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CFBC Boiler

BOILER
Number
Type
Circulation
Support
Fuel Firing
Draft
Tube Type

: 5
: IR-CFBC, Single Drum
: Natural Circulation
: Top Supported
: Solid
: Balanced Draft
: Water Tube

Pressure Parts
Economiser
Steam Drum
Down comers
Furnace Walls
Divisional Panels
Buckstays and Seismic Stoppers
RDZ zone
U Beam Hopper and Enclosure Panel
Riser Tubes
Secondary Super Heater
Wing Wall
Attemperator
Main Steam Piping
SH Enclosure Panels
Saturated Steam Supply Pipes
2

Proximate analysis
Moisture
Loss of mass when heated to 110 oC in an inert atmosphere
Volatile Matter
Loss of mass when heated from 110 oC to 900 oC (ISO standard) or 950 oC (ASTM) and held at
that temperature for 7 minutes in an inert atmosphere
Ash (related to Mineral Matter)
Mass remaining after cooling to 750 oC and changing the atmosphere to oxidizing
Fixed Carbon = 100-Moisture-VM-Ash

Fixed Carbon
Is the solid combustibles left in the furnace after volatile matter is distilled off.
Gives a rough estimate of the heating value of coal
Higher fixed carbon in a coal takes longer combustion time

Significance of volatile matter


Include methane, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and carbon monoxide; also incombustible gases like carbon
dioxide and nitrogen found in coal
Higher volatile matter
helps in easier ignition of coal
Amount of Volatile Matter
sets the minimum height of furnace
influences secondary air requirement and distribution

Fuel Ratio Fixed Carbon / Volatile Matter


It indicates the rank of coal

.
Significance of Ash
has to be transported, handled and stored
It does not contribute to heating value of coal
Ash analysis is usually reported as oxides of

elements present in coal


Higher ash content
reduces useful handling capacity
reduces burning capacity and
increases handling costs
Affects boiler efficiency

Moisture in Coal
Decreases heating value per unit mass of coal

Ultimate Analysis

Significance of ultimate analysis


Useful to determine
Quantity of air required for combustion
quantity of flue gas
flame temperature
Required to calculate pollutant emissions such as Sulfur Oxides which
corrodes chimney and other back end equipment like Air heaters and economizers
limits exit flue gas temperature

C, H, N, S are determined by chemical analysis at lab.


O2 % = 100-( C + H+ N+ASH+S)

Sulfur in Coal

Nitrogen in coal

Very important for coal utilisation

part of organic Structure

Forms SO2 in Combustion Systems

NOx formation

causes equipment corrosion

difficult to remove by physical cleaning

precursor for acid rain and fine particulate

Estimation of Gross Calorific Value


GCV = 81 %C + 341 (%H %O/8) + 22 %S
kcal/kg

Metallurgy
SA106MGr.C(CS2)

SA210MGrA1

ALL 6 DOWNCOMERS FROM STEAM DRUM


ECONOMISER TOP AND BOTTOM HEADER
FURNACE FRONT PANEL BOTTOM HEADER
FURNACE REAR PANEL BOTTOM AND TOP HEADER
RISERS

C- 0.35, Cr- 0.40, Mn 0.29-1.06, P-0.035,S 0.035


Ni-0.40
TS-485 Mpa YS- 275 Mpa
ER70S2+E7018

SA106MGr.B(CS1)

FCS TO ATTEMPRATOR ECO INLET AND OUTLET TO STEAM DRUM


NITROGEN TO S/D AND MSL

C-0.3, Cr-0.4, S-0.035, P-0.035, Mn-0.29-1.06, Ni-0.40


TS=415 Mpa YS- 240 MPa

ECONOMISER COILS
SUPPLY PIPES
FURNACE FRONT AND REAR PANEL TUBES
RHS AND LHS WALL TUBES
U BEAM HOPPER AND ENCLOSURE
SUPERHEATER ENCLOSURE PANEL

C- 0.27, Mn-0.93, S-0.10, P-0.035


TS- 415MPa
YS- 255 Mpa
ER 70S2 Produces high quality welds in most grades

of
carbon steels.E70S-2 is a triple deoxidized wire which provides
defect free weld deposits when properly used on most carbon
steels

SA213MGr T12(ALLOY STEEL)

SA 335 P11 (AS1)

SSH COILS, PSH 1 COILS, PSH 2 COILS


Wing wall
Risers 69-90

C- 0.05-0.15, Mn- 0.4, Cr- 0.8-1.25, S-0.025, Mo- 0.5


TS- 415 Mpa YS 220 Mpa
ER 80S B2 (For welding 1/2 Cr-1/2 Mo, 1 Cr-1/2 Mo and 1 1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo steels
for elevated temperatures and corrosive service; also used for joining combinations
of Cr-Mo and carbon steels

SA213MTP304H

PS1 I/L HEADER TO PS2 I/L HEADER


PS2 I/L HEADER TO S/H DRAIN HEADER
ATTEMPERATOR 1 I/L HEADER TO SH
DRAIN HEADER

C-0.05-0.15, Cr-1, Mo -0.3-0.5, P-0.025, S-0.030


TS-415 Mpa
YS- 205 MPa
ER-80S2+E8018B2

SA 335 P22(AS2)

PS2 I/L HEADER TO SSH I/L HEADER


SH DRAIN HEADER
MAINSTEAM TO SH DRAIN HEADER
SSH I/L HEADER TO SH DRAIN HEADER
ATTEMERATOR DRAIN TO SH DRAIN HEADER
SUPERHEATER DRAIN HEADER

C-0.05-0.15, Cr-2, Mn -0.40, P-0.025, Mo- 0.90, S-.025


TS-415 Mpa YS- 205MPa
ER90SB3+E9018B3

TIGROD ER90S-B3 is a Chrome-Moly TIG rod used for joining 2.5% Cr - 1%


Mo creep resistant steels. These non-copper-coated rods are primarily
used to fabricate and repair power piping, pressure vessels, heat
exchangers and boilers in the power generation industry.

SA 335 P91 (AS3)

SA 516 Gr 70

STEAM DRUM
C(100-200 mm )- 0.31
Mn-1, Cr-0.8-1.25, P-0.025, S 0.025, V0.02, Mo- 0.08
TS- 485-620 MPa, YS- 335 MPa

MAINSTEAM LINE
SAFETY VALVE TO SILENCER

C-0.08-0.12, Cr-8-9.5, Mo-0.3-0.6, P-0.025,


0.030, V-0.2
TS-585 Mpa YS- 415 Mpa
ER90SB3+E9018B3

SA 312 (SS1) 304 GRADE

HP DOSING LINE FROM STEAM DRUM


SAMPLING LINES

C-0.08,Cr-18, Ni- 10

S-

Technology Comparison
PARAMETER

CFBC

PF

Fuel type

wide range

limited range

Fuel size

< 8mm

<75 m

Furnace Temperature C

800-900

>1400

Ash in Combustor

Dry/Powder

Slag

Emission Control

In situ

External

Burner Management

Easy

Complex

Power Consumption
Normal Coal

More (10-15%)

Base

Weight%

ER
309LMo

0.03
max

Grade

Mn

Si

Cr

Ni

1.0- 0.3023-25 12-14


2.5 0.65

Mo

0.03
max

0.03
max

2-3

620
Mpa

Mn

Si

Cr

Mo

Ni

Min

16.0

2.00

10.0

Max

0.03

2.0

0.045

0.03

18.0

3.00

14.0

0.10

316L

0.75

Learnings

Safety is a value system


Quality should not be compromised

Loop Check

P&ID, Supports, Welding, Insulation , Fouling, Gap, Seismic supports, Valve Direction,
Whether valve can be operated, Bolts.

DP Test

Cleaner
Dye
Developer

Leak Test

Kerosene Test
Pneumatic Test

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