs, 1 layer of plasterboard,
mineral wool in cavity Flats partition walls
Internal doors FD 20, ironmongery, architrave,
decoration Flats
Internal walls mist coat & 2 full coats emulsion
Retail & Flat entrance corridor
Mist coat & 2 full coats emulsion Flats
Ceramic wall tiling

GFA=

Qty
6
6
2

6,293

m2

Nr
Nr
Nr

Rate
1,500.00
1,320.00
1,000.00

Cost
9,000
7,920
2,000

Nr
Total

830.00

13,280
732,032

Rate GFA

/m2

116.32

Qty

Unit

Rate

Cost

458

m2

90.00

41,258

3,007

m2

60.00

180,438

3,455

52.00

179,660

340

Nr

720.00

244,800

917
11,690
974

m
m2
m2

3.70
3.70
45.00

3,392
43,253
43,830

16
2
264

Nr
Nr
m

4,500.00
2,700.00
200.00

72,000
5,400
52,800

16

Stairs Concrete staircase with mild steel balustrades and


handrail, including all finishes
Stair access to roof
Balustrade to balconies
Floor finishes Sand cement screed to hall, corridors, stairs
Carpet to hall, corridors, stairs
th
Battened raft floor, 18 t&g chipboard, insulation
Flats
Carpet bedroom, living
Ceramic tile bathroom, kitchen
Timber hall
Timber skirting

887
887

m2
m2

19.00
25.00

16,853
22,175

3,702
2,439
482
297
3,040

m2
m2
m2
m2
m

31.00
20.00
40.00
22.00
10.00

114,762
48,784
19,280
6,530
30,400

Ceiling finishes Plasterboard suspended ceiling, fixed to ceiling support


system Flats with skimmed finish & emulsion paint

3,702

m
Total

27.00

99,954
1,225,569

Rate GFA

/m2

194.75

Qty

Unit

Rate

Cost

920
3,702
60
2
6

m2
m2
Nr
Nr
Nr

52.00
85.00
500.00
500.00
1,500.00

47,840
314,670
30,000
1,000
9,000

Code Description
SERVICES
6.0
Mechanical services Heating & hot water Retail
Heating & hot water Flats
Ventilation to kitchens & bathrooms Flats
Common areas 2 no cleaners cupboards
Incoming mains service Retail (water)

102

Residential Building
Steel framed composite beam & composite slab structure
Code Description
Incoming mains service- Flats (water)

GFA=

Qty
80

6,293

m2

flats

Rate
600.00

Cost
48,000

57.00
2,240.00
38.00
290.00
1,000.00
250.00

52,440
2,240
140,676
17,400
6,000
20,000

Electrical services Lighting & power distribution Retail


Lighting and power installation Common Areas
Lighting and power distribution Flats
Communications Flat entry system
Incoming mains service Retail (electricity)
Incoming mains service Flats (electricity)

3,702
60
6
80

m2
Item
m2
flats
Nr
flats

Sanitary services fittings and disposal Bathroom standard 3 piece suite


En-suite shower, basin, w.c.
Cleaners cupboard Belfast sinks
Soil & waste drains Flats

60
40
2
3,702

Nr
Nr
Nr
m2

1,500.00
2,000.00
250.00
8.50

90,000
80,000
500
31,467

20
40
60
60

Nr
Nr
Nr
Nr
Item

5,000.00
6,000.00
500.00
125.00
2,500.00

100,000
240,000
30,000
7,500
2,500

Nr

85,000.00

170,000

Total

5%

44,600
1,485,833

Rate GFA

/m2

236.11

Unit

Rate

Other fittings Kitchen units 1-bed flat, include stainless steel sink
Kitchen units 2-bed flat, include stainless steel sink
Cooker, extractor
Mail boxes to entrance foyer
Building signage
Lift installation Passenger lift, 6-10 persons, 8 storeys. Standard fit-out

920

Builders work in connection with the mechanical,


electrical and sanitary services

Code Description
EXTERNAL WORKS (excluded)
7.0

Qty

SUMMARY
SUBSTRUCTURE (Excluded)
FRAME AND UPPER FLOORS
ROOF
EXTERNAL WALLS, DOORS AND WINDOWS
INTERNAL PARTITIONS, FINISHES & STAIRS
SERVICES
EXTERNAL WORKS (Excluded)
SUB-TOTAL
PRELIMINARIES @ 13%
TOTAL

Total

Cost
0
0

Rate GFA

/m2

0.00

0
800,384
124,940
732,032
1,225,569
1,485,833
0
4,368,758
567,939
4,936,697
(784.5/m2)

Note: preliminaries include fixed items and time-related items, including, the cost of site set up, site
management, services, buildings, facilities, security, craneage and insurance, etc. They also include the
contractors overhead and profit.

103

A.2

Commercial building

A.2.1

Introduction

The commercial building chosen for this exercise is the Centre Acier ArcelorMittal (CAAL) in Lige,
Belgium. The CAAL building is an administrative office building of ArcelorMittal built along the
Meuse river. It is a five-storey (ground floor and four storeys) building. The main features are:

Rectangular plan form of approximately 18 m depth and 80 m length

Steel structure

Glazed faade

The construction of the building started in April 2007 and was completed in September 2008. Key
requirements for this building were:

Security

Sustainability

Flexibility and adaptability of the building

Intensive use of steel as a showcase for ArcelorMittal

A.2.2

Architecture

The CAAL building provides 7000 m of offices area and accommodates 300 people. One lift and two
stairwells are distributed along the length of the building. The ground floor consists of the reception,
waiting room, canteen and technical rooms (Figure A.5). The upper floors are dedicated to the offices
and meeting rooms (Figure A.6). The meeting rooms are mainly grouped on the first floor. Each floor
includes communal space for use during break times.
The offices are placed among the four floors either in individual rooms or in shared spaces. In order to
maintain flexibility, the offices are separated by removable partition walls; electrical points are located
in the raised floor to maximise ease of adaptability.
The building is designed for fire resistance of one hour (design according to ISO-fire, Eurocode 1 Part
1-2). Structural elements are protected with beam flocking (one in three beams is protected). Security
measures such as firebreak doors and fire insulated walls complement other fire safety devices such as
fire detection, fire extinguishers, etc.
Heating, cooling and ventilation (HVAC) are provided by a heat pump. The equipment is placed in the
floor systems. Solar panels are installed on the building roof in order to heat sanitary water.
Office furniture and removable partition walls contribute to acoustic insulation.

A.2.3

Main structure

The building structure is a steel frame designed according to Belgian Standards NBN B51 001 and 002
and Eurocode ENV1993-1-1. It comprises:

Composite beams (hot rolled I-profiles and cellular beams)

Concrete slab on ground floor

Composite floors with steel decking and concrete slab for the upper floors. The floor is supported
by steel cellular beams. Shear studs provide composite action between the cellular beams and floor
slabs.

Columns are concrete filled steel tubes.

Five concrete cores over the full height of the building provide the lateral stability. One core houses
the lifts, two cores house the stairwells and two cores house sanitary blocks.

104

Figure A.5

Ground floor plan

105

Figure A.6

Second floor plan

106

A.2.4

Foundations

The building is supported on eighty piles which are founded on firm gravel (of the river Meuse).

A.2.5

Design data

A summary of the key design data is given in Table A.4.


Table A.4

Summary of design data

Item

Quantity

Comment

N of storeys

4 + 1 office

5 floors in total

Floor zone

0.5 m approx

including slab depth, acoustic floor above


and false ceiling below

Floor-Ceiling zone

2.80m

height under false ceiling

Building height

20.80 m approx

including plant rooms on the roof

Fire resistance

R60

one hour on all levels

Imposed floor loading

3kN/m variable loads


2kN/m screed
1kN/m partition walls

Wind loading

0.89 kN/m

building height > 10m

Cladding

75% faade area


25% faade area

steel curtain wall and insulated glass


steel and brick cladding

A.2.6

Schedule of key components

A schedule of key construction components is given in Table A.5.


Table A.5

Key components

Item

Construction

Structural steel

290 tons of rolled section beams and columns


7 tons of decking
133 tons of reinforcement

Sheet steel

75 tons of cladding, curtain walling and sheet piling

piping, partition walls and wallcoverings

67 tons of steel

Furniture

7 tons of steel

Pipes, priming tubes, false ceiling,


cable paths, lights, etc

90 tons of steel

Internal coverings

50 tons of steel

Glass

3500 m of glazed surfaces

Concrete walls

Core walls, other walls, stair wells, lift shafts

Concrete slabs

Composite slabs; ground floor slab

10

Brickwork

North and west walls of ground floor

107

A.2.7

Schedule of quantities and costs

The full schedule of quantities and costs for the building are given below.
Office Building
Centre Acier ArcelorMittal Lige
Code Description
2
2.1

GFA=
Qty

FRAME AND FLOORS (Ground floor included)


CONCRETE WORKS
a Preparation of the laying of the foundations
(poor concrete thick. 5cm)
Foundation beams
Lifts
Peripheral plinth
b Concrete for in-situ casted concrete
Soles of foundations
Foundation beams
Raft lifts
Wills lifts
Walls poured on site
Beams, lintels
Rectangular columns
Slabs in elevation
Bases
Raisings
2d phase pre-slabs
Other uses
c Casing for reinforced concrete
Soles of foundations
Foundation beams
Raft lifts
Wills lifts

Unit

7,000

m2

Rate

Cost

/Unit

67.0
14.0
21.0

m2
m2
m2

9.47
9.46
9.46

634
132
199

6.2
47.0
4.2
7.0
114.0
18.1
1.7
16.1
10.0
7.1
104.0
10.0

m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3

165.62
129.53
145.75
147.56
129.55
147.59
165.59
129.53
206.21
206.16
129.55
206.21

1,027
6,088
612
1,033
14,769
2,671
282
2,085
2,062
1,464
13,473
2,062

12.0
219.0
5.2
62.0

m2
m2
m2
m2

61.88
43.83
80.50
64.86

743
9,599
419
4,021

Walls poured on site

991.0

m2

50.40

49,946

Beams, lintels

216.0

m2

73.87

15,956

Rectangular columns

23.0

84.69

1,948

Slabs in elevation

94.0

m2

46.79

4,398

Bases

54.0

102.17

5,517

Raisings

71.0

m2

100.98

7,170

Other uses
d Steel for reinforced concrete
Total bars
Total meshes
Steel for waterproof concrete
Soles of foundations
Foundation beams
Raft lifts
Wills lifts
Walls poured on site

100.0

120.24

12,024

40,000.0
22,500.0

kgs
kgs

1.24
1.11

49,600
24,975

6.2
47.0
4.2
7.0

m3
m3
m3
m3

6.56
6.55
6.55
6.56

41
308
28
46

76.0

m3

6.56

499

6.55

11

6.56

66

Rectangular columns

1.7

Bases

10.0

m3

108

Office Building
Centre Acier ArcelorMittal Lige
Code Description

Qty

GFA=

7,000

m2

Unit

Rate

Cost

e Prefabricated concrete
Plinth BA 20 x 85 cm
101.0
Mct
69.19
6,988
Stairs : Landing type 1
10.0
Pce
818.02
8,180
Stairs : Landing type 2
8.0
Pce
818.02
6,544
Stairs : Landing type 3
2.0
Pce
818.02
1,636
Stairs : Flight of stairs type 1
2.0
Pce
1,158.37
2,317
Stairs : Flight of stairs type 2
10.0
Pce
1,158.49
11,585
Stairs : Flight of stairs type 3
8.0
Pce
1,158.49
9,268
Foundation for base slab
Ground compacted and overlain with 250mm thick compacted stones, 50mm sand and a
damp proof membrane.
Base slab
1,233.0
m2
13.15
16,214
Base slab
(ground slab thick. 15cm - including concrete, reinforcement, shrinkage joints, expansion joints)
Base slab
1,233.0
Drain DN 110mm PVC
220.0
Insulation sheet
Lifts
16.3
f Prefabricated reinforced concrete walls
Pre-walls thick. 30cm
156.0
Pre-walls thick. 24cm
1,394.0
Concrete 2d phase pre-walls thick. 30cm
28.1
Concrete 2d phase pre-walls thick. 24cm
167.3
g Reinforced concrete pre-slabs thick. 6cm min (rebars included)
Pre-slab thick. 6cm (reinforcement included)

914.0

m2
Mct

29.20
35.51

36,004
7,812

Mct

29.40

479

m2
m2
m3
m3

90.62
95.47
145.92
145.98

14,137
133,085
4,100
24,422

m2

37.02

33,836

/m2

552,514
78.93

/Unit

2.11

675,318

Total 'CONCRETE WORKS'


Rate GFA

2.2

FRAME AND FLOORS (Ground floor included)


STEEL STRUCTURE (incl. connections)
a Steel structure (non RF structure)
Steel cellular beams with connection flats
(S235 - stud connectors included)
Steel cellular beams with connection flats
(S275 - stud connectors included)
Rolled steel beams with connection flats (S235)

320,038.0

kgs

Steel columns with connection flats (S235)


Other elements (angles, flats,...)
b Intumescent painting protection RF 1h
Steel columns with connection flats (S235)
Reinforced concrete-filled columns
c Coating protection RF 1h
Steel cellular beams with connection flats (Steel
S235)
Steel cellular beams with connection flats (Steel
S275)
Rolled steel beams with connection flats (Steel
S235)
Other elements (angles, flats,...)
d Composite steel floors

109

32,676

1,667.9

m2

20.48

34,159

823.4

m2

20.49

16,871

2,680.0

m2

20.48

54,886

96.2

m2

20.48

1,970

Office Building
Centre Acier ArcelorMittal Lige
Code Description

Qty

GFA=

7,000

m2

Unit

Rate

Cost

48.74

273,139

84.29

/m2

3,363
1,092,383
156.05

Reinforced concrete slab with steel formwork


5,604.0
m
(including steel deck COFRA+ 77, concrete,
rebars, fixation,...)
e Steel box
Lifts (S235)
39.9
m2
Total 'STEEL STRUCTURE (incl. connections)'
Rate GFA
3.0

ROOFS
a Slope shape in light concrete
b Roof openings
Smoke outlet
c Roof finishings
Multi layer insulation and insulation on concrete
Ballasting gravel
Roof throat
Gravel stop
External floor in Bankirai
Reinforced concrete supports 25x25x25

/Unit

18.94

30,260

Pce

1,248.64

2,497

m2
m2
Pce
Pce
m2
Pce

47.50
8.53
93.11
20.00
98.28
108.00

75,891
2,229
1,862
100
5,233
10,800

/m2

128,872
18.41

1,597.7

2.0
1,597.7
261.31
20.0
5.0
53.241
100.000

Total 'ROOFS'
Rate GFA
4.0

EXTERNAL WALLS, DOORS AND WINDOWS


a Basement in blue stone ("Petit granite")
b Automatic sliding glazed door
Entry vestibule
Canteen
c Door frame in coated steel in brick facades
Doors:
0 EXT 1 : door technical room (hot air pump)
0 EXT 2 : access door CODIR + delivery
0 EXT 4 : access door EAST (kitchen, corridor)
0 EXT 8 : emergency exit staircase 1
Windows:
0.07-1 and 0.10-1
0.11-1 to 3
0.14-2to7 ; 0.14-1&8 ; 0.16-1to4 ; 0.20-1to3 ; 0.241to6
0.15-1
0.16-5
d Door frame in coated steel in curtain wall
0 EXT 6 110x220
0 EXT 7 97x220
1,2,3,4 EXT 1 110x220
e External openings
f Metallic door in technical rooms
5 EXT 1 to 3
5 EXT 4
5.26 et 27
g Door system with ventilation room HT
h Duckboards floor in galvanized steel for access
to the terrace (3d floor)
i Steel curtain walls
Office facades East North West
1A - insulated glazing
2 - opaque barrier

110

/Unit

7,228.85

11,349

Pce
Pce

7,536.00
8,525.00

15,072
8,525

3.0

Pce

4,924.00

14,772

1.0

Pce

2,682.00

2,682

2.0
3.0
21.0

Pce
Pce
Pce

5,577.00
597.00
632.00

11,154
1,791
13,272

1.0
1.0

Pce
Pce

1,225.00
715.00

1,225
715

1.0
1.0
6.0
3.0

Pce
Pce
Pce
Pce

3,230.00
2,906.00
3,159.00
420.00

3,230
2,906
18,954
1,260

3.0
1.0
2.0
1.0
1.0

Pce
Pce
Pce
FF
FF

2,786.00
3,829.00
2,541.00
7,871.00
1,837.00

8,358
3,829
5,082
7,871
1,837

1,792.1
7.9

m2
m2

448.00
221.00

790,856
1,744

1.57

2.0
1.0

Office Building
Centre Acier ArcelorMittal Lige
Code Description

Qty

3A&B - beam covering


Office facade South
1A - insulated glazing
2 - opaque barrier
3A&B - beam covering
4 - cantilever
5 - inox cladding
6 - covering
Cafeteria
A - glass curtain wall (double glass)
B - opaque barrier

Entrance vestibule
A - facade (double glass)
B - glass roof
C - opaque elements
Door step
Door step in galvanized steel
A - depth 35 cm
B - depth 20 cm
Window step in coated steel
Solar protection
Sun breaker
Shades in coated steel
Louvres
Coated steel sheets
Rail and nacelle for maintenance
A - rail
B - motorized nacelle
C - rings on column
External covering
External cladding in steel
External cladding in metal
Metallic covering of parapet on roof terraces width 95cm
Metallic roof on lifts
A - as ceiling
B - as edge
Metallic covering : cladding and roof
A - external ; installation in facade
B - external ; installation in roof
C - internal ; vertical installation
D - internal ; horizontal installation
E - internal ; in ceiling
External false ceiling of under faces
Thin sheets width 200mm

GFA=

7,000

m2

Unit

Rate

Cost

22.3

461.00

10,280

1,101.2
13.4
23.0
105.9
12.7
27.9

m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2

504.00
221.00
461.00
512.00
467.00
341.80

555,005
2,968
10,598
54,205
5,936
9,519

188.7
37.7
84.5

m2
m2
m2

454.00
221.00
485.00

85,109
8,341
40,987

167.3
23.8
15.4

m2
m2
m2

521.00
571.00
341.80

87,184
13,590
5,260

3.1
2.7
26.5

Mct
Mct
Mct

220.00
210.00
120.00

682
567
3,174

203.5
486.3
1.0

Mct
Mct
FF

85.00
76.00
12,407.00

17,293
36,959
11,489

1.0
1.0
1.0

FF
FF
Pce

79,425.00
14,025.00
280.00

79,425
14,025
280

104.5
238.7
17.5

m2
m2
Mct

417.30
314.00
497.23

43,616
74,964
4,202

24.3
2.6

m2
m2

474.00
229.00

11,504
605

13.7
4.3
22.5
5.4
9.0

m2
m2
m2
m2
m2

451.64
451.64
451.64
451.64
451.64

6,165
1,951
10,162
2,439
4,065

461.9

m2

394.00

169,515

/m2

2,308,548
329.79

Total
Rate GFA

111

SUMMARY
SUBSTRUCTURE (Excluded)
FRAME AND UPPER FLOORS
ROOF
EXTERNAL WALLS, DOORS AND WINDOWS,
INTERNAL PARTITIONS, FINISHES & STAIRS
SERVICES
EXTERNAL WORKS (Excluded)
SUB-TOTAL
PRELIMINARIES @ 13%
TOTAL

0
1,644,9
128,9
2,308,5
Not known
Not known
0
4,082,3
530,7
4613 k

112

A.3

Industrial Building

A.3.1

Introduction

The industrial building is a flat roof building constructed in about 2005 and located in Emmen in the
Netherlands. It is mainly a single storey building, but a small part for offices consists of two storeys.
The rectangular plan form is approximately 56 m long by 20 m wide. The height of the building is 6 m.

A.3.2

Architecture

The rectangular ground floor has columns in the facades with no intermediate columns. The column
spacing is 5 m. The facades are covered with metal cladding. There are no fire resistance requirements.
Figure A.7 shows the building elevations and Figure 5.8 shows the building layout.

Front Elevation West side

Elevation East side

Elevation South side


Figure A.7

Elevation North side

Industrial building elevations Netherlands

113

Figure A.8

Building layout

114

A.3.3

Main structure

The main structure is made of portals of IPE 400 beams and columns. The portals provide stability
against wind loads across the building. Stability in the other direction is provided by bracing
(Figure A.9). The building comprises 33 tonnes of structural steel.

Structural plan

Bracing etc front elevation

Bracing etc side elevation


Figure A.9

A.3.4

Structural plan

Foundations

Standard column footings are used for the foundations.

115

A.3.5

Design Data

Table Table A.6 shows the design data.


Table A.6

Design data

Item

Quantity

Comment

1.

No of storeys

1/2

Office part has two storeys

2.

Floor zone

400 mm approx

Office part

3.

Floor-ceiling zone

2600 mm

Office part

4.

Building height

6.0 m / 7.0 m

Office part is 7.0 m

5.

Fire resistance

There is no requirement for the main


structure

6.

Imposed floor loading

10 kN/m

Ground floor Industrial part

2.5 kN/m2

Office part
2

7.

Windloading

0.88 kN/m

Generally on facade

8.

Cladding

85% of facade area


15% of facade area

Sandwich panels
openings/glazing

116

A.3.6

Schedule of quantities and costs

The schedule of quantities is shown below.


Industrial building

Code

Description

SUBSTRUCTURE (excluded)

GFA=

Qty

1,259

Rate

Cost

Note: foundations and ground floor slab - not included


Cost level is 1 January 2009

Code

Description

FRAME AND UPPER FLOORS

2.1

Structural steelwork
Material
Material
supporting and non-structural steel (3% of material)
bolts and so on
Fabrication
Fabrication
Drawing
Transport
Coating
Coating
Transport
Erection
Erection
Profit and risk

2.2

Upper floor office


precast concrete floor

Code

Description

ROOF

Description

EXTERNAL WALLS, DOORS AND WINDOWS

/m2

0
0.00

Qty

Unit

Rate

Cost

32,081
962
32.1

kg
kg
ton

0.87
0.87
15.00

27,863
836
481

310
33,040
2

h
kg
pce

40.00
0.05
380

12,415
1,652
760

866
2

m2
pce

6.50
380

5,629
760

5.04
3.0

day
%

1,760

8,870
2,960

136.0

m2
Total
Rate
GFA

85.00

/m2

11,560
73,787
58.61

Qty

cladding roof SAB profile R106, normal thickness


bitumen roofing material

Code

Total
Rate
GFA

Steel cladding SAB (vertical), insulated


glass facade (office part)
overhead doors
windows, width 2 m
windows, width 5 m
Door +window, width 5m
Door

Unit

Cost

1,123
1,123

m2
m2
Total
Rate
GFA

13.70
28.70

/m2

Qty

Unit

Rate

703.3
98.0
3
12
3
3
3

m2
m2
pce
pce
pce
pce
pce

77.50
290.00
1,723
670
930
1,490
710

54,506
28,420
5,169
8,040
2,790
4,470
2,130

Total

105,525

Rate
GFA

117

Rate

/m

15,385
32,230
47,615
37.82
Cost

83.82

Industrial building
Code

Description

Qty

INTERNAL PARTITIONS, FINISHES & STAIRS (excluded)

GFA=

1,259

Unit

Rate

Total

Cost

0
Rate

0
2

/m

0.00

Rate

Cost

GFA
Code

Description

SERVICES (excluded)

Qty

Unit

0
Total
Rate

0
2

/m

0.00

Rate

Cost

GFA
Code

Description

EXTERNAL WORKS (excluded)

Qty

Unit

0
Total

Rate

/m

0
2

0.00

GFA

SUMMARY
SUBSTRUCTURE (excluded)

FRAME AND UPPER FLOORS

73,787

ROOF

47,615

EXTERNAL WALLS, DOORS AND WINDOWS

105,525

INTERNAL PARTITIONS, FINISHES & STAIRS (excluded)

SERVICES (excluded)

EXTERNAL WORKS (excluded)

SUB-TOTAL

226,927

PRELIMINARIES @ 13%

29,500

TOTAL

256,427

(203.7/m2)

118

APPENDIX B USING ACE


B.1

Introduction

In this section, the main steps to perform an ACE session are explained for a multi-storey building.
The emphasis is put on the sequence of commands. It is not meant to provide in depth information
about every topic that can be encountered during an ACE session.
More details can be found in the Technical Detailed Report (see Section B.5.3)
The main steps to use ACE are as follows:
Start ACE
Choice of language
Calculation mode
Basic prices
Download on Website
Use predefined national price list
Definition new price list
Use and save price list
Input data
Define geometry:
Define axes,
Define columns,
Create modules: beam orientation and scheme of floor system
Define Horizontal data
Define Vertical data
Results
Run application
Edit summary report
Select and edit Technical detailed report
Save the data

B.2

Start ACE

ACE can be started by clicking on the ACE icon in the Start Menu on the Desktop.

B.2.1

Choice of language:

A starting window appears, in which the language can be specified.


Available languages are: English, French, Dutch and Polish.
Click on START button to open a calculation session.
In order to choose a language to create and calculate a project, the user has to:

choose a language at the start of ACE

119

run the application and

print/save the project

If the user wants to produce the output results in another language, the way to follow is:

exit the software after saving the project data

run ACE again, choose the appropriate language for the output, open the project, run the
calculation and print the report in the new language

B.2.2

Calculation mode

Four calculation modes can be performed:

Single Module = Prices and weight calculation for one single module of floor system

Multi Module =
storey building

Beam calculator = Price calculation of floor systems based on already designed solutions (Import
function with ABC or ACB results files)

Industrial halls: Price and weight calculation of an industrial building

Prices and weight calculation for multi modules of floor system for a multi

Click on one of the four graphical


buttons to select the mode to continue
the calculation session.

Figure B.1

B.2.3

New task window:


choice of a session mode

Menu modules

The main window allows the user to define the input data, run the analysis and view the floor system
model in the drawing blank area.

Figure B.2

Main window of a Multi module session

120

B.3

Basic prices

Three possibilities are given to use basic prices (Button Prices in the toolbars):

Load predefined price lists, available for various countries: UK, Belgium, Luxembourg,
Netherland, Portugal, Spain, France, Germany and Poland

Edit prices to define a new price list: price editor with possibility to click on individual price to edit
and modify

Update prices via Internet: download of national price list from the Website

The price list in use is mentioned in the lower toolbars of the main menu, as follows:

Figure B.3

Main window of a Single module session

In any case, the price list has to be saved by Save as with a specific name related to the project
calculated. No price list is saved with the project data. Two separate files are to be saved for one
project: the project itself with input and output data, and the basic price list. Note that no basic
prices are repeated in the output data.
NB: the choice of the language and national price list are completely independent: if one language is
chosen, it doesnt imply a specific basic national price list, and the choice remains completely free.

B.4

Input data

B.4.1

Define geometry

This section provides information concerning the input data definition for the calculation mode Multimodule (multi-storey building).
Two approaches are possible: data from an existing project can be edited and recalculated, or a new
project can be defined.

Existing project: in the main menu click File tab, then Open and select the appropriate file.

Note that, for the use of prices, if the user wants to work with the same price list used in the first
project, the list which was related to that project (see previous section) has to be selected. If no price list
is selected, ACE software will proceed to the calculation with a price list by default.

New project: click on Geometry icon

and enter dimensions of the structure.

Define main geometry


For a new project, if an entire building is analyzed, the user has to enter the geometry module by
module, and in two directions (define coordinates for X Grid and Y Grid).

121

Define columns
For a new building (multi-module), the user has to define the columns of the structure.

Click on Columns Add icon:


or Columns All icon:

in order to define columns zone by zone,


in order to define columns in the entire geometry.
or

Note: if the geometry is not defined, the tabs

Click on Column Del icon:


non-rectangular building.

are not active.

in order to delete one or several columns in the case of a

Create modules
The definition of the beams and the floor system is very specific, as no tab is available in the tool bars
of the menu.
However, this operation is obligatory in order to be able to continue in the ACE session.
The way to define beams is described, as follows:

Click the right mouse inside the drawing blank area on the ACE screen: a new set of functions
appears on the screen:
Create module
Delete module
Create all modules
Delete all modules
Beam orientation
Select scheme

The beams and floor system for the whole building can be created in one step by using the Create
all modules function.

In the case of a non-rectangular building, the functions Create module and Delete module allow the
variations in the building geometry to be defined.

B.4.2

Define orientation and configuration (scheme) of floor system

At this stage, the floor system is defined with all possibilities of:

secondary beam orientation (X or Y orientation for all modules), and

scheme of floor system for all modules. Three types of scheme are possible:

Scheme 1:
No intermediary secondary
beam in the module

Figure B.4

Scheme 2:
One intermediary secondary
beam in the module

Three types of scheme

122

Scheme 3:
Two intermediary secondary
beams in the module

The user has the choice to select a particular beam orientation and scheme by clicking the right mouse
again:

Beam orientation function:


Create module
Delete module
Create all modules
Delete all modules
Beam orientation
Select scheme

X direction
Y direction

Configuration of floor system: scheme selection


Create module
Delete module
Create all modules
Delete all modules
Beam orientation
Select scheme

X direction
Y direction

Automatically
1st scheme
2nd scheme
3rd scheme

The next figure shows an example of a definition of a floor system - in order to highlight how colours
are related to the orientation of the different modules: in this example, a possible solution is a
configuration with beams orientated in the X direction and using scheme type 1(no intermediary
secondary beams)

Figure B.5

Main window: definition of a complete floor system

123

The legend (Figure B.6) describes how colours are related to the orientation of different modules: the
orientation of beams in Figure B.5 is in the X direction.

Figure B.6

Legend

Horizontal input data

Click the

icon

The definition of data in this part is:

selection of types of beam and slab

steel grade and concrete class

fire protection requirements

loads

Vertical input data

Click the

icon

In this section, the definition of the data is divided into 3 pages or groups:

foundations, ground floor, number of levels in a building, faades, columns, roof, bracing

floor height (including finishing), service and free space

other non-structural items: prices for internal finishing, service and preliminaries
( steel contractors overheads)

B.5

Results

B.5.1

Run application

Click the
icon is accessible.

B.5.2

icon to run the calculation. When the calculation is finished, the

Edit summary report

Click the

icon to open the Summary report

This report presents all solutions which can be calculated on the basis of the input data selection.

124

A summary table of these is given at the end of the report:


Results (per m2 of total useable area):

Figure B.7

Example of the summary table in the summary report: one solution is shown

(1) Legend for the code applied in column 'Code':

Numbers 1, 2 or 3 at the beginning of the code stand for 'scheme 1', 'scheme 2' and 'scheme 3'
respectively

INS: I-profile, non-composite, steel deck

INP: I-profile, non-composite, precast slab

INH: I-profile, non-composite, hollow core slab

ICS: I-profile, composite, steel deck

ICP: I-profile, composite, precast slab

ICH: I-profile, composite, hollow core slab

ANS: cellular beam, non-composite, steel deck

ANP: cellular beam, non-composite, precast slab

ANH: cellular beam, non-composite, hollow core slab

ACS: cellular beam, composite, steel deck

ACP: cellular beam, composite, precast slab

IFB: integrated floor beam

SFB: slimfloor beam

Numbers 2, 3 or 4 at the end of the code stand for 'S235', 'S355', 'S460' respectively.

X: X orientation of secondary beams

Y: Y orientation of secondary beams.

(2) Price breakdown per m2 of usable floor area


(3) Steel frame = erected steel frame cost includes beams, columns, bracing, connections, studs,
corrosion protection, transport, erection, propping/precambering and all associated labour costs and
roof.

125

B.5.3

Select and edit Technical detailed report

A more detailed report can be obtained by clicking the option Technical detailed report in the
toolbar

This option allows the selection of a particular case from the set of available solutions.

B.5.4

Save the data

The summary and Technical detailed reports can be printed and saved in Word documents.
Calculations of global prices are given in these reports.
Please note that no material prices are output (see Basic prices B.3), and that the price list has to be
printed separately, and/or saved in the format of file.prc usable by the software.
The project can be saved in the format of file.ace which is compatible with the software.

126

European Commission
EUR 25124 Economics of steel-framed buildings in Europe (ESE)
B.A. Burgan, J.W. Rackham, F. Lecomte Labory, M. Klsak,, B. Potjes
Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union
2012 126 pp. 21 29.7 cm
Research Fund for Coal and Steel series
ISBN 978-92-79-22430-0
doi:10.2777/39342
ISSN 1831-9424

HOW TO OBTAIN EU PUBLICATIONS


Free publications:
via EU Bookshop (http://bookshop.europa.eu);
at the European Unions representations or delegations. You can obtain their
contact details on the Internet (http://ec.europa.eu) or by sending a fax
to +352 2929-42758.
Priced publications:
via EU Bookshop (http://bookshop.europa.eu).
Priced subscriptions (e.g. annual series of the Official Journal of the
European Union and reports of cases before the Court of Justice
of the European Union):
via one of the sales agents of the Publications Office of the European Union
(http://publications.europa.eu/others/agents/index_en.htm).

The project has delivered a cost tool (ACE) which is available online to architects, engineers and procurers of buildings to calculate the cost of preliminary schemes. The cost
tool is supported by detailed advice for structural arrangements and floor systems so
that an economic strategy can be adopted for design. An exemplar building in each category was identified as part of the project, and their costs are fully documented in the
report. They were used to test the tool and assist in its development. All this information
is made available online to be used as supporting documentation and demonstration
examples.
This report summarises the background work in developing the cost tool, including the
identification of the parameters that affect building costs and the development of the
costing methodology. The necessary component prices and rates were obtained for
materials, labour and transport, etc. for several countries in Europe, and these are summarised in the report and incorporated in the cost tool. They can be updated in the software by the user.

KI-NA-25124-EN-N

The introduction of the Eurocodes has provided designers with a wide range of
approaches for the design of steel-framed buildings. However, information on the costbenefits of steel solutions has been lacking. This report summarises the work and output
from a 3-year European project to develop software and information to provide designers with the tools to obtain budget costs of common types of residential, commercial
and industrial buildings and to help them approach the design in such a way as to
achieve an economic outcome.