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Beka Welser

KINE 376
Final Paper
An increase in intensity, which is what physical movement and exercise
is, requires an increase in muscle action. This is more action potentials
coming down the neurons and being sent to the muscles. It starts as a
graded potential that once it reaches threshold is sent down the axon which
changes the membrane permeability to sodium. This overwhelms the
sodium-potassium pump which uses ATP to regulate the charge of the
membrane. This allows the electrical signal to then travel down the neuron
which aggravates the synaptic knob and sends out neurotransmitters across
the synaptic cleft. These then bind to receptors and are converted back to an
electrical signal which stimulates the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This causes a
greater increase of calcium being released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
which binds with the troponin. The troponin causes the tropomyosin to open
the binding site on the actin in which a myosin head can now attach and pull
the actincausing a muscle contraction when accumulated. To allow for
more muscle contraction the myosin needs to be able to release from the
actin which is why ATP is there to bind to the tropomyosin and be broken
down, allowing the myosin to re-energize to be available to rebind and carry
out the power stroke. This continues until the action potential ceases and
therefore the intensity would also decrease. ATP runs the calcium pump and
therefore allows for the calcium to return to the sarcoplasmic reticulum when
the muscle is no longer contracting. The harder the muscle works the more
oxygen is needed to run glycolysis for long periods of time. Since the muscle
is using more oxygen, the partial pressure of oxygen is lower and therefore
more oxygen is being unloaded compared to at rest, because the gradient is
larger. The temperature in the muscle increases as well as the pH decreasing
due to exercise along with the build-up of lactic acid. These also manipulate
the relationship between oxygen and hemoglobin which allows for more
oxygen to get to the muscle.
To create the energy that the muscle needs to be able to contract, the
body has multiple systems, which increase and decrease according to the
demand of the intensity. Lower intensities, such as rest oxidize fats using
epinephrine to break down fatty acids into acetyl-coA and high energy
molecules which are sent to the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain
to produce ATP. When more energy is needed, the body increases the
oxidative glycolysis in which glucose is being converted to pyruvate, limited
by phosphofructokinase. When oxygen is present the pyruvate goes through
the PDH complex and is converted to acetyl-coA and then through the Krebs
cycle to produce high energy molecules to be sent to the electron transport
chain and convert to ATP. The PDH complex is activated by increased
amounts of pyruvate, insulin (related to glucose in the blood), and increased
amounts of calciumwhich is from more active muscles that need more ATP

produced to keep them contracting while there is a continuance of action


potentials. When oxygen isnt present, or the supply is not sufficient, the
system gets backed up starting at the electron transport chain, resulting in
the PDH complex becoming inactive. The pyruvate then is converted to
lactate instead, but there is still ATP being made from the breakdown of
glucose to pyruvate, at a lower a frequency. This can last for up to three
minutes until the muscle can no longer continue at the current intensity. The
lactate is cleared by the intercellular lactate shuttle by using lactate
dehydrogenate to get the lactate through the backdoor of the PDH complex.
If the lactate cannot be cleared at the same rate that it is being produced,
such as at higher intensities, then it builds up and changes the pH of the
muscles, which allows for more oxygen to be unloaded. Bicarbonate then
along with the lactic acid produces non-metabolic CO2. At high intensities
the ATP-PCr system is used because it gives energy quickly when the muscle
has a greater demand. Phosphocreatine is broken down to get an ATP. This
only lasts for as long as phosphocreatine is available; exhaustion hits when
the input doesnt equal the output and the muscle is forced to decrease
intensity. This is used for short bursts of less than thirty seconds for high
intensity movements.
Since oxygen is needed to be supplied to the muscle to effectively
create ATP, the body adapts in relation to the demand. Inspiration is an
active process to increase the volume of the lungs and the flow occurs when
there is a difference between the pressures of two systems. The ventilation
rate, the size of breath, or frequency all increase during exercise; although
ventilation is not usually the limiting factor in exercise. As intensity and the
amount of oxygen needed the cells metabolism increases, as does the
number of breaths. Ventilation increases proportionally to intensity until the
ventilatory threshold is met; this is the stage in which the body is trying to
clear the excess CO2. This increase is now exponential because nonmetabolic CO2 is produced, the lactate threshold is passed, and the lactate
production exceeds lactate clearance. The accumulation allows for
bicarbonate to bind with the hydrogen from lactic acid, creating water and
CO2. Due to this process more ventilation is needed to get out the CO2
leading to an increase in inhalation and oxygen. The exchange of gases is
driven by pressure gradients between systems. The PO2 is highest when we
take it in and the PCO2 of CO2 is highest when exhaled because of the high
production in the body. The PO2 decreases in the muscle during exercise as
compared to at rest because we are using more for metabolizing and
creating ATP; therefore the gradient is larger and more oxygen can be
unloaded from the hemoglobin. To get oxygen to replace the CO2 and
eliminate CO2 in the muscle, your cardiovascular system responds to get the
hemoglobin where it is needed.
Cardiac output is increased during exercise to send more to the
muscles, allowing for ATP production to be able to contract the muscles. The
blood needs to be moved faster and more effectively to the needed areas.

First the heart rate increases because there is a decrease in the


parasympathetic nervous system tone. While the parasympathetic system
allows the rate to increase through both direct and indirect stimulation.
Direct stimulation is through the nerves that directly attach to the heart,
which can cause vasoconstriction in other tissues. This stimulation allows for
more blood to go to the muscles, as indirect is through hormones that effects
the stroke volume. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released in the blood
stream and causes vasodilation in the skeletal and cardiac muscle allowing
more blood to flow and therefore a greater supply of oxygen. The
epinephrine is also used in oxidation of fat metabolism to break apart fatty
acids from the triglycerides to be able to be used to make ATP for the
muscle. Stroke volume is increased by sympathetic stimulation and venous
return. Vasodilation allows for greater blood flow out; then as more blood
comes back in the heart, it stretches as expands. This allows for a more
powerful squeeze, stronger contraction, ability to have a lower end systolic
volume. Vasodilation also increases the contractibility of the heart, and since
it is a muscle, more calcium is released into the blood stream from the
sarcoplasmic reticulum. The calcium released activates the PDH complex
allowing for more pyruvate getting through and creating more ATP. There is
also an increase of vasodilation at sites where the amount of metabolic byproducts is higher such as potassium, heat, hydrogen ions, adenosine, and
CO2.
Elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption keeps an increased heart
rate because the heart needs to move oxygen. The ventilation rate is also
high because the muscles need ATP. The core temperature is increased to
help regulate the body and continue to eliminate lactic acid build up. The
epinephrine is still in the blood and is slowly used for fat metabolism in
addition to vasodilation. At this point in the process, the body is resetting
and must regulate the systems while finding a steady state. The higher the
intensity, the longer the EPOC recovery time will be.

References

Kenney, W. Larry., Jack H. Wilmore, David L. Costill, and Jack H.


Wilmore. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics,
2012. Print.