Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Outline
1 Motivation
2 Mathematical preliminaries
3 Submanifolds of Rn
4 Optional material
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Outline
1 Motivation
2 Mathematical preliminaries
3 Submanifolds of Rn
4 Optional material
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Engineering applications
underwater vehicles
Issues: Kinematic level and dynamic level modelling, path planning,
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
A few problems
The acrobot
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Underwater vehicles
Kinematics
vx cos vy sin
vx sin + vy cos
Dynamics
Lectures 1 and 2
=
=
=
Fx
0
z
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Holonomic constraints
Restrict the allowable configurations of the system
Nonintegrable constraints
Do not restrict the allowable configurations of the system but restrict
instantaneous velocities/accelerations
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Holonomic constraints
Restrict the allowable configurations of the system
Nonintegrable constraints
Do not restrict the allowable configurations of the system but restrict
instantaneous velocities/accelerations
Velocity level constraints  parking of a car, wheeled mobile robots, rolling
contacts in robotic applications.
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Holonomic constraints
Restrict the allowable configurations of the system
Nonintegrable constraints
Do not restrict the allowable configurations of the system but restrict
instantaneous velocities/accelerations
Velocity level constraints  parking of a car, wheeled mobile robots, rolling
contacts in robotic applications.
Acceleration level  fuel slosh in spacecrafts/launch vehicles, underwater
vehicles, underactuated mechanisms (on purpose or loss of actuator)
systems  serial link manipulators.
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
q = (x, y, , ) M = R1 R1 S 1 S 1
y
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
x sin y cos = 0
No lateral motion
x cos + y sin = r
Pure rolling
"
Lectures 1 and 2
sin()
cos
cos()
sin
0
0
0
r
x
y
=0
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Bead in a slot
g(x, y) = 0
g is the equation of the curve describing the slot
Slot restricts the possible configurations that the bead can assume
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Acrobot
(1)
First equation (with the right hand side being zero) denotes the lack of
arbitrary accelerations.
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
fuel tank
"
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
qu + f1 (q, q,
q) = 0
qa + f2 (q, q,
q) = F
(2)
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Finish
Start
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
two sets called the blueshape variables and the group variables.
Cyclic motion in the shape variables produces motion in the group (
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Geometry
Provides better insight, better framework for solution (control law) and
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
S1
Lectures 1 and 2
S1 S1
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
view, systems need not always evolve on the real line (R) or multiple
real lines (Rn ). They may evolve on nonEuclidean surfaces. On such
surfaces, we wish to talk of rate of change (velocity) differentiation,
to talk of rate of rate of change (acceleration), to talk of accumulation
integration
Can these surfaces which are not Euclidean be locally represented as
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Lectures 1 and 2
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Outline
1 Motivation
2 Mathematical preliminaries
3 Submanifolds of Rn
4 Optional material
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
S = {x Rn+1 : x = f 1 (c)}
5f () : Rn+1 Rn+1
We restrict our study to those level sets such that
5f (x) 6= 0
x S
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Vector field
point of U
Our interest centres on smooth vector fields  here the assignment is in
Lectures 1 and 2
(p), . . . ,
(p))
x1
xn+1
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
t=p
A parametrized curve () on an open interval (, ) is said to be the
Lectures 1 and 2
p (a, b)
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
=
..
.
f1 (x1 , . . . , xn+1 )
x n+1
where the fi s are smooth functions on an open interval (a, b) and with
an initial condition as x(p) = (x1 (p), . . . , xn+1 (p)). Let us now try to
understand what does it mean in a geometric sense to seek a solution
of this equation.
A solution to this set of equations describes an integral curve of the
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
vp =
d(f )(t)
t=0
dt
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
defined as
Lectures 1 and 2
5f (p)
k5f (p)k
and
5f (p)
k5f (p)k
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Smooth functions: f : X Rm Y Rn
Differentiable (or smooth functions) help us to characterize the
derivative maps.
From linear algebra, recall that the rank of an n m matrix A is
diffeomorphism.
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Submersion
Optional
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Submersion
expressed as
[Df (p)] =
Lectures 1 and 2
f1
x1
..
.
fn
x1
...
..
.
...
f1
xm
..
.
fn
xm
x=p
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Immersion
called a immersion. (this definition makes sense only in the case when
n m.)
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Immersion
called a immersion. (this definition makes sense only in the case when
n m.)
Once again the Jacobian maps vectors from Rm to Rn , and in
coordinates is expressed as
[Df (p)] =
f1
x1
..
.
fn
x1
...
..
.
...
f1
xp
..
.
fn
xm
x=p
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Outline
1 Motivation
2 Mathematical preliminaries
3 Submanifolds of Rn
4 Optional material
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
A submanifold of Rn
Three equivalent definitions
Each of these definitions is equivalent to the other and makes M ( Rn ) an
mdimensional submanifold of Rn .
For every x M Rn , there exists a neighbourhoood U containing x
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
S1
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
O(2)
f1 () = a2 + c2 ,
f2 () = ab + cd,
f3 () = b2 + d2 ,
U R1
level set of f .
U O(2) = f 1 (1, 0, 1)
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
O(2) (contd.)
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Immersed submanifold
Optional
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Examples
( t+1
2t
1
t
sin(2t)).
cos(2t),
t+1
2t
sin(2t)).
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Change of coordinates
systems x and y.
f x1 = f y 1 y x1
Then the partial derivative of f () with respect to xj (the jth partial in
f y 1 : Rn R
Lectures 1 and 2
y x1 : Rn Rn
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Example 1: R2
Think of the Cartesian plane and two coordinate systems (x, y) and
(r, ).
Now x = r cos and y = r sin
Compute
Lectures 1 and 2
f
x
and
f
y
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Example 2: Sphere S 2
Sphere
Choose spherical coordinates as (, ) ((, ), (0, 2)) or
Optional
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Example 2: Sphere S 2
Sphere
Choose spherical coordinates as (, ) ((, ), (0, 2)) or
Cartesian as
p
(x, y, z = 1 (x2 + y 2 ) = (cos() sin(), cos() cos(), sin()).
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Example 3: Cylinder  S 1 R1
Cylinder
Choose cylindrical coordinates as (, z) ((, ), R) or
Optional
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Example 3: Cylinder  S 1 R1
Cylinder
Choose cylindrical coordinates as (, z) ((, ), R) or
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Tangent (velocity)vectors
vp = c0 (0)
The set of all tangent vectors at p is called the tangent space at p, This
dimension m.
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
i (t) = (p1 , . . . , pi + t, . . . , pn )
i = 1, . . . , m
Coordinates for Tp M
Now define
Lectures 1 and 2
4 di
p =
t=0 = (0, . . . , 1, . . . , 0)
xi
dt
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
i (t) = (p1 , . . . , pi + t, . . . , pn )
Coordinates for Tp M
Now define

xi p
4 di
p =
t=0 = (0, . . . , 1, . . . , 0)
xi
dt
i = 1, . . . , m
Optional
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
i (t) = (p1 , . . . , pi + t, . . . , pn )
i = 1, . . . , m
Coordinates for Tp M
Now define
4 di
p =
t=0 = (0, . . . , 1, . . . , 0)
xi
dt

xi p
p , . . . , m p }
x1
x
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Tangent bundle
tangent bundle.
TM =
Tp M
pX
for T M .)
Optional
Call : T M M the canonical projection defined by
vp p
vp Tp X
T X.
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Vector fields
Optional
The collection of all C vector fields on a manifold M denoted by
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Differentials
For any f C (p) we define an operator df (p) = dfp : Tp (X) R called
the differential of f at p by
df (p)(v) = dfp (v) = v(f )
for every v Tp (X). Since dfp is linear, it is an element of the dual space of
Tp (X).
p (Tp M ) is { x
i } and the dual basis at p (Tp M ) is {dx }
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Cotangent bundle
cotangent bundle.
T X =
Tp X
pX
for T X.)
Optional
Call : T X X the canonical projection defined by
vp p
vp Tp X
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
manifold
q = (x, y, , ) M = R1 R1 S 1 S 1
y
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
x sin y cos = 0
No lateral motion
x cos + y sin = r
Pure rolling
"
Lectures 1 and 2
sin()
cos
cos()
sin
0
0
0
r
x
y
=0
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Manifold language
p = (x0 , y0 , 0 , 0 ).
sin(0 )
h
cos 0
cos(0 )
sin 0
vx
vy
v
v
0
i
Tp M
Tp M
Tp M
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Outline
1 Motivation
2 Mathematical preliminaries
3 Submanifolds of Rn
4 Optional material
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Lectures 1 and 2
y V
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Theorem
Given a functionf : Rn Rm Rm such that f (a, b) = 0 and f is
continuously differentiable in a region U V around (a, b), and further
i
Dj+n
f (a, b)
1 i, j m
is nonsingular
x W
Optional
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Lemma
(Chain Rule) Let f : X Y and g : Y Z be smooth maps between
differentiable manifolds. Then g f : X Z is smooth and for every p X
(g f )p = gf (p) fp
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
c(0)
= vp .
Construct the curve f c. Then define
Tp f vp =
d
t=0 (f c)(t)
dt
Tx(p) (y f x1 ) =
(y f x1 )x(p)
xj
The rank of f at p is the rank of the Jacobian matrix at x(p) and this
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
Motivation
Mathematical preliminaries
Submanifolds
Optional
Submersion theorem
Theorem
If f : X n Y k is a smooth map, and y f (X) Y is a regular value of f ,
then f 1 (y) is a regular submanifold of X of dimension n k.
Example: f (x, y) = x2 + y 2 1. Take f 1 (0).
Show that O(n) = {A Mn (R)AT A = I} is a submanifold of Mn (R).
Lectures 1 and 2
TU Munich
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