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CIV8039

SPECIAL TOPICS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

Settlement of Shallow Foundations

Introduction to Settlement
Elastic or Immediate Settlement
Consolidation Settlement
Tolerable Settlement of Buildings

Introduction to Settlement

1.1 Compressibility of Soil


(1) Deformation of Soil Grains
Cohesionless Soil

Cohesive Soil

(2) Compression of Air and Water in the Voids

(3) Squeezing out of Water and Air from the Voids


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Introduction to Settlement

1.2 Components of Settlements


The total settlement, St of a loaded soil has three components:
St = Si+Sc+Ss
Where, Si = Immediate or Elastic Settlement
Sc = Primary Consolidation Settlement
Ss = Secondary Consolidation or Compression Settlement

Si

Introduction to Settlement

1.2 Components of Settlements


(1) Immediate settlement : This settlement althouth not actually elastic is usually estimated
by using elstic theory.
(2) Primary consolidation settlement : This settlement is a time-dependent process that
occurs in saturated fine-grained soils which have a low coefficient of permeability. The
rate of settlement depends on the rate of pore water drainage.
(3) Secondary consolidation settlement : This settlement is also time-dependent, occurs at

constant effective stress and with no subsequent changes in pore water pressure.
Type of soil

Immediate

Primary
consolidation

Secondary
consolidation

Sand

Clay

Highly
Organic Soil

: Major Consideration : Consideration : No Consideration


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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


Consider a foundation measuring L x B located at a depth Df below the ground surface.
A rigid layer is located at a depth H below the bottom of the foundation.

Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


Theoretically, if the foundation is perfectly flexible (Bowles, 1987), the settlement may be
expressed as:
Se(flexible)=q(B)

Where,

12
II
sf

q = Net applied pressure on the foundation


= Poissons ratio of soil
E = Average modulus of elasticity of soil under the foundation, measured from
z=0 to z=4B
B = B/2
(for center of foundation)
=B
(for corner of foundation)
= a factor that depends on the location on the foundation where settlement is
being calculated.
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Is = Shape factor = F1 +
F2
1

If = Depth factor = f

( B , and )
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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


The terms F1 and F2 used to calculate the shape factor Is, are given by:
1
F1= (A0+A1)

F2=2 A2

Where,

Ao=m.ln
A1=ln

A2=

(1+ m2 +1) m2 +n2


m(1+ m2 +n2 +1)

(m+ m2 +1) m2 +n2


m+ m2 +n2 +1

n m2 +n2 +1

The variations of F1 and F2 with m and n are given in tables.

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


To calculate settlement at the center of the foundation, use

H
=4
m =
and
n = B
( )
2

To calculate settlement at a corner of the foundation, use


L
H
=1
m = B
and
n = B
The variation of with / and is shown in Figure (for L/B = 1, 2, and 5),
which is based on Fox (1948).

For a rigid foundation


(, ) 0.93(, )

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


The variation of If with Df/B and (for L/B=1,2 and 5) is shown below.

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


The variation of If with Df/B and (for L/B=1,2 and 5) is shown below.

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


Case 1. Df=0, H=
(1) Circular Foundation
(i) At depth z
1+
Se=qo b I1

Radius
B=2b
qo

+ 1 I2

Where I1, I2 are the influencing number which is a

function of &

(ii) At surface (z=0)

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Se=qob I2

Center (=0,

Corner (=0,

= 0)

I2=2.0

= 1)

I2=1.27

Average Se(Average)=0.85Se(center)
Rigid Foundation Se (rigid, Average)=0.93Se (flexible, average)
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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


(2) Rectangular Foundation
(i) At depth z

Se(corner)=

qo
2

(1 2) I3

qo

12
I
1 4

Where I3, I4 are the influencing number which is a function

of m1= & n1 =

2
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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


(ii) At surface (z=0

n1=0

qo

I4 = 0)

12
Se(corner)=qoB 2 I3

qo/2

Se(center)=4[
=

qo

](1 2)I3

(1 2)I3

Where I3 is a function of
L/2
L
=
B/2
B
z
2z
n1=
=
B/2
B

m1=

Average Se(average)=0.848Se(center)
Rigid Foundation Se(rigid, average)=0.93Se(flexible, average)

2
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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


Case 2. Df=0, H

Se=Se(z=0) - Se(z=H)
H

Case 3. Df0

Rigid Base

Se(average)=Se(average)F3
Where Se=Corrected Elastic Settlement of foundation
Se=Elastic settlement of foundation on the
assumption that load is applied at ground
surface
F3=Correction factor for foundation depth Df

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


Values of I1

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


Values of I2

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


Values of I3

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


Values of I4

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity

Depth factor, F3

Correction Factor for Foundation Depth, F3

Depth Ratio, D/B

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


Example: A square tank is shown. Assuming flexible loading condition, find the average
immediate settlement of the tank for the following condition;
(a) Df=0, H=
(b) Df=1.5m, H=
(c) Df=1.5m, H=10m

Solution:

(a) Df=0, H=
q
Se(center)= o (1 2)I3
m1=
n1=

=1

2
=0

Se(center)=

q0=100KN/m2 BxL=3mx3m

(100)(3)
(21000)

I3 = 1.122
1 0.32 1.122

=0.0146m
=14.6mm

Df
H

Sand E=21000KN/m2
=0.3

Rock
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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


q0=100KN/m2 BxL=3mx3m

Se(average)=0.848 Se(center)
=0.848x14.6
=12.38mm
H

(b) Df=1.5m, H=
L
B

= 1, =0.3

Df 1.5
=
B 3.0

= 0.5

Df

Sand E=21000KN/m2
=0.3

Rock

F3=0.77

Se(average)=Se(average)F3
=12.38x0.77
=9.83mm
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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


(c) Df=1.5m, H=10m

q0=100Kn/m2 BxL=3mx3m

Se=Se(z=0)-Se(z=H)

Df

At a depth of z

qo
12
Se(corner)= 2
(1 2) I3 1 I4

For small square 1


1.5
m1= =1.5 = 1

Sand E=21000KN/m2
=0.3

Rock

2 10
=
1.5

100x1 .5
12x0.3
Se(corner)=
(1 0.32) 0.189
0.047 x4
2x21000

=0.00211m =2.11mm

10.3

1.5m

n1=
= 6.67
I3=0.189 , I4=0.047

1.5m
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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.1 Elastic Settlement based on the Theory of Elasticity


q0=100KN/m2 BxL=3mx3m

Se(average)=0.848 Se(center)
=0.848x2.11
=1.79 mm
Without considering depth effect
Se=Se(z=0)-Se(z=H)

Df
H

Sand E=21000KN/m2
=0.3

=12.38-1.79
=10.59mm

1.5m

With considering depth effect


Se=SeF3
=10.59*0.77
=8.15mm

Rock

1.5m
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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.2 Elastic Settlement of Foundations on Saturated Clay


Janbu et al. (1956) proposed a generalized equation for average elastic settlement for
uniformly loaded flexible foundation on saturated clay (=0.5).

Se(average)=1o

Where, 1 = correction factor for finite thickness of elastic soil layer


o = correction factor for depth of embedment of foundation
B = width of rectangular loaded area or diameter of circular loaded foundation

Length=L
q

Df
H
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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.2 Elastic Settlement of Foundations on Saturated Clay


Christian and Carrier (1978) suggested that for =0.5, elastic settlement equation could
be retained for circular and rectangular foundations with a modification of the values of
0 and 1.

Df/B
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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.3 Schmertmanns Method


The elastic settlement of foundation using the strain influence factor is:
(Schmertmann et all. 1978)

Sc =C1 C2 p H i
i 1

where
Hi =Hc

Iz
XE

1 =a correction factor for the depth of foundation embedment=1-0.5(


2 =a correction factor to account for creep in soil=1+0.2log(

()
)
0.1

n=No.s of soil layers with in the zone strain influence (strain influence diagram)

p=net uniform applied stress at foundation depth


E=elastic modulus of layer i
X=a factor used to determine the value of elastic modulus

X=1.25 for axisymmetric case ( = 1)


X=1.75 for plane strain case (

>10)

Use interpolation for footings with 1< <10

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.3 Schmertmanns Method

1.
2.

Effect of lateral strain is includes in the strain influence


factor diagram
Applicable for normally loaded sand & for pre-strained
sand actual settlement will be over predict

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.3 Schmertmanns Method


Example:
A 6 ft. x 24 ft. footing is founded at a depth of 3 ft. below ground elevation with the soil
profile and average N160 values shown. Determine the settlement in inches;

(a) at the end of construction


(b) 1 year after construction.

The footing is subjected to an applied stress of 2,000 psf with no ground water

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.3 Schmertmanns Method


Solution:
Step-1 Strain influencing factor at the base of the footing

24

=6 = 4

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.3 Schmertmanns Method


Step-2 Maximum Depth of Influence

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.3 Schmertmanns Method


Step-3 Depth to the peak strain influence factor, DIP

Step-4 Maximum strain influence factor Izp

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.3 Schmertmanns Method


Step-5 Drawing the IZ vs. depth diagram

Layer boundaries are solid lines


Layer centers are dashed lines

37

Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.3 Schmertmanns Method


Step-6 Determination of Elastic Modulus from N1

60

X=1.25 for axisymmetric case (

X=1.75 for plane strain case (


Use linear interpolation for

= 1)

>10)

=4

( ) with respect to axisymmetric


X=1.25+

1.751.25
9

=4-1=3

3 =1.42

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.3 Schmertmanns Method


Step-7 Determine the settlement

Step-8 Determine of C1 & C2


p

(a) Embedment Factor 1 =1-0.5( o )


p

(b) Creep Factor 2 =1+0.2log(

()
)
0.1

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Elastic or Immediate Settlement

2.3 Schmertmanns Method


Step-9 Settlement at the end of construction
n

Si =C1 C2 p H i
i 1

C1 =0.896

p =1655psf

C2 = 1.0
Si =(0.896)(1.0)

1655psf
(0.176
2000psf/tsf

Hi =0.176 in/tsf

inches/tsf)

Si =0.13 inches
Step-10 Settlement after 1 year

Si =0.130 inches

1.2
1.0

= 0.156 inches

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41

Consolidation Settlement

3.1 Primary Consolidation Settlement


Method A

m
b

av=6(t+4m+b)

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Consolidation Settlement

3.1 Primary Consolidation Settlement


Method A
1. Calculate the average effective pressure 0 on the clay layer before the application of
the load under consideration.
2. Calculate the increase of stress due to the applied load at the top, middle, and
bottom of the clay layer. The average increase of stress in the clay layer can be

estimated by Simpsons rule,


1
6

av= (t+4m+b)
Where

t= Stress increases at the top the clay layer

m= Stress increases at the middle the clay layer


b = Stress increases at the bottom the clay layer
3. Calculate e

H
1+0

4. Calculate settlement Sc=

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Consolidation Settlement

3.1 Primary Consolidation Settlement


Method B

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Consolidation Settlement

3.1 Primary Consolidation Settlement


Method B
1. Divide the given clay layer into n layers.
2. Calculate the effective stress

o(i) at the middle of each layer.

3. Calculate the increase of stress at the middle of each layer

due to the applied

load.
4. Calculate

ei for each layer.

5. Total settlement for the entire clay layer is given by:


Sc

= sc
i 1

= 1 ei
i 1

H i

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Consolidation Settlement

3.1 Primary Consolidation Settlement


The settlement for one-dimensional consolidation is given by:

H
1+0

Sc=

Where,

0 +
0

For normally consolidated clay

e=Crlog

0 +
0

For over consolidated clay 0 + <


0 +
e=Crlog +Cclog
0

For over consolidated clay

e=Cclog

< < +
Where, c is the pre-consolidation pressure.

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Consolidation Settlement

3.1 Primary Consolidation Settlement


1. Normally Consolidated Clay

e
Cc=

log +


+
Sc=1+

log

47

Consolidation Settlement

3.1 Primary Consolidation Settlement


2. Over-consolidated Clay

1. +<

+1
0

e1=Crlog

e0
e1

Cr : Recompression Index

+1
Sc=1+
0
0

e2
Cc: Compression Index

2. < < +r
e2= er + ec

=Crlog
0

c
( +)1

( +)2

log


Sc=1+

0 +2
Cclog


+2

1+0

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Consolidation Settlement

3.1 Primary Consolidation Settlement


3. Under-consolidated Clay

e
e0

Slope Cc due to consolidation portion


of the overburden
Slope Cc due to foundation
loading

0
0 +
e=Cclog +Cclog

0
0 +
e=Cclog

0 +

log


0 +
Sc=

1+0

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Consolidation Settlement

3.2 Secondary Consolidation Settlement

Primary Consolidation

C =Secondary Compression Index


Secondary Consolidation

tp

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Consolidation Settlement

3.2 Secondary Consolidation Settlement


The secondary compression index C is given by:

= 2
log 2log 1

By rearranging

2
1

For preliminary calculations


=

1+

0.05

H 2
1+
1

H=

Where, t is time and e is the change of void ratio.


The secondary consolidation settlement is given by:

() =

2
1

Where, C = C/(1+ep)
ep = Void ratio at the end of primary consolidation

Hc = thickness of layer
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Tolerable Settlement of Buildings

53

Tolerable Settlement of Buildings

In 1956, Skempton and McDonald proposed the following limiting values for maximum
settlement and maximum angular distortion, to be used for building purposes:

Maximum Settlement, ST(max)

In sand

32mm

In clay

45mm

Maximum Differential Settlement, ST(max)

Isolated foundations in sand

51mm

Isolated foundations in clay

76mm

Raft in sand

51~76mm

Raft in clay

76~127mm

Maximum angular distortion, max

1/300

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Tolerable Settlement of Buildings

Bjerrum (1963) recommended the following limiting angular distortion, max for various
structures:

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