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30-Sep-16

TKS 4010 Hidrologi

Pendahuluan
dan
Daur Hidrologi
Ir. Suroso Dipl.HE, M.Eng
Dr. Eng. Alwafi Pujiraharjo

Pengertian Hidrologi
Suatu cabang ilmu tentang terjadi nya
dan gerakan air di alam kita.

MENURUT SNI No. 1724-1989-F :

Ilmu yang mempelajari sistem kejadian


air di atas, pada permukaan, dan di dalam
tanah.

30-Sep-16

HIDROLOGI adalah
E.M. WILSON
(ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY)
The

science of hydrology deals with the occurrence and


movement of water on and over the surface of the
earth.

MARTIN WANIELISTA et. al


(HYDROLOGY : water quantity and quality control)
The

study and practice of hydrology aids in explaining


and quantifying the occurrence of water on, under and
over the earths surface. Hidrology is both a scientific
and engineering field of study.

HIDROLOGI adalah
An Earth Science. It Encompasses the Occurrence,
Distribution, Movement, and Properties of the
Waters of the Earth and Their Environmental
Relationships."
(Viessman, Knapp, Lewis, & Harbaugh, 1977 Introduction to Hydrology, Harper & Row
Publishers, New York)

30-Sep-16

JUMLAH AIR
VOLUME

LOKASI

PERSENTASE

(10 km )

DANAU AIR TAWAR

125

SUNGAI

1,25

LENGAS TANAH

(%)

0,64

65

AIR TANAH

8.250

DANAU AIR ASIN & LAUT MATI

105

0,008

ATMOSFIR

13

0,002

KUTUB ES, SUNGAI ES, SALJU

29.200

2,1

1.320.000

97,25

1.360.000
ATAU 1,36 x 1018 m3

100

LAUT & LAUTAN


TOTAL

AIR DI BUMI KITA


Hanya 2.5% yang
berupa air tawar.
Cuma < 1% yg dapat
dimanfaatkan dg biaya
rendah, yaitu: air di
danau, sungai, waduk
dan sumber air tanah
dangkal.
Diperlukan upaya
bersama untuk
mempertahankan
keberadaannya untuk
kelangsungan
kehidupan dan
peradaban sekarang
dan yg akan datang.

Sungai & Danau 0.001%

Air di udara 0.001%

Air Tanah 0.72%


Es & salju 1.75%

Vol. total
sekitar 1.4 milyar km3
Air laut 97.5%

Sumber: Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World: WMO

30-Sep-16

Global Water Resources

Only this portions


are renewable

Perkiraan Keseimbangan Air

30-Sep-16

Perkiraan Keseimbangan Air

Daur Hidrologi (Hydrologic Cycle)

30-Sep-16

Jangka Panjang
(Iklim dan Daur Hidrologi)

Jangka Pendek
(Cuaca & kondisi hidrologis saat ini)

30-Sep-16

Global Water Cycle


Residence time:
Average travel
time for water
through a
subsystem of the
hydrologic cycle
Tr = S/Q
Storage/flowrate
Principal sources
of fresh water for
human activities
(44,800 km3/yr)

Komponen Daur Hidrologi

Precipitation
Evaporation
Evapo-transpiration

Evaporation

Ocean
Infiltration
Recharge

Aquifer

runoff

Precipitation
Evaporation/ET
Surface Water
Groundwater

30-Sep-16

APA KOMPONEN LAIN DALAM DAUR HIDROLOGI


(HYDROLOGIC CYCLE)
SAAT INI?

Komponen Daur Hidrologi

Precipitation
Evaporation
Evapo-transpiration

Evaporation

Discharge
treated water

Soil
moisture
Water
Supply

Soil moisture
Infiltration
Recharge

Ocean

runoff

Extraction
Aquifer
Soil moisture
Infiltration (Art)
Extraction

Return flow
Treated water

Salt Water Intrusion

Precipitation
Evaporation/ET
Surface Water
Groundwater

Aquifer intrusion

30-Sep-16

Daur Hidrologi
Proses dalam daur hidrologi

PRESIPITASI
EVAPORASI
INFILTRASI
LIMPASAN PERMUKAAN (SURFACE RUN
OFF) dan LIMPASAN AIR TANAH
(SUBSURFACE RUN OFF)

Global Water Withdrawal &


Consumption

30-Sep-16

Global Water Use

Typical Domestic Water Use


100-600L/person/day (high-income)
50-100L/person/day (low-income)
10-40L/person/day (water scarce)
Differences in domestic
freshwater use:
Piped distribution or
carried Number/type of
appliances and sanitation

10

30-Sep-16

Water Stress Index


Based on human consumption and linked to population
growth
Domestic requirement:
100L/person/day = 40m3/person/year
600L/person/day = 240m3/person/year

Associated agricultural, industrial & energy need:


20 x 40m3/person/year = 800 m3/person/year

Total need:
840 m3/person/year
1040 m3/person/year

Atmospheric Moisture
Rain

Snow

Energy
Evaporation

Interception
Throughfall and
Stem Flow

Snowpack
Snowmelt
Pervious

Watershed
Boundary

Surface Impervious

Infiltration
Soil Moisture
Percolation
Groundwater
Groundwater Flow

Evapotranspiration
Overland
Flow

Streams and Lakes

Evaporation

Channel Flow
Runoff

11

30-Sep-16

APLIKASI HIDROLOGI
Peran hydrologist dalam penyediaan air minum
suatu kota :
MENCARI JAWABAN :
Berapa curah hujan di daerah cakupan
(Catchment Area)
Berapa lama musim kemarau dan berapa besar waduk
yang diperlukan untuk meratakan fluktuasi aliran musim
kemarau dan musim hujan
Berapa kehilangan air akibat evaporasi dan transpirasi
Apakah waduk lebih baik dari penyedotan air tanah.

Aplikasi Hidrologi
Jika harus membangun waduk/bendungan
PERTANYAAN BERIKUTNYA :

Berapa besar kapasitas bangunan


pelimpah (spillway)
Berapa besar pipa penyalurnya
Apa perlu penghutanan kembali ?

12

30-Sep-16

Aplikasi Hidrologi

Figure 14.11

Watershed
Watershed: Daerah yang mengalirkan air
(draining) ke aliran sungai pada lokasi tertentu
Watershed Divider: Garis yang membatasi
daerah/lahan yang mengalirkan ke aliran sungai
dan menjauhi aliran sungai.
Sinonim: Watershed, Catchment, Basin,
Drainage area, Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS),
Daerah Cakupan, Daerah Pengaliran.

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30-Sep-16

Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS)

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