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CHAPTER I.

BEARING PLATES
Beams maybe supported by connections to other structural members or they may rest on
concrete or masonry supports such as walls. When the support is weaker than steel, it is usually
necessary to spread the load over a large area so as not to exceed the allowable bearing stress of
the weaker material.
Allowable bearing stress of concrete wall:
1. For plate covering the full area of concrete support:
Fp= 0.35 fc

2. For plate covering less than full area of concrete support.


A2
Fp= 0.35 fc
A1 < 0.7 fc

Where:
fc= specified compressive stress of concrete.
A1= area of bearing steel plate.
A2= max. area of the portion of the supporting surface that is geometrically symmetrical
to and concentric with the load area.

The NSCP recommends that the bearing plate be considered to take the entire bending moment
produced and the critical section for moment be assumed to be a distance K from the centerline
of the beam. The distance K is the same distance from the outer face of the flange to the web toe
of the fillet or it is equal to the flange thickness plus fillet radius.
Note: if A1 and A2 is unknown use Fp = 0.35fc
A.) Min. width of bearing plate: ( N )
1. Due to web yielding
R
A1 = 0.35 fc '
A1 = B x N
R = end reaction
R
=0.66 Fy
t w (N +2.5 K )

N + 2.5K =

N=

R
0.66 Fy t w

R
0.66 Fy t w

- 2.5K

2. Due to web yielding


tw
N

2
R= 89.3tw ( 1+ 3 ( d
( tf

1.5

F yw t f
tw

Note: Fyw = Fy if not specified.

B.) Thickness of the bearing plate

Consider 1 mm wide strip of plate.


R
fp = BN
n
M= fp (1) (n)( 2 )
M=

1
2

fp n2

Bending Stress :
MC
fb=
I
Allowable bending stress of bearing plate= 0.75 Fy
MC
fb=
I

0.75 Fy=

1
t
f p n2 ( )
2
2
3
(1)t
12

0.75 Fy =

3 f p n2
2

t2 =

4 f p n2
Fy

t= 2n

fp
Fy

SAMPLE PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS :


PROBLEM 1.
A W 410 x 74 is to be supported by a concrete wall having a thickness of 250 mm with
fc = 20.7 Mpa. The beam reaction is 246 kN. Assume a 50 mm edge distance from the edge of
the plate to the edge of the wall. All steel is A 36. Fy = 248 Mpa. Distance from the outer of
flange to the toe of fillet. K = 33.27 mm
Properties of W 410 x 74
d= 413 mm

bf= 180 mm

tf= 16 mm

tw= 9.7 mm

K= 33.27 mm
1. Determine the bearing length N of the bearing plate to prevent web crippling in
multiples of 25 mm.
2. Determine the required width of the bearing plate.
3. Determine the thickness of the bearing plate.
Solution:
1. Length of bearing plate N
Value of N to prevent web yielding:
0.66 Fy =

R
( N +2.5 K )t w

0.66 (248) =

246000
( N + 2.5 (33. 27 ) ) 9.7

N + 83.175 = 154.94
N= 71.77 mm
Value of N to prevent web crippling:
tw
N
R = 89.3tw2 ( 1 + 3 ( d ( t f )

1.5

Fyt f
tw

t w 1.5
N
R = 89.3tw2 ( 1 + 3 ( d ( t f )

Fyt f
tw

( )
( )

246000 = 89.3 (9.7)2 ( 1+

3N
413

9.7

( 16

1.5

248(16)
9.7

1.448 = 1 + 0.0034289 N
N = 130.66 mm ; use N = 150 mm
Check:
150 + 50 + x = 250
x = 50 mm
( distance from edge of inner wall to edge of plate )

2. Width of bearing plate:


Fp= 0.35 fc
Fp = 0.35 x 20.7
Fp= 7.245 Mpa ( allowable bearing stress of concrete )
R
246000
A = F p = 7.245 = 33954.45 mm2
BN = 33954.45
33954.45
B=
= 226.36 mm ; USE B = 228 mm
150
3. Thickness of bearing plate:
R
246000
fp = BN = 228 x 150 = 7.193 < 7.245 Mpa ( safe )
B
=K + n
2

n=

t= 2n

228
2

- 33.27 = 80.73
fp
Fy

t = 2 (80.73)

7.193
248

= 27.5 mm ; USE t = 28 mm

PROBLEM 2.
A W 750 x 173 beam is supported by a masonry wall with an allowable bearing stress of
concrete Fp = 5.18 Mpa. The beam reaction is 466 kN and the length of bearing N is limited to
150 mm. Use A 36 steel Fy= 250 Mpa.
Properties of W 750 x 173
d= 762.25 mm

tw= 14.35 mm

K= 41.28 mm

tf = 21.59 mm

bf= 266.57 mm

1. Determine the width of the bearing plate due to bearing strength of concrete wall.
2. Determine the length of bearing plate due to web yielding.
3. Determine the size of the bearing plate support the beam.
Solution:
1. Width of bearing plate due to bearing strength of the wall.
fp =

R
BN
466000
150 B

5.18 =

B = 600 mm
2. Length of bearing plate due to web yielding
R
0.66 Fy = ( N +2.5 K )t w

0.66 ( 250 ) =

466000
( N + 2.5 ( 41.28 ) ) 14.35

N + 103.20 = 196.81
N= 93.61 mm

3. Size of bearing plate to support the beam


n + K = 300
n = 300 41.28 = 258.72 mm

t= 2n

fp =

R
Ab

fp
Fy

t= 2 (258.72)

466000
150 x 600

5.18
250

= 5.18 Mpa

= 74.5 mm say 75 mm

USE 150 x 600 x 75 bearing plate

PROBLEM 3.
A beam is supported on a bearing plate on a concrete wall 300 mm thick as shown. Assume A
36 steel and fc = 20.7 Mpa for concrete.

Properties of W 530 x 66

A = 8370 mm2

Sx = 1340 x 103 mm3 d= 525

Ix = 351 x 106 mm4

bf = 165

tf = 11.4

tw = 8.9

K = 32.4 mm

Solution:
1. Maximum allowable reaction to prevent web yielding.
R
0.66 Fy = ( N +2.5 K )t w
R = 0.66 (250) (8.9) ( 125 + 2.5 (32.4))
R = 302511 N
R = 302.5 Kn
2. Max. allowable reaction due to bending plate.
B
=K + n
2
300
=32.4+n
2
n = 117.60 mm
t= 2n

fp
Fy

25 = 2 (117.60

fp
250

fp = 2.8245 Mpa
fp =

R
BN

2.8245 =

R
125 x 300

R= 105919 N or 105.92 KN

3. Max. allowable reaction due to bearing of concrete wall.


fp = 0.35 fc
fp = 0.35 x 20.7 = 7.245
R
fp = BN
7.245 =

R
300 x 125

R = 271688 N
R = 271.69 KN

EFFECTIVE LENGTH FOR COLUMNS


In chapter 3 discussion, columns are said to be compression members. The effective
length of a compression member or a column is equal to the distance between the inflection
points of a laterally deflected member. The effective length is expressed as KL, where L is the
actual length of member and K is the effective length factor.

The figure 1 below shows a column with pin at both ends. The location of inflection
points of buckled shape is located at the pins. The effective length is equal to actual length.
Therefore the theoretical effective length factor K for such case is equal to 1.0.

The figure 2 shows a column whose ends are fixed. The location of inflection points of a
buckled shape is located at quarter points. The effective length is equal to one half of its actual
length. Therefore the theoretical effective length factor K for such case is equal to 0.5.
Recommended K = 0.65

The table gives the value of K for columns whose end restrains are defined. Use the
recommended design values when ideal condition is approximated.

Effective Length Factor K using alignment chart. The alignment chart for braced and
unbraced frames.

A.

B.

Alignment chart A is for continuous frames which are braced or not allowed to sway, that is,
inhibited.
Alignment chart B is for continuous frames which are allowed to sway, that are uninhibited.
The subscripts A and B refer to the joints at the two ends of the column section being considered.
G is defined as:
Ic
Lc
I
g
Lg

G=

equation 16.74

Where:
Ic = moment of inertia of column
Lc = unsupported length of column
Ig = moment of inertia of girder or the other restraining member
Lg = unsupported length of a girder

The moment of inertia Ic and Ig are taken about the axis perpendicular to the
plane of buckling being considered.
For pinned end column (supported but not rigidly connected to a footing or
foundation), G is theoretically infinity, but unless actually designed as a true friction free pin,
maybe taken as 10 for practical designs. If the column end is rigidly attached to a properly
designed footing, G is theoretically zero but maybe taken as 1.0. Smaller values may be used if
justified by analysis.

Procedure for Using Alignment Charts


1.
2.
3.
4.

Calculate G values at each end of column.


Enter Alignment chart with value of G for the top of the column as GA.
Enter Alignment chart with value of G for the bottom of the column as GB.
K factor is obtained at the point of intersection between the line connecting two G values
and K line.

Note: for fixed end column G = 1.0 (rigid connection of column to footing)
For pin end column G = 10
If a beam or girder is rigidly attached to a column, its stiffness should be multiplied by the
appropriate factor as shown in the table 16.7.5, depending on the condition at the far end of the
member.

When sidesway is possible, it will be found that the effective lengths are always greater than that
actual lengths, that is K is greater than 1.0.
When frames are braced in such a manner that sidesway is not possible, K is less than 1.0
SAMPLE PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS
PROBLEM 1.
The frame shown has its side sway uninhibited and the far ends of the girder are fixed against
rotation.

1. Compute the K factor for column AB.


2. Compute the effective length of column EF.
3. Compute the slenderness ratio of column
DE if it has radius of gyration of 71.06 mm.

Note:
Lc = length of column
Lg = length of girder or beams
Ic = moment of inertia of column
Ig = moment of inertia of girder or beam
Solution:
1. K factor for column AB:
G factors for each joint
At the bottom:
GB = 10.0 (hinged or pinned joint)
At the top:
I
c
Lc
GA =
I
g
Lg
GA =

9527.8+11433.3
0.67 x 55633.3

From the chart: K = 1.78


Note: Multiply the stiffness of girders by 0.67 due to the condition of the far ends of the girder
which is fixed against rotation.

2. Effective length of column EF:


At the bottom:
I
c
Lc
GB =
I
g
Lg
GB =

16888.9+20266.7
0.67(55633.3+77700)

GB = 0.416
At the top:
I
c
Lc
GA =
I
g
Lg

GA =

20266.7
0.67(31016.7+34588.9)

GA = 0.461

From the chart: K = 1.15


Effective length KL = 1.15 x 3 = 3.45 m
Note: Multiply the stiffness of girders by 0.67 due to the condition of the far ends of the girder
which is fixed against rotation.
3. Slenderness ratio of column DE:
At the bottom:
I
c
Lc
GB =
Ig

Lg
GB = 10.0 (hinged or pin joint)
At the top:
I
c
Lc
GA =
I
g
Lg

GA =

55633.3+77700
0.67
16888.9+20266.7

GA = 0.416

From the chart: K = 1.78


Slenderness ratio:
KL 1.78 x 3600
=
r
71.06
KL
r

= 90.18

Note: Multiply the stiffness of girders by 0.67 due to the condition of the far ends of the girder
which is fixed against rotation.

PROBLEM 2.
From the figure shown, the moment of inertia of girders and columns are as follows:
Ic = 0.00004570 m4
Ig = 0.0003107 m4

1. Which of the following gives the value of GA for column C-3?


2. Which of the following gives the value GB for column C-3?
3. Which of the following gives the effective length of column C-3? Using the given
alignment chart.

Solution.
1. Value of GA:
Note: multiply the girder stiffness by 1.5 (far end is pinned)
I
c
Lc
GA =
Ig

Lg

GA =

0.00004570
3.7
0.0003107
1.5 (
)
5.5

GA = 0.146
2. Value of GB:
Note: Multiply the girder stiffened by 1.5
(Far end is pinned)
Ic
Lc
Ig

Lg

GB =

GB =

0.00004570 0.00004570
+
3.7
3.7
0.0003107
0.0003107
+
(1.5 )
5.5
3.0

)(

GB = 0.116

3. Effective length of column C-3


Effective length = K L
Effective length = 1.04 x 3.7
Effective length = 3.848 m

PROBLEM 3.
From the figure shown, the moment of inertia of girders and columns are as follows:
Ic = 0.00004570 m4
Ig = 0.0003107 m4

1. Which of the following gives the value of GA for column C-1?


2. Which of the following gives the value of GB for column C-4?
3. Which of the following gives the effective length of column C-5? Using the given
alignment chart.
Solution:
1. Effective length of C-1

GA =

0.00004570
3.7
0.0003107
(0.5)
5.5

GA = 0.437

GB =

0.00004570 0.00004570
+
3.7
3.7
0.0003107
5.5

GB = 0.437
Effective length = 1.16 x 3.7
Effective length = 4.29 m
2. Effective length of C-4

GA =

0.00004570 0.00004570
+
3.7
3.7
0.0003107
5.5

GA = o.437
GB = 1.0 (footing)
Effective length = 0.725 x 3.7
Effective length = 2.68 m

3. Effective length of C-5

GA =

0.00004570 0.00004570
+
3.7
3.7
0.0003107
0.0003107
+
5.5
5.5

)(

GA = 0.219
GB = 1.0 (footing)
Effective length = 0.68 x 3.7
Effective length = 2.52 m

Axially Loaded Columns


Axially loaded compression members
A column is a compression member that is so slender compare to its length that usually it
fails by buckling rather than by crushing. They are classified into three groups.
1. Short Columns:
For short columns, the failure will be by crushing and no buckling will occur.
2. Intermediate Columns:
Here, some of the fibers will reach the yield stress and the member will fail by a
combination of crushing and buckling and their behavior is said to be elastic.
3. Long Columns:
Here, the axial buckling stress usually remains below the proportional limit and
the column will usually buckle elastically. Long columns usually fail by buckling
or excessive lateral bending. The longer the column is, the greater its tendency to
buckle and the smaller load it will support. The tendency of a member to buckle is
usually measured by its slenderness ratio which is define as the ratio of the length
of the member to its least radius of gyration. The greater the slenderness ratio, the
smaller will be the capacity of such column.
Common Sections used for Columns

Eulers Formula
P=

2 EI
L2

Case 1. Fixed Ends:

P=

P=

P=

2 EI
( L e )
L
2

2
EI

4 2 EI
L2

Case 2. One End Fixed the other end hinged

P=

EI
( L e )

P=

EI
(0.7 L)

P=

2 2 E
( L)

Case 3. Hinged Ends:

P=

2 EI
(L)

Case 4. One End Fixed, the other end Free

P=

2 EI
( L e )

P=

2 EI
(2 L)

P=

2 EI
4 L

Limitations of Eulers Formula


1. If

P
A

2. If

L
r
P
A

exceeds the proportional limit the Eulers formula is not applicable


< 100 Eulers formula is not valid and the proportional limit is the critical stress

= proportional limit

SAMPLE PROBLEMS with solutions


PROBLEM 1.
The initial compressive force of a steel column can be determined by using
2 EI
(L e )

Pe=

. The properties of the column are the following:


A= 8129 mm2
Ix= 178.3 x 106mm4
Iy=18.8 x 106mm4
fy= 345 Mpa
E= 200, 000 Mpa
Proportional limit: fs= 320 Mpa

The x-axis has an unbraced length of 8 m, which is pinned at the top and fixed at the bottom with
K= 0.70 to prevent sidesway. The y-axis has an unbraced length of 4m due to the bracing at the
mid-height.
1. Determine the critical slenderness ratio.
2. Compute the initial compressive load of the column.
3. What is the minimum length that will not exceed the proportional limit.
SOLUTION:
1. Critical slenderness ratio:

ry=

Iy
A

ry=

rx=

18800000
= 48.09 mm
8129

Ix
A

178300000
= 148.10 mm
8129

L 8000 x 0.7
=
=37.81
rx
148.10
L 4000 x 1
=
=83.18
ry
48.09

L 4000 x 1
=
=83.18
ry
48.09
L 4000 x 0.7
=
=58.22
ry
48.09
Critical slenderness ratio = 83.18

2. Initial compressive load


Pcr

EI
( L)

2
( 200 000 ) (18800000)
(4000)

Pcr = 2319357 N
Pcr = 2319 KN
3. Min. length of column so that it will not exceed the prorportional limit.
Pcr

= A x proportional limit

Pcr = A fs
Pcr = 8129 (320)
Pcr = 2601280
Pcr

2601280=

2 EI
( L)
2
( 200 000 ) (18800000)
(L)

L= 3777 mm
L= 3.78 m

PROBLEM 2.
A W 250 x 73 is to served as a pin-ended 12 m long column is braced at mid-height with
respect to its weak axis. The proportional limit is 235 Mpa.
Properties of safety of 2.5
A= 9280 mm2

rx= 110

d= 253

ry= 64.7

bf= 254 mm

Ix= 113 x 106 mm4

tf= 14.2 mm

Iy= 38.8 x 106 mm4

1. Determine the slenderness ratio with respect to y-axis


2. Determine the Eulers Buckling stress.
3. Determine the allowable axial compressive load using a factor of safety of 2.5.
SOLUTION:
1. Slenderness ratio with respect to y-axis.
KL
1 x 6000
ry =
64.7
2. Eulers Buckling stress.
KL
1 x 12000
rx =
110

Use

L
r

Fe=

E
2
L
( )
r

= 109.09 > 92.74

= 109.09

2 (200000)
(109.09)2

= 165.87 Mpa < 235 Mpa

3. Allowable axial compressive load using a factor of safety


of 2.5
Pe= Fe A
Pe = 165.87 ( 9280 )
Pe= 1539274 N or 1539.3 KN
Pe
1539.3
P= F . S . =
= 615.72 KN
2.5

PROBLEM 3.
Two C 310 x 45 channels are latticed together so they have equal moments of inertia about
the principal axes. Assumed both ends are pinned and proportional limit is 240 Mpa. E= 200000
Mpa.
1. Compute the distance back to the channel.

2. Compute the minimum length of a column having this section.


3. What safe load will the column carry for a length of 12 m. With a factor of safety of 2.5.

Properties of C 310 x 45 channel


Area= 5690 mm2
Ix = 67.3 x 106
Iy= 2.12 x 106
x= 17 mm
rx= 109 mm
ry= 19.32 mm

SOLUTION:
1. Distance back to back of channel:
For 2 channels:
Ix = Iy
Iy= 2 ( 67.3 ) x 106
Iy = ( 2.12 x 106 + 5690( K )2) 2
134.6 x 106= ( 2.12 x106 + 5690 K2 ) 2
67.3 x 106 = 2.12x 106 + 5690 K2
K= 107.03 mm
b
+17=107.03
2
b= 180.06 mm

2. Minimum length:
P
=proportional limit
A
P
2 x 5690 = 240
P= 2731.2 KN

P=

2 EI
(L)

2731200 =

2
( 200 000 ) (134.600000)
(L)

L= 9863 mm or 9.86 m
3. Safe load of 12 m. Length of column with a factor of safety of 2.5
2 Ix
rx=
2A
rx=

Ix
A

= 109 mm

P
A =

2 EI
( L/r )

L
r =

12000
109

P
2 x 5690 =

= 110.09

2 200000
(110.09)

P= 1854 KN
Safe load =

1854
2.5

= 741.6 KN

AXIAL LOAD WITH BENDING (NO SIDESWAY)


DESIGN FOR AXIAL COMPRESSION and BENDING
Bending moments in compression members tend to increase lateral deflections than
moments in tension members. Increase lateral deflections in turn results in larger moments. The
members are then subjected to both axial and bending stress acting simultaneously.
f=

MC
I

f=

P Mx Cx

A
Ix

(bending in one axis only)

M yC y
Iy

(bending in both axis)

NSCP Specifications for axial compression with bending


Members subjected to both axial compression and bending stresses shall be proportional
to satisfy the following requirements.
fa
Fa

C my f by

f
1 a Fbx
F e' x

f
1 a F by
F e' y

f bx
+ F bx

fa
0.60 Fy
fa
Fa

When
fa
Fa

Cmx f bx

f bx
+ F bx

1.0

f by
1.0
F by

Equation 18.2.1

Equation 18.2.2

0.15

f by
1.0
F by

Equation 18.2.3

When fa = computed axial stress


fa =

P
A

fb = computed compressive bending stress at the point under consideration


Fa = axial compressive stress that would be permitted if axial force alone existed
Fb = compressive bending stress that would be permitted if bending moment alone existed

Fe =

122 E
K Lb
23

rb

( )

Lb = actual unbraced length in plane of bending


rb = the radius of gyration in the plane bending
K =effective length factor in the plane of bending
Cm = modification factor or reduction factor whose value shall be taken as follows:
a.) For compression members in frames subject to joint translation.

When there is sidesway. Cm = 0.85


b.) For rotationally restrained compression members in frames braced against joint
translation (no sidesway) and not subject to transverse loading between their supports
in the plane of bending. Cm = 0.60 0.40 (

M1
M2

Where:
M1
M 2 = is the ratio of the smaller to larger moments at the ends of the portion of the
member unbraced in the plane of bending under consideration.

M1
M2

M1
M2

Is positive when member is bent in reverse curvature

is negative when bent in single curvature

c.) For compression members in frames braced against joint translation in the plane of
loading and subjected to transverse loading between their supports, the value of Cm
maybe determined by analysis, however in lieu of such analysis, the following values
are permitted.
1. For members whose ends are restrained against rotation in the plane of bending.
Cm = 0.85
2. For members whose ends are unrestrained against rotation in the plane of
bending.
Cm = 1.0
For bending in one axis:

fa
Fa

Cmx f bx
+

fa
F
F e' x bx

1.0

The value of

fa
F e' x

is called the amplification factor, which is larger than 1.0

Cm = is called the modification factor which is equal to or less than 1.0


Fe = Euler buckling stress divided by the factor of safety

Fe =

12 2 E
K Lb
23

rb

( )

Cm
Magnification factor =

fa
F e' x

)
Cm

If the magnification factor is less than 1.0, use

fa
F e' x

= 1.0

Summary of values of reduction factor Cm = for beam-column interaction equations.


1. When there is no sidesway

: Cm = 0.60 0.40 (

2. When there is sidesway

: Cm = 0.85

3. Column with transverse loading

: Cm = 1 +

fa
Fe '

M1
M2

SAMPLE PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS

PROBLEM 1.
A steel column has an unsupported height of 5.4 m is pin connected at both ends with
sidesway prevented. It carries an axial load of 530 KN and a moment of 20 KN-m at the top and
13.4 KN-m at the bottom which causes bending about major axis (single curvature). Except for
bracings at the top and the bottom, there is no lateral bracing about either major and minor axis
of the column. Fy = 250 MPa, Es = 200000 MPa.
Properties of steel section:
A = 7450 mm2
d = 250 mm
bf = 204 mm
tf = 13.6 mm
tw = 8 mm
Sx = 694 x 103 mm3
Sy = 188 x 103 mm3
rx = 108 mm
ry = 50.4 mm
1. Compute the allowable compressive stress of the column section.
2. Compute the combined axial and bending interaction value.
3. Compute the amplification factor.
Solution:
1. Allowable compressive stress:
K = 1.0 (pin-connected)
KL
1 x 5400
=
= 107.14
r
50.4

Cc =
Cc =

2 E
Fy
2 200000
250

Cc = 125.66 > 107.14


KL

Fy
r
Fa = [1] F .S.
2 Cc 2

( )

F.S. =

5
3

F.S. = 1.70

3
+

( KLr )
8 Cc

( KLr ) 3
8 C c3

125.66

2
( 107.14 )

Fa = [1-

250
1.70

Fa = 93.61 MPa

2. Combined interaction value:


M1
Cm = 0.60 0.40 ( M 2 )
Cm = 0.60 0.40 (-

(sidesway prevented)

13.4
20 )

(single curvature

Cm = 0.868
Lc =

200 b f
Fy

Lu =

137900
250 x 250
204 x 13.6

200 x 204
250

= 2580 mm

= 6121 mm

Lb = 5400 mm
Lb > Lc = 2580 mm
Lb < Lu = 6121 mm
Use Fbx = 0.60 Fy = 0.60 x 250 = 150 MPa
fbx =

M
sx

fbx =

20 x 106
694 x 103

fa =

P
A

fa
Fa

Use

Fex =

530000
7450

fa
Fa

= 28.81 MPa

71.14
93.61

= 71.14 MPa

= 0.76 > 0.15


Cmx f bx

12 2 Es
KL
23

rx

( )

fa
F
F e' x bx

1.0

M1
M2

is negative)

KL
rx

1 x 5400
108

= 50

12 2 (200000)
23 ( 50 )

Fex =

= 412
Cm

Magnification factor =

fa
Fa

f
1 a
F e' x

0.868
71.14
1
412

= 1.049 > 1 ok

C mx f bx

71.14
93.61

fa
F
F e' x bx

1.0

1.049 x 28.81
+
150

0.961<1.0 (ok safe)

Interaction Value = 0.961


3. Amplification factor:
Amplification factor =

fa
F e' x

1
71.14
1
412

= 1.209

PROBLEM 2.
A W 12 x 161 is used as a column to support an axial load of 1784 KN and moments
about the x-axis equal to 180 KN-m and moment about the y-axis of 60 KN-m. the column
section has an unsupported height of 3.6 m consisting of A 36 steel with Fy = 248 MPa which is
braced against sidesway. There are no transverse loads and Kx = 1.0 and Ky = 1.0. The column is
bent in reverse curvature about both axes with equal end moments.
Properties of W 12 x 161
A = 30580.6 mm2
d = 352.55 mm
bf = 317.88 mm
tf = 37.74 mm
tw = 22.99 mm
Sx = 3638 x 103 mm3
Sy = 1273 x 103 mm3
rx = 144.78 mm

ry = 81.28 mm
1.
2.
3.
4.

Compute the allowable axial stress if only axial stress occurs.


Compute the allowable bending stress about the x-axis.
Compute the allowable bending stress about the y-axis.
Determine the adequacy of the column section by computing the interaction values of
axial and bending stresses.

SOLUTION:
1. Allowable axial stress:
K x Lx
rx

1.0 x 3600
144.78

= 24.87

K y Ly
ry

1.0 x 3600
81.28

= 44.29

Use

KL
r

Cc =

= 44.29

2 E
Fy

F.S. =

Fa = [1-

2 200000
248

( KLr )

Use Fa = [1-

2 Cc

5
3

( KLr )
8 Cc

( KLr )
2 Cc 2

Fy
F .S.

= 126.17 > 44.29

( KLr ) 3

8 C c3

Fy
F .S.

= [1-

= 1.76

( 44.29 )
2 ( 126.17 )2

248
1.76

= 132.23 MPa

2. Allowable bending stress about the x-axis:


Lc =

200 b f
Fy

Lu =

137900
248 x 352.55
317.88 x 37.74

200 x 317.88
248

= 4037 mm

= 18922; Lb = 3600 mm ; Lc = 4037 mm ; Lb < Lc

Use, Fbx = 0.66 Fy = 0.66 x 248 = 163.68 MPa

3. Allowable bending stress about the y-axis:


Fby = 0.75 Fy = 0.75 x 248 = 186 MPa
4. Adequacy of column section:
M1
Cmx = 0.60 0.40 ( M 2 )
M1 = M2
Cmx = 0.60 0.40 (1)
Cmx = 0.20
use Cmx = 0.40
Cmy = 0.20
use Cmx = 0.40
2

Fex =

12 Es
KL
23

rx

Fey =

12 Es
KL
23

ry

( )

12 (200000)
23 ( 24.87 )

12 (200000)
23 ( 44.29 )

= 1665

P
A

fa =
fa
Fa

( )

fa
Fa

Use

fa
0.60 F y

Use:

1784000
30580.6

58.34
132.23

C mx f bx

C my f by

f
1 a Fbx
F e' x

f
1 a F by
F e' y

f bx
+ F bx

C mx
f
1 a
F ' ex

= 0.41 < 1.0

C my
f
1 a
F ' ey

= 58.34 MPa

= 0.44 > 0.15

C mx
f
1 a
F ' ex

C mx
f
1 a
F ' ex

= 525

f by
1.0
F by

0.40
58.34
1
1665

= 1.0

0.40
58.34
1
525

= 0.45 < 1.0

1.0

Use:

C my
f
1 a
F ' ey

fbx =

Mx
sx

fbx =

180 x 10 6
3638 x 10 3

fby =

My
sy

fbx =

60 x 10 6
3
1273 x 10

fa
Fa

= 1.0

= 49.48 MPa

= 47.13 MPa

Cmx f bx

C my f by

f
1 a Fbx
F e' x

f
1 a F by
F e' y

58.34
132.23

fa
0.60 F y

f bx
+ F bx

58.34
0.60 x 248

1.0 x 49.48
163.68

49.48
+ 163.68

1.0

1.0 x 47.13
=0.997< 1.0(safe)
186

f by
1.0
F by

47.13
=0.948 < 1.0 (safe)
186

The column section is adequate to carry the given loads.

PROBLEM 3.
A W 10 x 77 column sections carries an axial load of 900 KN and a moment of 55 KN-m
at the top and a moment of 110 KN-m at the bottom. The column has a height of 4.6 m and is
assumed to be pin connected at both ends. Assume sidesway is prevented and bending occurs
about the strong axis (single curvature). Use A 36 steel Fy= 248 MPa.
Compute the equivalent axial load that will cause a stress the same as the maximum
stress produced by the actual loads using the modified formula and indicate the adequacy of the
column section.
Properties of W 12 x 161

A = 14645 mm2
d = 269.75 mm
bf = 258.95 mm
tf = 22.05 mm
tw = 13.59 mm
Sx = 411 x 103 mm3
Sy = 493 x 103 mm3
rx = 114.05 mm
ry = 66.04 mm
Es = 200000 MPa
SOLUTION:
KL
r

Cc =

1.0 x 4600
66.04

2 E
Fy

( KLr )

Fa = [1-

2 Cc

F.S. =

2 200000
248

= 126.17 > 69.65

Fy
F .S.

5
3

= 69.65

( KLr )
8 Cc

( KLr ) 3
8 C c3

F.S. = 1.85

Fa = [1-

126.17

2
( 69.65 )

248
1.85

Fa = 113.63 MPa
Allowable load:
Pall = A Fa = 14645 x 113.63 = 1664 KN
fa =

P
A

900000
14645

= 61.45 MPa

Fa = 113.63 MPa
fa
Fa

61.45
113.63

= 0.54 > 0.15

Allowable Fbx
Lc =

200 b f
Fy

Lu =

137900
248 x 269.75
258.95 x 22.05

200 x 258.95
248

= 3289 mm

= 11770 mm

Lb = 4500 mm
Lb > Lc
Lb < Lu
Use Fbx = 0.60 Fy = 0.60 x 248 = 148.8 MPa
Fa
ax
(
)
F bx a x P ( KL )2 ]

Peq = P + [Bx Mx Cmx (

Bx =

A
Sx

14645
1411 x 103

= 0.01038

Mx = 110 x 103 KN-m


Cmx = 0.60 0.40 (

M1
M2

Cmx = 0.60 0.40 (-

55
110

) (no sidesway)

) = 0.80

ax = 1.97 x 106 A rx2


ax = 1.97 x 106 (14645 114.052) = 375.27 x 1012 N- mm2
KL = 1.0 x 4600 = 4600
P = 900000 N

Peq = P + [Bx Mx Cmx (

Fa
ax
(
)
F bx a x P ( KL )2 ]

Peq = 900 + [(0.01038 x 110000 x 0.80) (

113.63
375.27 x 1012
(
)
148.8 375.27 x 1012900000 ( 4600 )2 ]

Peq = 900 + 734.8


Peq = 1634.8 KN < 1664 KN (ok)
(Equivalent axial load that will cause a stress the same as the maximum stress produced by
the actual loads using the modified formula)
Check also:
Peq= P

Peq= 900

Fa
F
+Bx M x a
0.6 F y
F bx
113.63
113.63
+ 0.01038(110000)
0.6 x 248
148.8

The section is safe to carry the given loads.

= 1559.2 KN < 1664 KN (ok)

Base Plates (for Axially Loaded Columns)


Steel columns are placed on some type of supporting member or by a concrete footing. A
base plate is necessary when a steel column terminates on any reinforced concrete footing to
spread the high intensity of stress in the steel to a value that can be safely carried by the
reinforced concrete footing. These base plates can be welded directly to the columns by means of
some type of bolted or welded lug angles. For small columns these plates are usually shopwelded to the columns, but for larger columns it is necessary to install the plates separately and
set them to correct position. The columns are then set and connected to the footing with anchor
bolts which pass through the lug angles which have been shop welded to the columns.
The NSCP specifications provides two allowable bearing pressures for concrete supports.
a. If the entire concrete area A2 is covered by the plate whose area is A1
Fp= 0.35 fc
b. If A1 is less than A2 :
Fp= 0.35 fc

A2
A1

but < 0.7 fc

The following stresses are recommended by the NSCP Specs.


a. On sandstone and limestone... Fp= 2.75 Mpa
b. On brick in cement mortar...... Fp= 1.72 Mpa
c. On the full area of a concrete support... Fp= 0.35 fc
d. On less than full area of concrete support... Fp= 0.35 fc

A2
A1

< 0.7 fc

Where;
fc= specified compressive strength of concrete
A1= area of steel concentrically bearing on concrete support.
A2= max. area of the portion of the supporting surface that is geometrically
similar to and concentric with the loaded area.
In designing the column base plates, its assumed that the column load is uniformly distributed
within a rectangle whose dimensions are 95% of the depth and 80% of the flange width of the
column section and that the base plate to have a uniform bearing pressure on the foundation

Trial area:
BC=

P
Fp

BC=

P
0.35 fc '

BC= area of base plate

Net upward bearing pressure fp


fp =

P
BC

< 0.35 fc

Consider 1 mm strip of base plate


m
M= fp (m) (1) ( 2
m2
2

M= fp

M= fp (n) (1)(

6M
bd2

Fb=

6(
Fb=

t=

n
2 )

n2
2

M= fp

t=

f p n2
)
2
(1)t 2

3 f pn2
Fb
3 f p m2
Fb

where Fb= 0.75 Fy ( allowable bending stress of base plate)


t= 2n

fp
Fy

t= 2m

fp
Fy

WELDED BASE PLATES

COLUMN BASE PLATES

MOMENT RESISTING COLUMN BASES

SAMPLE PROBLEMS w/ solutions


PROBLEM 1. ( rectangular base plate )
An axially loaded W 250 x 89 column is supported on a 25mm thick base plate having
dimensions of 325 mm x 375 mm. The concrete pedestal on which the base plate is set is 450
mm square. All steel is A 36, Fy= 250 Mpa and fc= 24.2 Mpa.
Properties of W 250 x 89
bf= 256 mm

d= 260 mm

1. Determine the allowable bearing pressure on the concrete pedestal.


2. Find the max. allowable axial load that this base plate can support based on allowable
bearing pressure of concrete pedestal.
3. Find the allowable axial load that this plate can support based on the bending strength of
the plate.
Solutions:
1. Allowable bearing pressure on the concrete pedestal.
A1 = 325 (375)
A1= 121875 mm2
A2= 450 (450)
A2= 202500 mm2
Fp= 0.35 fc

Fp= 0.35(24.2)

A2
A1

< 0.7 fc

202500
121875

Fp= 10.92 Mpa


Fp= 0.7 fc= 0.7 (24.2) = 16.94 Mpa ; use Fp= 10.92 Mpa

2. Allowable axial load that this base plate can support can support based on allowable
bearing pressure of concrete pedestal.
P
Fp= A
P
10.92 = 325 (375)
P= 1330875 N or 1330.88 KN
3. Allowable axial load that this plate can support based on bending strength of the
plate.
2n+ 0.80bf = 325
2n+ 0.80 (256) = 325
n= 60.10 mm
2m+ 0.95d = 375
2m+ 0.95(260) = 375
m= 64 mm

d b f

n=

260( 256)

= 64.50 mm

Use n= 64.50 mm

t= 2n

fp
Fy

25= 2 (64.50)

f p
250

f p
250

0.0376=

fp= 9.39 Mpa


P
fp= A
9.39=

P
325 (375)

P= 1144406 N
P= 1144.4 KN

PROBLEM 2. (square base plate)


A square base plate supports a W 250 x 167 column that supports an axial load of 2000 kN. The
base plate is be of A 36 steel, F y= 250 MPa. The footing size (pile cap) is 2.4 m square. The
compressive strength of concrete is fc= 20.7 Mpa.
Properties of W 250 x 167
d= 289 mm

bf= 265 mm

1. Determine the allowable bearing pressure of the pile cap.


2. Determine the size of the square base plate.
3. Determine the thickness of the base plate.
Solution:
1. Allowable bearing pressure of the pile cap.
A1=

P
0.7 fc '

A1=

2 000 000
0.7(20.7)

A1= 138026 mm2


A2= (2400)(2400)
A2= 5760000 mm2
A2

Fp= 0.35 fc
A1
P
A2

=
0.35
fc
A1
A1

2 000 000
A2

=
A
1
A1
0.35(20.)
A2
276052= A
1
A1
76205 x 106= A1A2
76205 x 106= A1 ( 5760000 )
A1= 13,230 mm2

Allowable bearing pressure of the pile cap:


Use A1= 138026 mm2
A2

Fp= 0.35 fc
A1
Fp= 0.35 (20.7)

5760000
138026

Fp= 46.80 Mpa > 0.7 fc


Use Fp= 0.7 fc
Fp= 0.7 (20.7)
Fp= 14.49 MPa ( allowable bearing pressure of the pile cap )
2. Size of the square base plate.
B

= Fp
P

= 14.49
2 000 000

B= 371.5 say 375


Use 375 x 375 square base plate
3. Thickness of the base plate.
2m+ 0.95d = 375
2m+ 0.95(289) = 375
m= 50.23 mm
2n+ 0.80bf = 375
2n+ 0.80(265) = 375
n= 81.50 mm
n=
n=

d b f
4

289(265)
4

= 69.18 mm

use n= 81.50 mm ( biggest value )

t= 2n

fp
Fy

P
A =

fp=

2 000 000
375

fp= 14.22 Mpa < 14.49 Mpa


t= 2 ( 81.50 )

14.22
250

t= 38.87 say 40 mm
use t= 40 mm

PROBLEM 3.
A W 360 x 110 column carries an axial load of 1560 kN. A rectanular base plate is required to
support this column. Assume that the base plate will cover the full area of concrete pier with fc=
20.7 Mpa. Use A 36 steel Fy= 248 MPa.
Properties of W 360 x 110
d= 360 mm

bf= 256 mm tf= 19.9 mm

1. Determine the length N of the base plate.


2. Determine the width B of the base plate.
3. Determine the thickness of the base plate.
Solution:
1. Length N of the base plate
Full area of concrete pier is covered
by the base plate.
Fp= 0.35 fc
Fp= 0.35 (20.7) = 7.245 Mpa
Required area:
A1=

P
Fp =

1560000
7.245

= 215321

dbf= 360 ( 256 ) = 92160


A1 > dbf
= 0.50 ( 0.95d- 0.80bf)
= 0.50 ( 0.95(360)- 0.80(256))
= 68.60 m

N=

A1

N=

215321 + 68.60

N= 532.63 say 534 mm


2. Width B of the base plate
A1= BN
215321= B(532.63)
B= 404.3 mm say 406 mm ; use B= 406 mm
3. Thickness of the base plate
1560000
P
f p =
=
BN
406(534)
fp= 7.195 < 7.245 Mpa
N= 0.95d + 2m
534 = 0.95 (360) + 2m
m= 96 mm
B= 0.85bf + 2n
406= 0.85(256) + 2n
d b f
360(256)
n=
=
= 75.89 mm
4
4
use m= 96 mm
t= 2m

fp
Fy

= 2(96)

7.195
248

t= 32.7 mm say 34 mm

REFERENCES

1. Simplified Steel Design with solutions to latest CE board exams by Besavilla


2. ENCE 455
Design of Steel Structures
III. Compression Members
C. C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E.
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
University of Maryland
AISC steel manual