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Outline in Intern 1 (Preliminary Exams)

By Eloisa Lorraine V. Barandon 2CPH


GG NA MGA BESH
EXERCISE
5:
INTRODUCTION
PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

TO

Drug agent intended for use in the


diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, cure, or
prevention of disease in human or in other
animals.
Non-medical agents
ingredients or excipients.

pharmaceutical

Method of administration:
1. Oral Dosage Form orally
2. Parenteral Dosage Form injections
through the skin, mucous, veins, spinal or
serous membranes.
3. Rectal Dosage Form for systemic effect
or local action through the rectum.
4. Inhalation Dosage Form vaporized to
mucous membranes of the lower part of the
respiratory tract.
5. Topical Dosage Form applied on the
skin or instilled into the eyes, nose, or ears.
Classification of Pharmaceutical Dosage
Forms (IIYAK NA AKO)
I. Liquids
1. Solutions
A. AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
homogenous mixture that is prepared by
dissolving a solid of liquid or gas in another
liquid.
(a) Water vehicle/solvent for the
desired flavoring or medicinal ingredients.
(b) Aromatic Water medicated
water hehe clear saturated solutions of
volatile oils or aromatic volatile substances

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(c)
Aqueous
acids

inorganic acids
(d) Diluted acids strength of
10% w/v
(e) Douches directed
against a part or into a cavity of the body ok
(f) Enemas evacuation
enemas/ evacuate bowel retention
(g) Gargles treat pharynx
and nasopharynx by forcing air chenes
(h)
Mouthwashes

deodorant, refreshing, or antiseptic effect


(i) Juices from fruits usually
for syrups which are employed as vroom
vroom (vehicles hahaha ok sana magets
joke ko)
(j) Nasal solutions nasal
passages in drops/spray form
(k) Otic solutions drops to
ear
II. Sweet or Viscid Aqueous Solutions
1. Syrups sweet, thick, liquid made of
sugar and water with flavoring or medicine
added.
2. Honey thick, sweet substance made
from bees
3. Mucilages gelatinous substance of
various plants (gums)
4. Jellies soft, elastic made usually with
gelatin/pectin. (pek genern)
III. Non-Aqueous Solutions
1. Collodion liquid preparation containing
pyroxillin in a mixture of ethyl ether and
ethanol
2. Elixirs clear, pleasantly flavored
sweeted hydro-alcoholic liquids interact for
oral use
3. Glycerites not less than 505 chenes by
weight of glycerine
4. Inhalations nasal/oral respiratory route
for local/systemic effect

5. Liniments oil, alcoholic solutions of


soap or emulsions
6. Oleovitamins fish liver oils
7.
Spirits

essences/alcoholic
hydroalcohol
solutions
of
volatile
substances
8. Toothache drops temporary relief of
toothache (sana may heartache drops din
kahit temporary mawala lang yung sakit
awtsu)
B. EMULSIONS two phase system
prepared by combining 2 immiscible liquids.
C. SUSPENSIONS two phase system
consisting of finely divided solid.
1. Gels semi-solid systems made
up of small inorganic/large particles
interpenetrated by liquid.
2. Lotions liquid suspension or
dispersion for external application
3. Magmas and Milks aqueous
suspension of insoluble inorganic drugs
IV. Extracts
1. Tinctures alcoholic/hydroalcoholic
solutions
prepared
from
vegetable
materials/chemical substances
2. Fluidextracts vegetable drug as a
solvent
3. Extracts concentrated preparation of
vegetable/animal drugs obtained by removal
of active constituent.
V. Parenteral Preparations sterile
preparation intended to be administered by
injection on skin/mucous membrane
VI. Intravenous Admixtures mixture of IV
fluids + administer by injection
VII. Ophthalmic Preparations
A. Solutions clear, sterile solution

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B. Suspensions dispersion of finely


divided insoluble drug substances
C. Ointments medicinal agents
added to ointment base of white petrolatum
+ mineral oil
D. Lens Care sterile preparation to
protect lens
VIII. Medicated Application
A. Ointments
B. Pastes concentrates of
absorptive powders dispersed in petrolatum
or hydrophilic petrolatum
C. Powders for external use/
dusting powders
D. Dressings covering or
protection
E. Creams semi-solid emulsions
F. Plasters adhere to skin/attach to
dressing
G. Suppositories insertion in the
rectum, vagina or urethra
IX. Powders
A.
Oral
Powders

finely
divided/effervescent granules
B. Dentifrices bulk powders
containing soap/detergent and mild abrasive
C. Douche Powders soluble
powders
dissolved
in
water
for
antiseptic/cleaning agents of body cavity.
D. Insufflation body cavities
E. Triturations dilution of potent
powdered drugs by mixing with suitable
diluent
X. Oral Solid Dosage Forms
A. Tablets solid dosage form
containing drug substances churva
1. Compressed Tablets
2. Molded Tablets
B. Capsules enclosed in hard/soft
gel capsules

C. Pills small, round, solid dosage


forms containing medicinal agents intended
for oral administration
D. Troches lozenges/pastilles/
discoid shaped solid containing medicinal
agent in a flavored base
E. Cachets related to capsules
kasi they provide edible container for oral
administration of solid drugs
F. Pellets small, sterile cylinders
about 3.2 mm (diameter) x 8 mm (length)
formed by compression

EXERCISE 6: PRESCRIPTION
Prescription
(prae before | scribo write)
I WRITE
order of medication issued by a
physician, dentist, veterinarian, or other
properly licensed practitioner.
- formula written on a piece of paper which
is prescription blank
- oral instruction that directs the use of
certain drugs or call for the use of some
physical agent such as heat

XI. Aerosols with active ingredients


dissolved, suspended or emulsified in a
propellant or mixture of solvent and
propellant

Types of Prescription:
1. Simple Prescription 1 ingredient
2. Compound Prescription more than 1
ingredient
3. Polypharmacal Prescription more than
10/12 ingredients.
4. Magistral Prescription prescribed by
same doctor, same ingredients, same
pharmacist
5.
Coded
Prescription

blind
prescription/words, symbols to represent
name of drugs

XII. Radiopharmaceuticals radioisotopes


used in medicine
XII. Biologicals
A. Biologics for active immunity
1.
Vaccines

induce
immunity
2. Toxoid modified antigen
B. Biologics for passive immunity
1. Human immune sera
(a) Immune globulin antibodies
from pooled plasma of not less than 1000
normal individuals
(b) Hyperimmune system human
donor polls
2. Animal immune system
(a) Antitoxin neutralizing the
specific toxin
(b) Antiviral serum combat/defend
against viruses
(c) Antivenin antiserum containing
antibodies against specific poisons

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Parts of Prescription (ano na mga ineng)


1. Prescribers information
2. Patients information
3. Date prescription was written
4. Superscription Rx symbol
5. Inscription brand name, generic name
and dosage form
6. Subscription instruction to the
pharmacist
7. Transcription instruction to the patient
8. Prescribers signature
Types of Medication Order
Order someone will carry out
1. Prescription out-patient (patient will
carry out)

2. Medication Order in-patient (nurse will


carry out)
- institutional setting
Essential Drug List (EDL) / National
Formulary (NF)
List of alternative drugs period
Updated by DOH
PNDF
1. Core list must meet the health care
needs of the majority of the population
2. Complimentary list rare diseases
and when core drug is ineffective
- more response to the core
- reaction if not be given
Dangerous Drugs
S2 license PHYSICIAN
S1 or S3 license PHARMACIST
3 copies of the yellow prescription
Original pharmacist
Duplicate patient
Triplicate doctor
Incorrect Prescription
1. Erroneous
Brand name precedes generic name
Generic name is in parenthesis
Brand name is not in parenthesis
2. Violative
Generic name is not written
Generic name is not legible but
brand name is legible
NO SUBSTITUTION is written
3. Impossible
Only generic name is written and not
legible
Generic name does not correspond
to brand name
Generic and brand name is not
legible
Drug is not registered with BFAD
- drug registry
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- CR
- Hazardous substance
Guidelines
if
Incorrect
Prescription
1. Erroneous filled
2. Violative and Impossible
not filled
Generic
Dispensing

patients choice as long as:


Same API
Same Dosage Form
Same Strength
Partial Filling dispensing
less than the total units
prescribed.
CAN YOU PARTIAL FILL
DANGEROUS DRUG RX?
YES PO. BUT PATIENT
SHOULD GET ANOTHER
RX.
Record Books Expiration
1. Poison Book 5 years
2. Prescription Book 2
years
3. Dangerous Drug Book 1
year
EXERCISE
7:
PROCESSING
THE
PRESCRIPTION
1. Receiving the prescription
2. Reading and checking the
prescription
3. Numbering and dating
4. Labeling
5. Preparing the prescription
6. Packaging
7. Rechecking

8. Delivering and Patient


Counselling
9. Recording and Filling
10. Pricing the Prescription
Factors to Consider in Determining The
Safety of a Dose of Medicinal Agents
1. Age
2. Weight
3. Condition
4. Dosage form prescribed
5. Frequency of administration
EXERCISE 8: LABELING PRESCRIPTION
AND MEDICATIONS
Principal Display Panel most likely to be
displayed
Cosmetics rubbed, poured, sprinkled or
sprayed
Altering appearance
Cleansing
Beautifying
Promote attractiveness
Auxiliary Labels give patient information
needed for storing or using the product.
1. Shake well liquid disperse system
2. Keep in refrigerator chemically unstable
at room temperature
3. Do not use after parenteral products,
antibiotics
4. Refrigerate, Shake well, Discard avoid
multiple auxiliary labels (antibiotics)
5. May cause drowsiness sched 2
narcotics, anxiolytic and antihistamines
6. External Use Only external products
7. Do not drink alcohol give disulfram
reaction
8. Avoid sun exposure photosensitivity
reaction
9. Take with food cause stomach upset
10. Take one empty stomach drugs that
decrease absorption when taken with food

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11. Finish all this medication compliance


aid for antibiotics
12. Do not take aspirin warfarin type,
anticoagulants
13. Keep out of reach of children
containers without safety closures
Inner Label label or an official to an
immediate container
Packaging
materials

all
items
used/attached to blind, enclose or contain
the preparation in the final form for market
presentation of the product
Packaging activity of designing and
producing the container
Devices
contrivance

instruments,

apparatus

or

Label of the Compound Prescription


1. Prescription Number
2. Date of Fillinf
3. Name of Patient
4. Quality and Quantity of Use
5. Direction
WHITE INTERNAL | RED EXTERNAL
Terms Generally Employed in Storage
Labeling
1. Cold 2C - 8C
2. Cool 8C - 15C
3. Room Temperature 20C -25C
4. Warm 40C
5. Excessive heat > 40C
EXERCISE 9: DRUG LABELS AND
PACKAGING
1. Component

any
ingredient
intended for use in manufacturing
drugs

2. Lot batch or any portion of a batch


3. Active ingredient substance
intended to furnish pharmacologic
activity
4. Strength (i need diz) concentration
of known active ingredient
5. Brand name proprietary trade
name
6. Pharmacologic
category

classification based on therapeutic


action
7. Warning/Precautions instruction
and special care required in use of
product
8. Contraindication

conditions
wherein use of may harm the patient
9. Expirations date after which
product is not expected to retain
safety, efficacy, and potency
10. Net content total amount of
dosage form in container
11. Batch specific homogenous
quantity of drug produced
12. Lot number any distinctive
combination of letters or numbers
13. Materials Approve Unit authority
with duty to approve or reject raw
materials
14. Generic name scientifically and
internationally recognized active
ingredient
15. Inactive ingredient substances
other than active ingredient
16. Formulation names and amounts
of active medicinal ingredient
17. Dosage forms pharmaceutical
form of preparation
18. Mode of Administration site and
manner product is introduced to the
body
19. Storage Conditions prevailing
specified range of temperature,
humidity chenes

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