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Judul Asli: STEEL5( 39PAGES)

Diunggah oleh Kristin Brienne Leander-Renomeron

STEEL5( 39PAGES)

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Anda di halaman 1dari 45

BEARING PLATES

Beams maybe supported by connections to other structural members or they may rest on

concrete or masonry supports such as walls. When the support is weaker than steel, it is usually

necessary to spread the load over a large area so as not to exceed the allowable bearing stress of

the weaker material.

Allowable bearing stress of concrete wall:

1. For plate covering the full area of concrete support:

Fp= 0.35 fc

A2

Fp= 0.35 fc

A1 < 0.7 fc

Where:

fc= specified compressive stress of concrete.

A1= area of bearing steel plate.

A2= max. area of the portion of the supporting surface that is geometrically symmetrical

to and concentric with the load area.

The NSCP recommends that the bearing plate be considered to take the entire bending moment

produced and the critical section for moment be assumed to be a distance K from the centerline

of the beam. The distance K is the same distance from the outer face of the flange to the web toe

of the fillet or it is equal to the flange thickness plus fillet radius.

Note: if A1 and A2 is unknown use Fp = 0.35fc

A.) Min. width of bearing plate: ( N )

1. Due to web yielding

R

A1 = 0.35 fc '

A1 = B x N

R = end reaction

R

=0.66 Fy

t w (N +2.5 K )

N + 2.5K =

N=

R

0.66 Fy t w

R

0.66 Fy t w

- 2.5K

tw

N

2

R= 89.3tw ( 1+ 3 ( d

( tf

1.5

F yw t f

tw

R

fp = BN

n

M= fp (1) (n)( 2 )

M=

1

2

fp n2

Bending Stress :

MC

fb=

I

Allowable bending stress of bearing plate= 0.75 Fy

MC

fb=

I

0.75 Fy=

1

t

f p n2 ( )

2

2

3

(1)t

12

0.75 Fy =

3 f p n2

2

t2 =

4 f p n2

Fy

t= 2n

fp

Fy

PROBLEM 1.

A W 410 x 74 is to be supported by a concrete wall having a thickness of 250 mm with

fc = 20.7 Mpa. The beam reaction is 246 kN. Assume a 50 mm edge distance from the edge of

the plate to the edge of the wall. All steel is A 36. Fy = 248 Mpa. Distance from the outer of

flange to the toe of fillet. K = 33.27 mm

Properties of W 410 x 74

d= 413 mm

bf= 180 mm

tf= 16 mm

tw= 9.7 mm

K= 33.27 mm

1. Determine the bearing length N of the bearing plate to prevent web crippling in

multiples of 25 mm.

2. Determine the required width of the bearing plate.

3. Determine the thickness of the bearing plate.

Solution:

1. Length of bearing plate N

Value of N to prevent web yielding:

0.66 Fy =

R

( N +2.5 K )t w

0.66 (248) =

246000

( N + 2.5 (33. 27 ) ) 9.7

N + 83.175 = 154.94

N= 71.77 mm

Value of N to prevent web crippling:

tw

N

R = 89.3tw2 ( 1 + 3 ( d ( t f )

1.5

Fyt f

tw

t w 1.5

N

R = 89.3tw2 ( 1 + 3 ( d ( t f )

Fyt f

tw

( )

( )

3N

413

9.7

( 16

1.5

248(16)

9.7

1.448 = 1 + 0.0034289 N

N = 130.66 mm ; use N = 150 mm

Check:

150 + 50 + x = 250

x = 50 mm

( distance from edge of inner wall to edge of plate )

Fp= 0.35 fc

Fp = 0.35 x 20.7

Fp= 7.245 Mpa ( allowable bearing stress of concrete )

R

246000

A = F p = 7.245 = 33954.45 mm2

BN = 33954.45

33954.45

B=

= 226.36 mm ; USE B = 228 mm

150

3. Thickness of bearing plate:

R

246000

fp = BN = 228 x 150 = 7.193 < 7.245 Mpa ( safe )

B

=K + n

2

n=

t= 2n

228

2

- 33.27 = 80.73

fp

Fy

t = 2 (80.73)

7.193

248

= 27.5 mm ; USE t = 28 mm

PROBLEM 2.

A W 750 x 173 beam is supported by a masonry wall with an allowable bearing stress of

concrete Fp = 5.18 Mpa. The beam reaction is 466 kN and the length of bearing N is limited to

150 mm. Use A 36 steel Fy= 250 Mpa.

Properties of W 750 x 173

d= 762.25 mm

tw= 14.35 mm

K= 41.28 mm

tf = 21.59 mm

bf= 266.57 mm

1. Determine the width of the bearing plate due to bearing strength of concrete wall.

2. Determine the length of bearing plate due to web yielding.

3. Determine the size of the bearing plate support the beam.

Solution:

1. Width of bearing plate due to bearing strength of the wall.

fp =

R

BN

466000

150 B

5.18 =

B = 600 mm

2. Length of bearing plate due to web yielding

R

0.66 Fy = ( N +2.5 K )t w

0.66 ( 250 ) =

466000

( N + 2.5 ( 41.28 ) ) 14.35

N + 103.20 = 196.81

N= 93.61 mm

n + K = 300

n = 300 41.28 = 258.72 mm

t= 2n

fp =

R

Ab

fp

Fy

t= 2 (258.72)

466000

150 x 600

5.18

250

= 5.18 Mpa

= 74.5 mm say 75 mm

PROBLEM 3.

A beam is supported on a bearing plate on a concrete wall 300 mm thick as shown. Assume A

36 steel and fc = 20.7 Mpa for concrete.

Properties of W 530 x 66

A = 8370 mm2

bf = 165

tf = 11.4

tw = 8.9

K = 32.4 mm

Solution:

1. Maximum allowable reaction to prevent web yielding.

R

0.66 Fy = ( N +2.5 K )t w

R = 0.66 (250) (8.9) ( 125 + 2.5 (32.4))

R = 302511 N

R = 302.5 Kn

2. Max. allowable reaction due to bending plate.

B

=K + n

2

300

=32.4+n

2

n = 117.60 mm

t= 2n

fp

Fy

25 = 2 (117.60

fp

250

fp = 2.8245 Mpa

fp =

R

BN

2.8245 =

R

125 x 300

R= 105919 N or 105.92 KN

fp = 0.35 fc

fp = 0.35 x 20.7 = 7.245

R

fp = BN

7.245 =

R

300 x 125

R = 271688 N

R = 271.69 KN

In chapter 3 discussion, columns are said to be compression members. The effective

length of a compression member or a column is equal to the distance between the inflection

points of a laterally deflected member. The effective length is expressed as KL, where L is the

actual length of member and K is the effective length factor.

The figure 1 below shows a column with pin at both ends. The location of inflection

points of buckled shape is located at the pins. The effective length is equal to actual length.

Therefore the theoretical effective length factor K for such case is equal to 1.0.

The figure 2 shows a column whose ends are fixed. The location of inflection points of a

buckled shape is located at quarter points. The effective length is equal to one half of its actual

length. Therefore the theoretical effective length factor K for such case is equal to 0.5.

Recommended K = 0.65

The table gives the value of K for columns whose end restrains are defined. Use the

recommended design values when ideal condition is approximated.

Effective Length Factor K using alignment chart. The alignment chart for braced and

unbraced frames.

A.

B.

Alignment chart A is for continuous frames which are braced or not allowed to sway, that is,

inhibited.

Alignment chart B is for continuous frames which are allowed to sway, that are uninhibited.

The subscripts A and B refer to the joints at the two ends of the column section being considered.

G is defined as:

Ic

Lc

I

g

Lg

G=

equation 16.74

Where:

Ic = moment of inertia of column

Lc = unsupported length of column

Ig = moment of inertia of girder or the other restraining member

Lg = unsupported length of a girder

The moment of inertia Ic and Ig are taken about the axis perpendicular to the

plane of buckling being considered.

For pinned end column (supported but not rigidly connected to a footing or

foundation), G is theoretically infinity, but unless actually designed as a true friction free pin,

maybe taken as 10 for practical designs. If the column end is rigidly attached to a properly

designed footing, G is theoretically zero but maybe taken as 1.0. Smaller values may be used if

justified by analysis.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Enter Alignment chart with value of G for the top of the column as GA.

Enter Alignment chart with value of G for the bottom of the column as GB.

K factor is obtained at the point of intersection between the line connecting two G values

and K line.

Note: for fixed end column G = 1.0 (rigid connection of column to footing)

For pin end column G = 10

If a beam or girder is rigidly attached to a column, its stiffness should be multiplied by the

appropriate factor as shown in the table 16.7.5, depending on the condition at the far end of the

member.

When sidesway is possible, it will be found that the effective lengths are always greater than that

actual lengths, that is K is greater than 1.0.

When frames are braced in such a manner that sidesway is not possible, K is less than 1.0

SAMPLE PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS

PROBLEM 1.

The frame shown has its side sway uninhibited and the far ends of the girder are fixed against

rotation.

2. Compute the effective length of column EF.

3. Compute the slenderness ratio of column

DE if it has radius of gyration of 71.06 mm.

Note:

Lc = length of column

Lg = length of girder or beams

Ic = moment of inertia of column

Ig = moment of inertia of girder or beam

Solution:

1. K factor for column AB:

G factors for each joint

At the bottom:

GB = 10.0 (hinged or pinned joint)

At the top:

I

c

Lc

GA =

I

g

Lg

GA =

9527.8+11433.3

0.67 x 55633.3

Note: Multiply the stiffness of girders by 0.67 due to the condition of the far ends of the girder

which is fixed against rotation.

At the bottom:

I

c

Lc

GB =

I

g

Lg

GB =

16888.9+20266.7

0.67(55633.3+77700)

GB = 0.416

At the top:

I

c

Lc

GA =

I

g

Lg

GA =

20266.7

0.67(31016.7+34588.9)

GA = 0.461

Effective length KL = 1.15 x 3 = 3.45 m

Note: Multiply the stiffness of girders by 0.67 due to the condition of the far ends of the girder

which is fixed against rotation.

3. Slenderness ratio of column DE:

At the bottom:

I

c

Lc

GB =

Ig

Lg

GB = 10.0 (hinged or pin joint)

At the top:

I

c

Lc

GA =

I

g

Lg

GA =

55633.3+77700

0.67

16888.9+20266.7

GA = 0.416

Slenderness ratio:

KL 1.78 x 3600

=

r

71.06

KL

r

= 90.18

Note: Multiply the stiffness of girders by 0.67 due to the condition of the far ends of the girder

which is fixed against rotation.

PROBLEM 2.

From the figure shown, the moment of inertia of girders and columns are as follows:

Ic = 0.00004570 m4

Ig = 0.0003107 m4

2. Which of the following gives the value GB for column C-3?

3. Which of the following gives the effective length of column C-3? Using the given

alignment chart.

Solution.

1. Value of GA:

Note: multiply the girder stiffness by 1.5 (far end is pinned)

I

c

Lc

GA =

Ig

Lg

GA =

0.00004570

3.7

0.0003107

1.5 (

)

5.5

GA = 0.146

2. Value of GB:

Note: Multiply the girder stiffened by 1.5

(Far end is pinned)

Ic

Lc

Ig

Lg

GB =

GB =

0.00004570 0.00004570

+

3.7

3.7

0.0003107

0.0003107

+

(1.5 )

5.5

3.0

)(

GB = 0.116

Effective length = K L

Effective length = 1.04 x 3.7

Effective length = 3.848 m

PROBLEM 3.

From the figure shown, the moment of inertia of girders and columns are as follows:

Ic = 0.00004570 m4

Ig = 0.0003107 m4

2. Which of the following gives the value of GB for column C-4?

3. Which of the following gives the effective length of column C-5? Using the given

alignment chart.

Solution:

1. Effective length of C-1

GA =

0.00004570

3.7

0.0003107

(0.5)

5.5

GA = 0.437

GB =

0.00004570 0.00004570

+

3.7

3.7

0.0003107

5.5

GB = 0.437

Effective length = 1.16 x 3.7

Effective length = 4.29 m

2. Effective length of C-4

GA =

0.00004570 0.00004570

+

3.7

3.7

0.0003107

5.5

GA = o.437

GB = 1.0 (footing)

Effective length = 0.725 x 3.7

Effective length = 2.68 m

GA =

0.00004570 0.00004570

+

3.7

3.7

0.0003107

0.0003107

+

5.5

5.5

)(

GA = 0.219

GB = 1.0 (footing)

Effective length = 0.68 x 3.7

Effective length = 2.52 m

Axially loaded compression members

A column is a compression member that is so slender compare to its length that usually it

fails by buckling rather than by crushing. They are classified into three groups.

1. Short Columns:

For short columns, the failure will be by crushing and no buckling will occur.

2. Intermediate Columns:

Here, some of the fibers will reach the yield stress and the member will fail by a

combination of crushing and buckling and their behavior is said to be elastic.

3. Long Columns:

Here, the axial buckling stress usually remains below the proportional limit and

the column will usually buckle elastically. Long columns usually fail by buckling

or excessive lateral bending. The longer the column is, the greater its tendency to

buckle and the smaller load it will support. The tendency of a member to buckle is

usually measured by its slenderness ratio which is define as the ratio of the length

of the member to its least radius of gyration. The greater the slenderness ratio, the

smaller will be the capacity of such column.

Common Sections used for Columns

Eulers Formula

P=

2 EI

L2

P=

P=

P=

2 EI

( L e )

L

2

2

EI

4 2 EI

L2

P=

EI

( L e )

P=

EI

(0.7 L)

P=

2 2 E

( L)

P=

2 EI

(L)

P=

2 EI

( L e )

P=

2 EI

(2 L)

P=

2 EI

4 L

1. If

P

A

2. If

L

r

P

A

< 100 Eulers formula is not valid and the proportional limit is the critical stress

= proportional limit

PROBLEM 1.

The initial compressive force of a steel column can be determined by using

2 EI

(L e )

Pe=

A= 8129 mm2

Ix= 178.3 x 106mm4

Iy=18.8 x 106mm4

fy= 345 Mpa

E= 200, 000 Mpa

Proportional limit: fs= 320 Mpa

The x-axis has an unbraced length of 8 m, which is pinned at the top and fixed at the bottom with

K= 0.70 to prevent sidesway. The y-axis has an unbraced length of 4m due to the bracing at the

mid-height.

1. Determine the critical slenderness ratio.

2. Compute the initial compressive load of the column.

3. What is the minimum length that will not exceed the proportional limit.

SOLUTION:

1. Critical slenderness ratio:

ry=

Iy

A

ry=

rx=

18800000

= 48.09 mm

8129

Ix

A

178300000

= 148.10 mm

8129

L 8000 x 0.7

=

=37.81

rx

148.10

L 4000 x 1

=

=83.18

ry

48.09

L 4000 x 1

=

=83.18

ry

48.09

L 4000 x 0.7

=

=58.22

ry

48.09

Critical slenderness ratio = 83.18

Pcr

EI

( L)

2

( 200 000 ) (18800000)

(4000)

Pcr = 2319357 N

Pcr = 2319 KN

3. Min. length of column so that it will not exceed the prorportional limit.

Pcr

= A x proportional limit

Pcr = A fs

Pcr = 8129 (320)

Pcr = 2601280

Pcr

2601280=

2 EI

( L)

2

( 200 000 ) (18800000)

(L)

L= 3777 mm

L= 3.78 m

PROBLEM 2.

A W 250 x 73 is to served as a pin-ended 12 m long column is braced at mid-height with

respect to its weak axis. The proportional limit is 235 Mpa.

Properties of safety of 2.5

A= 9280 mm2

rx= 110

d= 253

ry= 64.7

bf= 254 mm

tf= 14.2 mm

2. Determine the Eulers Buckling stress.

3. Determine the allowable axial compressive load using a factor of safety of 2.5.

SOLUTION:

1. Slenderness ratio with respect to y-axis.

KL

1 x 6000

ry =

64.7

2. Eulers Buckling stress.

KL

1 x 12000

rx =

110

Use

L

r

Fe=

E

2

L

( )

r

= 109.09

2 (200000)

(109.09)2

of 2.5

Pe= Fe A

Pe = 165.87 ( 9280 )

Pe= 1539274 N or 1539.3 KN

Pe

1539.3

P= F . S . =

= 615.72 KN

2.5

PROBLEM 3.

Two C 310 x 45 channels are latticed together so they have equal moments of inertia about

the principal axes. Assumed both ends are pinned and proportional limit is 240 Mpa. E= 200000

Mpa.

1. Compute the distance back to the channel.

3. What safe load will the column carry for a length of 12 m. With a factor of safety of 2.5.

Area= 5690 mm2

Ix = 67.3 x 106

Iy= 2.12 x 106

x= 17 mm

rx= 109 mm

ry= 19.32 mm

SOLUTION:

1. Distance back to back of channel:

For 2 channels:

Ix = Iy

Iy= 2 ( 67.3 ) x 106

Iy = ( 2.12 x 106 + 5690( K )2) 2

134.6 x 106= ( 2.12 x106 + 5690 K2 ) 2

67.3 x 106 = 2.12x 106 + 5690 K2

K= 107.03 mm

b

+17=107.03

2

b= 180.06 mm

2. Minimum length:

P

=proportional limit

A

P

2 x 5690 = 240

P= 2731.2 KN

P=

2 EI

(L)

2731200 =

2

( 200 000 ) (134.600000)

(L)

L= 9863 mm or 9.86 m

3. Safe load of 12 m. Length of column with a factor of safety of 2.5

2 Ix

rx=

2A

rx=

Ix

A

= 109 mm

P

A =

2 EI

( L/r )

L

r =

12000

109

P

2 x 5690 =

= 110.09

2 200000

(110.09)

P= 1854 KN

Safe load =

1854

2.5

= 741.6 KN

DESIGN FOR AXIAL COMPRESSION and BENDING

Bending moments in compression members tend to increase lateral deflections than

moments in tension members. Increase lateral deflections in turn results in larger moments. The

members are then subjected to both axial and bending stress acting simultaneously.

f=

MC

I

f=

P Mx Cx

A

Ix

M yC y

Iy

Members subjected to both axial compression and bending stresses shall be proportional

to satisfy the following requirements.

fa

Fa

C my f by

f

1 a Fbx

F e' x

f

1 a F by

F e' y

f bx

+ F bx

fa

0.60 Fy

fa

Fa

When

fa

Fa

Cmx f bx

f bx

+ F bx

1.0

f by

1.0

F by

Equation 18.2.1

Equation 18.2.2

0.15

f by

1.0

F by

Equation 18.2.3

fa =

P

A

Fa = axial compressive stress that would be permitted if axial force alone existed

Fb = compressive bending stress that would be permitted if bending moment alone existed

Fe =

122 E

K Lb

23

rb

( )

rb = the radius of gyration in the plane bending

K =effective length factor in the plane of bending

Cm = modification factor or reduction factor whose value shall be taken as follows:

a.) For compression members in frames subject to joint translation.

b.) For rotationally restrained compression members in frames braced against joint

translation (no sidesway) and not subject to transverse loading between their supports

in the plane of bending. Cm = 0.60 0.40 (

M1

M2

Where:

M1

M 2 = is the ratio of the smaller to larger moments at the ends of the portion of the

member unbraced in the plane of bending under consideration.

M1

M2

M1

M2

c.) For compression members in frames braced against joint translation in the plane of

loading and subjected to transverse loading between their supports, the value of Cm

maybe determined by analysis, however in lieu of such analysis, the following values

are permitted.

1. For members whose ends are restrained against rotation in the plane of bending.

Cm = 0.85

2. For members whose ends are unrestrained against rotation in the plane of

bending.

Cm = 1.0

For bending in one axis:

fa

Fa

Cmx f bx

+

fa

F

F e' x bx

1.0

The value of

fa

F e' x

Fe = Euler buckling stress divided by the factor of safety

Fe =

12 2 E

K Lb

23

rb

( )

Cm

Magnification factor =

fa

F e' x

)

Cm

fa

F e' x

= 1.0

1. When there is no sidesway

: Cm = 0.60 0.40 (

: Cm = 0.85

: Cm = 1 +

fa

Fe '

M1

M2

PROBLEM 1.

A steel column has an unsupported height of 5.4 m is pin connected at both ends with

sidesway prevented. It carries an axial load of 530 KN and a moment of 20 KN-m at the top and

13.4 KN-m at the bottom which causes bending about major axis (single curvature). Except for

bracings at the top and the bottom, there is no lateral bracing about either major and minor axis

of the column. Fy = 250 MPa, Es = 200000 MPa.

Properties of steel section:

A = 7450 mm2

d = 250 mm

bf = 204 mm

tf = 13.6 mm

tw = 8 mm

Sx = 694 x 103 mm3

Sy = 188 x 103 mm3

rx = 108 mm

ry = 50.4 mm

1. Compute the allowable compressive stress of the column section.

2. Compute the combined axial and bending interaction value.

3. Compute the amplification factor.

Solution:

1. Allowable compressive stress:

K = 1.0 (pin-connected)

KL

1 x 5400

=

= 107.14

r

50.4

Cc =

Cc =

2 E

Fy

2 200000

250

KL

Fy

r

Fa = [1] F .S.

2 Cc 2

( )

F.S. =

5

3

F.S. = 1.70

3

+

( KLr )

8 Cc

( KLr ) 3

8 C c3

125.66

2

( 107.14 )

Fa = [1-

250

1.70

Fa = 93.61 MPa

M1

Cm = 0.60 0.40 ( M 2 )

Cm = 0.60 0.40 (-

(sidesway prevented)

13.4

20 )

(single curvature

Cm = 0.868

Lc =

200 b f

Fy

Lu =

137900

250 x 250

204 x 13.6

200 x 204

250

= 2580 mm

= 6121 mm

Lb = 5400 mm

Lb > Lc = 2580 mm

Lb < Lu = 6121 mm

Use Fbx = 0.60 Fy = 0.60 x 250 = 150 MPa

fbx =

M

sx

fbx =

20 x 106

694 x 103

fa =

P

A

fa

Fa

Use

Fex =

530000

7450

fa

Fa

= 28.81 MPa

71.14

93.61

= 71.14 MPa

Cmx f bx

12 2 Es

KL

23

rx

( )

fa

F

F e' x bx

1.0

M1

M2

is negative)

KL

rx

1 x 5400

108

= 50

12 2 (200000)

23 ( 50 )

Fex =

= 412

Cm

Magnification factor =

fa

Fa

f

1 a

F e' x

0.868

71.14

1

412

= 1.049 > 1 ok

C mx f bx

71.14

93.61

fa

F

F e' x bx

1.0

1.049 x 28.81

+

150

3. Amplification factor:

Amplification factor =

fa

F e' x

1

71.14

1

412

= 1.209

PROBLEM 2.

A W 12 x 161 is used as a column to support an axial load of 1784 KN and moments

about the x-axis equal to 180 KN-m and moment about the y-axis of 60 KN-m. the column

section has an unsupported height of 3.6 m consisting of A 36 steel with Fy = 248 MPa which is

braced against sidesway. There are no transverse loads and Kx = 1.0 and Ky = 1.0. The column is

bent in reverse curvature about both axes with equal end moments.

Properties of W 12 x 161

A = 30580.6 mm2

d = 352.55 mm

bf = 317.88 mm

tf = 37.74 mm

tw = 22.99 mm

Sx = 3638 x 103 mm3

Sy = 1273 x 103 mm3

rx = 144.78 mm

ry = 81.28 mm

1.

2.

3.

4.

Compute the allowable bending stress about the x-axis.

Compute the allowable bending stress about the y-axis.

Determine the adequacy of the column section by computing the interaction values of

axial and bending stresses.

SOLUTION:

1. Allowable axial stress:

K x Lx

rx

1.0 x 3600

144.78

= 24.87

K y Ly

ry

1.0 x 3600

81.28

= 44.29

Use

KL

r

Cc =

= 44.29

2 E

Fy

F.S. =

Fa = [1-

2 200000

248

( KLr )

Use Fa = [1-

2 Cc

5

3

( KLr )

8 Cc

( KLr )

2 Cc 2

Fy

F .S.

( KLr ) 3

8 C c3

Fy

F .S.

= [1-

= 1.76

( 44.29 )

2 ( 126.17 )2

248

1.76

= 132.23 MPa

Lc =

200 b f

Fy

Lu =

137900

248 x 352.55

317.88 x 37.74

200 x 317.88

248

= 4037 mm

Fby = 0.75 Fy = 0.75 x 248 = 186 MPa

4. Adequacy of column section:

M1

Cmx = 0.60 0.40 ( M 2 )

M1 = M2

Cmx = 0.60 0.40 (1)

Cmx = 0.20

use Cmx = 0.40

Cmy = 0.20

use Cmx = 0.40

2

Fex =

12 Es

KL

23

rx

Fey =

12 Es

KL

23

ry

( )

12 (200000)

23 ( 24.87 )

12 (200000)

23 ( 44.29 )

= 1665

P

A

fa =

fa

Fa

( )

fa

Fa

Use

fa

0.60 F y

Use:

1784000

30580.6

58.34

132.23

C mx f bx

C my f by

f

1 a Fbx

F e' x

f

1 a F by

F e' y

f bx

+ F bx

C mx

f

1 a

F ' ex

C my

f

1 a

F ' ey

= 58.34 MPa

C mx

f

1 a

F ' ex

C mx

f

1 a

F ' ex

= 525

f by

1.0

F by

0.40

58.34

1

1665

= 1.0

0.40

58.34

1

525

1.0

Use:

C my

f

1 a

F ' ey

fbx =

Mx

sx

fbx =

180 x 10 6

3638 x 10 3

fby =

My

sy

fbx =

60 x 10 6

3

1273 x 10

fa

Fa

= 1.0

= 49.48 MPa

= 47.13 MPa

Cmx f bx

C my f by

f

1 a Fbx

F e' x

f

1 a F by

F e' y

58.34

132.23

fa

0.60 F y

f bx

+ F bx

58.34

0.60 x 248

1.0 x 49.48

163.68

49.48

+ 163.68

1.0

1.0 x 47.13

=0.997< 1.0(safe)

186

f by

1.0

F by

47.13

=0.948 < 1.0 (safe)

186

PROBLEM 3.

A W 10 x 77 column sections carries an axial load of 900 KN and a moment of 55 KN-m

at the top and a moment of 110 KN-m at the bottom. The column has a height of 4.6 m and is

assumed to be pin connected at both ends. Assume sidesway is prevented and bending occurs

about the strong axis (single curvature). Use A 36 steel Fy= 248 MPa.

Compute the equivalent axial load that will cause a stress the same as the maximum

stress produced by the actual loads using the modified formula and indicate the adequacy of the

column section.

Properties of W 12 x 161

A = 14645 mm2

d = 269.75 mm

bf = 258.95 mm

tf = 22.05 mm

tw = 13.59 mm

Sx = 411 x 103 mm3

Sy = 493 x 103 mm3

rx = 114.05 mm

ry = 66.04 mm

Es = 200000 MPa

SOLUTION:

KL

r

Cc =

1.0 x 4600

66.04

2 E

Fy

( KLr )

Fa = [1-

2 Cc

F.S. =

2 200000

248

Fy

F .S.

5

3

= 69.65

( KLr )

8 Cc

( KLr ) 3

8 C c3

F.S. = 1.85

Fa = [1-

126.17

2

( 69.65 )

248

1.85

Fa = 113.63 MPa

Allowable load:

Pall = A Fa = 14645 x 113.63 = 1664 KN

fa =

P

A

900000

14645

= 61.45 MPa

Fa = 113.63 MPa

fa

Fa

61.45

113.63

Allowable Fbx

Lc =

200 b f

Fy

Lu =

137900

248 x 269.75

258.95 x 22.05

200 x 258.95

248

= 3289 mm

= 11770 mm

Lb = 4500 mm

Lb > Lc

Lb < Lu

Use Fbx = 0.60 Fy = 0.60 x 248 = 148.8 MPa

Fa

ax

(

)

F bx a x P ( KL )2 ]

Bx =

A

Sx

14645

1411 x 103

= 0.01038

Cmx = 0.60 0.40 (

M1

M2

55

110

) (no sidesway)

) = 0.80

ax = 1.97 x 106 (14645 114.052) = 375.27 x 1012 N- mm2

KL = 1.0 x 4600 = 4600

P = 900000 N

Fa

ax

(

)

F bx a x P ( KL )2 ]

113.63

375.27 x 1012

(

)

148.8 375.27 x 1012900000 ( 4600 )2 ]

Peq = 1634.8 KN < 1664 KN (ok)

(Equivalent axial load that will cause a stress the same as the maximum stress produced by

the actual loads using the modified formula)

Check also:

Peq= P

Peq= 900

Fa

F

+Bx M x a

0.6 F y

F bx

113.63

113.63

+ 0.01038(110000)

0.6 x 248

148.8

Steel columns are placed on some type of supporting member or by a concrete footing. A

base plate is necessary when a steel column terminates on any reinforced concrete footing to

spread the high intensity of stress in the steel to a value that can be safely carried by the

reinforced concrete footing. These base plates can be welded directly to the columns by means of

some type of bolted or welded lug angles. For small columns these plates are usually shopwelded to the columns, but for larger columns it is necessary to install the plates separately and

set them to correct position. The columns are then set and connected to the footing with anchor

bolts which pass through the lug angles which have been shop welded to the columns.

The NSCP specifications provides two allowable bearing pressures for concrete supports.

a. If the entire concrete area A2 is covered by the plate whose area is A1

Fp= 0.35 fc

b. If A1 is less than A2 :

Fp= 0.35 fc

A2

A1

a. On sandstone and limestone... Fp= 2.75 Mpa

b. On brick in cement mortar...... Fp= 1.72 Mpa

c. On the full area of a concrete support... Fp= 0.35 fc

d. On less than full area of concrete support... Fp= 0.35 fc

A2

A1

< 0.7 fc

Where;

fc= specified compressive strength of concrete

A1= area of steel concentrically bearing on concrete support.

A2= max. area of the portion of the supporting surface that is geometrically

similar to and concentric with the loaded area.

In designing the column base plates, its assumed that the column load is uniformly distributed

within a rectangle whose dimensions are 95% of the depth and 80% of the flange width of the

column section and that the base plate to have a uniform bearing pressure on the foundation

Trial area:

BC=

P

Fp

BC=

P

0.35 fc '

fp =

P

BC

< 0.35 fc

m

M= fp (m) (1) ( 2

m2

2

M= fp

M= fp (n) (1)(

6M

bd2

Fb=

6(

Fb=

t=

n

2 )

n2

2

M= fp

t=

f p n2

)

2

(1)t 2

3 f pn2

Fb

3 f p m2

Fb

t= 2n

fp

Fy

t= 2m

fp

Fy

PROBLEM 1. ( rectangular base plate )

An axially loaded W 250 x 89 column is supported on a 25mm thick base plate having

dimensions of 325 mm x 375 mm. The concrete pedestal on which the base plate is set is 450

mm square. All steel is A 36, Fy= 250 Mpa and fc= 24.2 Mpa.

Properties of W 250 x 89

bf= 256 mm

d= 260 mm

2. Find the max. allowable axial load that this base plate can support based on allowable

bearing pressure of concrete pedestal.

3. Find the allowable axial load that this plate can support based on the bending strength of

the plate.

Solutions:

1. Allowable bearing pressure on the concrete pedestal.

A1 = 325 (375)

A1= 121875 mm2

A2= 450 (450)

A2= 202500 mm2

Fp= 0.35 fc

Fp= 0.35(24.2)

A2

A1

< 0.7 fc

202500

121875

Fp= 0.7 fc= 0.7 (24.2) = 16.94 Mpa ; use Fp= 10.92 Mpa

2. Allowable axial load that this base plate can support can support based on allowable

bearing pressure of concrete pedestal.

P

Fp= A

P

10.92 = 325 (375)

P= 1330875 N or 1330.88 KN

3. Allowable axial load that this plate can support based on bending strength of the

plate.

2n+ 0.80bf = 325

2n+ 0.80 (256) = 325

n= 60.10 mm

2m+ 0.95d = 375

2m+ 0.95(260) = 375

m= 64 mm

d b f

n=

260( 256)

= 64.50 mm

Use n= 64.50 mm

t= 2n

fp

Fy

25= 2 (64.50)

f p

250

f p

250

0.0376=

P

fp= A

9.39=

P

325 (375)

P= 1144406 N

P= 1144.4 KN

A square base plate supports a W 250 x 167 column that supports an axial load of 2000 kN. The

base plate is be of A 36 steel, F y= 250 MPa. The footing size (pile cap) is 2.4 m square. The

compressive strength of concrete is fc= 20.7 Mpa.

Properties of W 250 x 167

d= 289 mm

bf= 265 mm

2. Determine the size of the square base plate.

3. Determine the thickness of the base plate.

Solution:

1. Allowable bearing pressure of the pile cap.

A1=

P

0.7 fc '

A1=

2 000 000

0.7(20.7)

A2= (2400)(2400)

A2= 5760000 mm2

A2

Fp= 0.35 fc

A1

P

A2

=

0.35

fc

A1

A1

2 000 000

A2

=

A

1

A1

0.35(20.)

A2

276052= A

1

A1

76205 x 106= A1A2

76205 x 106= A1 ( 5760000 )

A1= 13,230 mm2

Use A1= 138026 mm2

A2

Fp= 0.35 fc

A1

Fp= 0.35 (20.7)

5760000

138026

Use Fp= 0.7 fc

Fp= 0.7 (20.7)

Fp= 14.49 MPa ( allowable bearing pressure of the pile cap )

2. Size of the square base plate.

B

= Fp

P

= 14.49

2 000 000

Use 375 x 375 square base plate

3. Thickness of the base plate.

2m+ 0.95d = 375

2m+ 0.95(289) = 375

m= 50.23 mm

2n+ 0.80bf = 375

2n+ 0.80(265) = 375

n= 81.50 mm

n=

n=

d b f

4

289(265)

4

= 69.18 mm

t= 2n

fp

Fy

P

A =

fp=

2 000 000

375

t= 2 ( 81.50 )

14.22

250

t= 38.87 say 40 mm

use t= 40 mm

PROBLEM 3.

A W 360 x 110 column carries an axial load of 1560 kN. A rectanular base plate is required to

support this column. Assume that the base plate will cover the full area of concrete pier with fc=

20.7 Mpa. Use A 36 steel Fy= 248 MPa.

Properties of W 360 x 110

d= 360 mm

2. Determine the width B of the base plate.

3. Determine the thickness of the base plate.

Solution:

1. Length N of the base plate

Full area of concrete pier is covered

by the base plate.

Fp= 0.35 fc

Fp= 0.35 (20.7) = 7.245 Mpa

Required area:

A1=

P

Fp =

1560000

7.245

= 215321

A1 > dbf

= 0.50 ( 0.95d- 0.80bf)

= 0.50 ( 0.95(360)- 0.80(256))

= 68.60 m

N=

A1

N=

215321 + 68.60

2. Width B of the base plate

A1= BN

215321= B(532.63)

B= 404.3 mm say 406 mm ; use B= 406 mm

3. Thickness of the base plate

1560000

P

f p =

=

BN

406(534)

fp= 7.195 < 7.245 Mpa

N= 0.95d + 2m

534 = 0.95 (360) + 2m

m= 96 mm

B= 0.85bf + 2n

406= 0.85(256) + 2n

d b f

360(256)

n=

=

= 75.89 mm

4

4

use m= 96 mm

t= 2m

fp

Fy

= 2(96)

7.195

248

t= 32.7 mm say 34 mm

REFERENCES

2. ENCE 455

Design of Steel Structures

III. Compression Members

C. C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E.

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

University of Maryland

AISC steel manual

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