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MDMT merupakan prosedur untuk menentukan temperatur terendah yang diizinkan untuk menentukan

apakah diperlukan impact test atau tidak. Standar ASME telah mensyaratkan agar ditentukan MDMT
untuk semua jenis pressure vessel dan diatur dalam kode UCS 66 untuk material carbon steel dan MDMT
tersebut dicantumkan pada nameplate. MDMT tersebut menjadi batasan sebagai temperatur terendah
suatu proses di dalam pressure vessel yang merupakan temperatur terendah yang diijinkan, dihitung
terhadap masing-masing komponen individu pressure vessel.
Kadang-kadang, nilai MDMT ditentukan oleh user. Kemudian vendor berkewajiban untuk membuktikan
aktual MDMT setiap komponen yang digunakan lebih rendah daripada MDMT tersebut.
Ada beberapa pengertian MDMT tergantung dari bagaimana ini digunakan, yaitu:
1. Arbitrary MDMT
Merupakan nilai MDMT yang ditentukan secara bebas tetapi berdasarkan pertimbangan dan kebijakan
tertentu yang biasanya ditentukan oleh user atau menurut ketentuan pada ASME Section VIII Division 1
UG-20. Beberapa user memiliki nilai MDMT standar untuk menentukan temperatur terendah sesuai
dengan kondisidi lapangannya.
2. Exemption MDMT
Merupakan temperatur terendah yang dapat dioperasikan oleh pressure vessel pada kondisi full design
pressure tanpa tes impact tiap bagian komponen.
3. Test MDMT
Temperatur terendah yang digunakan pada kondisi pressure vessel dites impact.
Perlu dipertimbangkan dalam menentukan MDMT, mengingat apabila kita melakukan
tes impactmemerlukan biaya, maka ada beberapa cara untuk menghilangkan tes impact, dan pada saat
yang sama akan menghasilkan MDMT terendah yaitu:
1.

Upgrade jenis material ke grup yanglebih tinggi

2.

Tambah ketebalan komponen untuk mengurangi ketegangan (stress) material

3.

Kurangi tekanan pada MDMT. Akan tetapi ini akan merubah suatu proses dan kemungkinan
dapat diperbolehkan atau tidak. Kadang-kadang sebuah pressure vessel tidak beroperasi pada
kondisi full design pressure pada kondisi temperatur rendah tetapi mempunyai kondisi alternatif
seperti shutdown atau . Sometimes a vessel does not operate at full design pressure at the low
temperature condition but has alternate conditions, such as shutdown or terjadi penurunan tekanan.
Formula yang digunakan untuk menghitung MDMT:

Keterangan:
R1 = ratio tebal material pada kondisi MDMT terhadap tebal yang terkorosi
R2 = ratio tegangan aktual terhadap tegangan yang diijinkan
R = gunakan mana yang lebih rendah antara R1 atau R2
tr = tebal material pada kondisi MDMT, inch
tc = tebal material komponen terkorosi, inch
tn = tebal material komponen kondisi baru, inch
Sa = tegangan aktual yang terjadi, psi
SMT = tegangan yang diijinkan pada kondisi MDMT, psi
T1 = temperatur terendah yang diijinkan untuk tiap komponen berdasarkan materialnya, F
T2 = pengurangan temperatur MDMT tanpa tes impact, F
Untuk menentukan T1 dan T2 dapat ditentukan melalui kurva yang ada di ASME Sect. VIII Div. 1 tahun
2004, yaitu Fig. UCS-66 untuk menentukan T1 dan Fig. UCS-66.1 untuk menentukan T2.
Oleh karena itu untuk di dalam ASME Sect. VIII Div. 1 diatur cara untuk menentukan MDMT tanpa
tes impact melalui diagram di bawah ini:

ASME Impact Test Requirement

The ASME Impact Test Requirement article provides you with


information about impact test requirements in pressure vessel design
and construction.
Let's say, you have a pressure vessel under design, process and
construction has not started yet.
Based on the ASME impact test requirement, you need to make
assessment to see that either your pressure vessel is exempted from
impact testing, or you need to carry out the test.
There are 4 steps for impact test exemption assessment. You need to
know these steps. You might be exempted in the first, second or third
steps and might not be exempted even in step 4.
So if you are in step 4 and you have not exempted, then you need to
carry out the test. I will explain the process for exemption in this
article.
Basic Concept:
You may know carbon steels and low alloy steels exhibit a drastic
change in their room temperature ductility at sub-zero service
temperatures. Different types of materials exhibit different types of
transition behavior.
We can see there is a sudden, phenomenal drop in their notchtoughness properties below the "transition" range of temperature,
which should be a matter of concern for us.
Body centered cubic or Ferritic alloys exhibit a significant transition in
behavior when impact tested over a range of temperatures. Above
transition temperature range, impact specimens fracture in a "ductile"
manner, absorbing relatively large amounts of energy.

At lower temperatures, i.e. below the transition temperature range,


the impact test specimens are found to fracture in a brittle (cleavage)
manner, absorbing less energy.
And within the transition temperature range, the fracture is a mixture
of ductile and brittle nature.
A material would be invulnerable to a sudden drop in notch-toughness
at the lowest specified service (or design) temperature, if it is proved
by conducting Charpy V-notch Impact tests on representative test
samples, at reference (the lowest service) temperature.
Grain refined carbon steel forgings and wrought materials (thoroughly
worked and normalized) generally exhibit good notch toughness.

ASME Code Section VIII Div 1 exemption rules for ASME


Impact Test Requirement:
There are specific rules in ASME Code for exemption from ASME
Impact Test Requirement. This test is very expensive, so pressure
vessel manufacturers are trying to be exempted for this costly test.
You need to follow the following clauses
assessment for ASME impact test requirement:

to

make

exemption

UG-20(f) UCS-66(a) UCS-66(b) UCS-68(c)


First you have to keep your pressure vessel design data available and
then refer to UG-20 (f). If you are exempted from this clause, you do
not need proceed further.

But if you are not exempted by UG-20 (f), you have to proceed to
UCS-66(a), but again if you are exempted, there is no need for more
assessment.
But if not, you have to proceed to UCS-66(b). If you are exempted
now, there is no need for more assessment; otherwise, you have to
proceed to UCS-68(c), and again if you are still not exempted, you
have to carry out impact testing.
For some cases, You might be exempted from the ASME impact test
requirement in the first stage in UG-20 (f). In others, You might be
exempted in UCS-66(a) or UCS-66(b) or UCS-68(c). If you are not
exempted, you must prepare yourself for doing this costly test.
This test would be more costly out of the US because of Laboratory
Accreditation requirements. Also, there are fewer accredited labs in
Europe and the Middle East, and their price is high as well.
UG-20(f)
We will start with UG-20(f) for the ASME impact test requirement. If
your MOC (Material of Construction) is categorized in P-No. 1 or 2
(Refer to ASME Code Section IX for P-No Definition) and your MOC
thickness has the limited value defined in this clause, then you might
be exempted from impact testing.
But you need to refer to Fig UCS-66 in ASME Code Section VIII Div 1
and see in which A, B, C or D curves your MOC is listed. All ASME
carbon steel and low alloy steel material is distributed in these 4
groups (Curves) of materials.
You need to know that the materials listed in curve D have the best
toughness property, better than the materials listed in curve C.
Similarly materials listed in curve C have better toughness properties
compared to materials listed in curve B and materials listed in Curve B
have better toughness than materials listed in Curve A .
See Following Fig UCS-66(a):

When you determine your MOC curve, then you have to review UG20(f) and look for the possibility of exemption from the ASME impact
test requirement. There are some other conditions in this clause, which
you should consider for exemption.
For instance, the vessel should be hydrostatically tested after
completion, and the thermal and mechanical loading can not be a
design controlling factor.
For example, if your MOC is a normalized SA 516 Gr.70 with 0.75 inch
thickness you will be exempted from ASME impact test requirement.
Your thickness, in this example, is 0.75 of an inch, and is listed in curve D which
is up to 1 inch, you are exempted by this clause. Of course, you will be carry
out hydro-static test and ensure that the mentioned loadings are not a
design controlling factor in your considered pressure vessel.
UCS-66(a)
So assume that in the above example, your MOC thickness is 1.125
inch instead of 1 inch, you will not be exempted by UG-20(f) and you
have to refer to UCS-66(a);

But for assessment, based on this clause, you need to know your
pressure vessel MDMT (Minimum Design Metal Temperature). Assume
that is -20 degree F, so you should now go to Fig. UCS-66 and locate
1.125 inch in the horizontal axis and draw a vertical line.
In a similar way, locate -20 degree F in the vertical axes and draw a
horizontal line. These two lines will cross each other.
See above Figure, the lines are identified in red.
If the cross point falls above the curve D (because your MOC is listed
in curve D) you are exempted. Otherwise you are not, but for the
current example, you are above the curve D so you are exempted from
impact testing.
To simplify your assessment for the ASME impact test requirement, the
Fig-66 has been converted to the table(table UCS-66). For any MOC
with specific thickness you can go to this table and see what is the
minimum permissible temperature without impact testing.
See following UCS-66(a) Table:

In the above example (normalized SA 516 Gr.70, Curve D, 1.125 inch


thickness), the minimum permissible temperature without impact test
is -26 degree F. This means that, if in the above example your MDMT
changes from -20 degree F to -27 degree F, then you cannot be
exempted from the ASME impact test requirement by UCS-66(a), and
you have to proceed to UCS-66(b)
UCS-66(b)
Let us explain this clause with the above example. Your MDMT from
above is -27 degree F, nominal thickness is 1.125 inch, normalized SA
516 Gr.70 listed in curve D and you are not exempted by UCS-66(a)
So you are here to continue your assessment to find a chance for
exemption. You have to refer to Fig UCS-66.1 and calculate the
following formula:
Ratio= tr E / (tn c)
tr is the required design thickness for all applicable loading. We
assume for the above example that is 0.95 inch. E is your joint
efficiency, and we assume for this vessel it is 1. This means your
vessel is RT2, tn is your nominal thinness, which in the example from
above it is 1.125 inches, and C is corrosion allowance, and we assume
it is 0.125 inches; so let calculate:
Ratio = 0.95x1/(1.125 0.125) Ratio= 0.95
See following Fig UCS-66(b):

Then go to the Figure UCS-66(b) and in the vertical axes locate Ratio
and draw a horizontal line. Then locate the cross point with the graph
and draw a vertical line to cross the horizontal axis.
You will be able to reach a value of 8 in the horizontal axes. This 8, is
your 8 degree F bonus from table UCS-66, which you can reduce by 8
degrees F minimum permissible temperature in table without impact
testing.
In the above example, your MDMT is -27 degree F, and in the UCS 66
table, the minimum permissible temperature without impact testing
designated -26 degree F. So with this clause you can reduce it to -36
degree F(-26 -8 = -34). Your MDMT is -27 degree F, so you are
exempted from impact testing with this clause.
UCS-68(c)
Let us change one variable in the above example. Let's assume you
need to have -45 degree F for your MDMT. Other variable are the

same; it means normalized SA 516 Gr.70 listed in curve D, thickness


1.125, so you can see you are not exempted by UCS-66(b);
This is because the minimum permissible temperature is -36 degree F,
but your MDMT is -45 degree F, so UCS-68(c) might be helpful.
It says that if post weld heat treatment is not a code requirement and
your P-No is 1 and you carry out post weld heat treatment, a 30
degree F bonus will be granted to you to reduce the minimum
permissible temperature in table UCS-66.
So when post weld heat treatment is code requirement?
It is code requirement when your service is lethal and when your
thickness for P-No. 1 is greater than 1.5 inch;
So, for our example, our service is not lethal and our P-No. is 1 and
thickness is 1.125 and it is less than 1.5 inch: therefore, post weld
heat treatment is not code requirement.
It means if you carry out post heat treatment, a 30 degree F bonus
will be granted by this clause. For this example our minimum
permissible temperature would be -36-30=-66 degree F, and your
MDMT is -45 degree F, so you are exempted from impact testing.
Now the worst case: in the above, assume you need to have -70
degree F for your MDMT; you can see with this new condition you
cannot be exempted even by UCS-68(c) and you have to carry out
impact testing.

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