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Origins of the Cold War

1945-1960

Strains between US and USSR(Soviets)


Truman at Potsdam Conference
Ideological differences between the
two super powers became apparent at
this meeting
Truman had no experience dealing
with Stalin after FDRs death

Biggest argument was fate of


Eastern Europe
US wanted free elections
USSR wanted them to become
satellite states
They would serve as a buffer around
USSR and be under Soviet influence

Beginning of the Cold War


Cold War: a 40-year conflict that involved no
direct war between the worlds 2 superpowers
(The U.S. and the Soviet Union)

Iron Curtain
Winston Churchill defined the term Iron
Curtain: the divide in Europe between those
countries influenced by democracy and those
influenced by Communism

Containment Policy
George F. Kennan wrote an
aritcle in Foreign Affairs
magazine stating that the
Soviets wanted to destroy
America and its way of life
It argued that the Soviets were
threatened by America and
wanted to expand to protect
themselves

He created containment
theory: the U.S. needs to
stop Communism from
spreading

Truman Doctrine
Truman first exercised the
containment policy when Turkey
and Greece came under Soviet
pressure in 1947 when
Communists tried to start
revolutions in both countries
The Truman Doctrine stated:
the United States will assist all
democratic nations fighting
communism by giving them aid
(money, weapons)
The policy would continue until
the 1980s

Marshall Plan
The United States created the
Marshall Plan that provided $12
billion to 17 different countries in
Europe its goals were:
Help Europe recover from World
War II (so we could trade with
them again)
Limit Communist influence in
Western Europe

The Soviets were invited to apply


for funds but refused
They ordered Soviet Satellite States
to do the same.

Berlin Airlift
When the US, Britain, and France
announced they were going to
unify their occupied areas of
Germany many Germans flooded
over to these areas to escape
communism
To prevent this, Stalin ordered a
blockade of all roads leading to
West Berlin
Truman responded by instituting
the Berlin Airlift that flew in
food and supplies to Berlin for 15
months
Stalin lifted the blockade in a
major victory for the West

NATO and Warsaw Pact


After the Berlin Airlift, Germany was divided into East
and West Germany
In response to the threat created by the blockade the
United States joined eleven other nations and created the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): a
military alliance between the U.S. and Western Europe
Soviet Union created their own defense alliance with
their satellite countries called the Warsaw Pact

NATO

Warsaw
Pact

NATO & Warsaw Pact


NATO
Warsaw Pact
Iron Curtain

United
Kingdom

France

East
Germany

West
Germany

Soviet Union