Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2016 Zhu

© All Rights Reserved

3 tayangan

Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2016 Zhu

© All Rights Reserved

- AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF DUAL PHASE STEELS
- Design of Crane Steel beams
- Crane Design Guide
- Steel Properties
- Assessment of Fatique Life According to FKM-Code Within Hyper Works
- Report No 9 - Hot spot/Notch Stress analysis - Using FEMAP
- Heat Treatment
- NASA Process Specification for the Heat Treatment of Steel Alloys
- Cisc Crane Support Steel
- Heat Treatment of Metals
- B 296 - 03 _QJI5NG__
- crosby
- CraneGuide2E3PWebRev
- Cisc - Crane Soportin Steel Structures 2do
- Guide for the Design of Crane-Supporting Steel Structures
- Turnbuckle
- science 3 notes
- ASME 4
- 2008-61059-20081021-7,8.pdf
- 50CrMo4

Anda di halaman 1dari 11

optimization of the connecting thread

of driving shaft in positive

displacement motor

2016, Vol. 8(6) 111

The Author(s) 2016

DOI: 10.1177/1687814016652313

aime.sagepub.com

Abstract

Due to high efficiency in helping breaking rocks, positive displacement motor has a widespread application in the field of

oil and gas drilling engineering. However, service life of positive displacement motor becomes shorter resulting from failure of the driving shaft thread. The three-dimensional simulation model of driving shafts connecting thread has been

developed based on the principle of virtual work, Von Mises yield criterion, and contact nonlinear theory. This article

has put forward the plan to optimize structure of driving shaft with straight thread based on the design principle of

double-shouldered thread; besides, fatigue life of driving shaft with straight thread before and after optimization has been

assessed by resorting to the multiaxial fatigue principle and BrownMiller critical plane rule. In line with research results,

mechanical properties of driving shaft with straight thread are superior to those of driving shaft with taper thread.

Under the load of axial drill pressure with fluctuation and alternating torque, fatigue life of driving shaft with straight

thread after optimization is greatly improved. This article has not only provided basis for optimizing connecting thread of

driving shaft but also boasts of high engineering value for improving service life of positive displacement motor.

Keywords

Positive displacement motor, driving shaft, thread, failure analysis, double-shouldered thread, fatigue life

Academic Editor: Yongming Liu

Introduction

With constant improvement on drilling technology,

and popularization of direction well technology, horizontal well technology, and sidetracking well technology (STH), market demand of positive displacement

motor (PDM) is on increase. Taking Chinese market as

an example, output and sales of PDM grow very fast.

PDM with longer service life is necessary for efficient

drilling. Especially in deep well and offshore drilling,

when the life of PDM doubles, the cost saved will be

more than five times the price of drill. Take the Chinese

5000-m-deep well as an example: in case of failure of

PDM, it takes 1 day to restore the operation, and drilling cost is significantly increased. Therefore, PDM

research focus.

When working in the bottom hole, PDM usually

needs to bear a few tons or even tens of tons of axial

load, aside from strong impact load. Driving shaft is the

key part of connecting the drill bit with the power parts

of PDM. Among the driving shaft assembly, upper

Chengdu, P.R. China

Corresponding author:

Xiaohua Zhu, College of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum

University, Chengdu 610500, P.R. China.

Email: zxhth113@163.com

Creative Commons CC-BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

(http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without

further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/

open-access-at-sage).

Downloaded from ade.sagepub.com by guest on June 24, 2016

directly transmits torque and withstands hydraulic thrust

of motor. Therefore, it severely restricts service life of

PDM. Affected by short life of driving shaft (mainly

arising out of failure of root of upper thread thereof) to

a large extent, service life of PDM is only approximately

120150 h.1 At present, notwithstanding multiple types

of threads, systemic analysis on end thread has not been

found out. Thus, it is of utmost engineering value to conduct research on mechanical properties of connecting

thread of driving shaft.

In recent years, many researchers have studied the

structure and mechanical behavior of the connecting

thread of petroleum drilling tools. AR Shahani and

SMH Sharifi2 of K. N. Toosi University of Technology

completed the contact stress analysis of tool joint and

utilized formulas to forecast the fatigue life of tool joint.

According to the research result, maximum value of

stress concentration factor is located in the root of first

thread tooth of pin joint; NH Dao and H Sellami3 of

Paris Higher Mining University used the Walker

Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Law to study the evolution

of parameters of the surface fatigue crack growth process about drill pipe; C Santus4 took advantage of critical distance theory and optimized Whohler curve to

explain the fretting fatigue between steel material and

aluminum alloy in tool joint; Y-H Lin et al.5 applied

contact mechanics theory to establish the quasi threedimensional finite element semi-analytical theory, deriving the displacement and stiffness matrix of drilling

thread under any load; S-L Chen et al.6 analyzed the

connecting thread of the drill pipe using the elastic finite

element method and then found out it could reduce

thread stress by adding the stress relief groove and

changing the taper of the joint; X-H Zhu et al.7 provided an effective guidance for reducing the thread gluing accidents by establishing a new three-dimensional

thread structure. However, analyses of the thread of

drilling rig are mainly focused on drill pipe and collar,

while research on the mechanical properties and fatigue

life of the thread of PDM is relatively rare.

Based on studying the static mechanical properties

of the upper thread of driving shaft, this article analyzed and compared the fatigue life of different types of

thread under variable load. After optimizing existing

structure, this article again conducts research on fatigue

lifes sensitivity toward load component. Therefore,

such research is of utmost engineering value to improve

service life of PDM.

of thread of driving shaft

Pursuant to domestic types of upper connecting thread

of driving shaft commonly used by vendors, F172 mm

F172 mm driving shaft.

of thread teeth.

PDM is taken as an example. Figure 1 shows two common kinds of non-API8 threads. Non-API thread is

composed of straight thread and taper thread. Straight

thread mainly differs in terms of number of thread

teeth, while taper thread mainly differs with respect to

number of thread teeth and taper, generally speaking,

taper of such taper thread is 1:6.

The down hole drilling condition in field driving is

extremely harsh. High temperature, high frequency

impact, and stickslip oscillation pose serious damage

to down hole tools. Driving shaft thread serves as a

crucial part of down hole drilling rig to transmit axial

load and driving torque. It has been an important factor to affect service life of PDM whether the thread of

driving shaft is subject to fatigue destruction under

high impact and alternating torque. Figure 2 represents

several thread failures commonly encountered: broken

end thread tooth, thread root rupture, and so on.

Zhu et al.

Heat treatment state

Samples

Tempering

1

2

3

Room temperature

875

930

830

>827, <1138

1020

1040

970

>965

API Spec5DP

So as to locate reasons for thread failure, mechanical properties of material of driving shaft shall be

studied. Driving shaft of PDM is made of 42CrMo

alloy. When machining driving shaft thread, the

material rotates and there is an axial feed of material

at the same time while the cutting tool stays put.

Heat treatment of 42CrMo alloy is composed of

annealing, and hardening and tempering. With

respect to annealing, sustain temperature at 850C

for 3 h and cool the furnace till 400C while discharge

side adopts air cooling. During hardening and tempering, maintain temperature at 850C for 1 h and

make tempering in 560C after oil quenching. Y-T Li

et al.9 have done an experiment on mechanical properties of 42CrMo alloy, with results given in Table 1.

Test results of mechanical properties show that the

intensity of the three 42CrMo samples does not differ

much, and it means that homogeneity of 42CrMo alloy

is good; the tensile and yield strength of the material are

both in the range of API. Therefore, failure of upper

thread of driving shaft is not caused by material. Instead,

it may more likely arise out of easy failure of a certain

type of thread. In response to such hypothesis, simulation analysis on load-bearing performance of singleshouldered straight thread and taper thread is conducted.

shaft

Upper thread of the driving shaft is connected to the

diverter cap. Due to bending moment on underpart of

driving shaft and underpart TC bearing, upper thread

of driving shaft during operation is acted by axial variable load Fy and torsion load M. However, Cardan

shaft converts planetary plane motion into fixed axis

rotation of driving shaft. Thus, upper thread of driving

shaft bears radial load Fr changing with the direction

of rotation of Cardan shaft. With the vibration of drilling, such load also varies. Fr load (instantaneous) is

given in Figure 3. In Figure 3, rotor, Cardan shaft, and

driving shaft are shown from top to bottom, respectively. Fr is produced mainly because of the centrifugal

inertia force of the rotor and the Cardan shaft.

The centrifugal inertia force generated by the multithreaded rotor (suppose N headed) in motion is Fg10

Fg = mN 2 v2S e

of the rotor, vS is the angular velocity of the auto rotation of the rotor, and e is the eccentric distance.

In the process of directional drilling, the centrifugal

inertia force generated by the Cardan shaft is Fzg

Fzg = Mz Rz v2r

of the rotation radius of Cardan shaft, and vr is the

angular velocity of the rotation of the Cardan shaft.

The upper part of rotor is the safety anti-drop device

of PDM. It is herein considered as hinged bearing,

which is marked as O1, and considering Cardan shaft

and rotor as research objects, the distance between O2

and O1 marked toward direction Z is Lg. The distance

between O2 and O toward Z is Lzg and the distance

between Frs active line and O1 is Lr. Take O as the

starting point of direction Z and make a sum of the

moments of O1, which is given as follows

(instantaneous).

Lzg

(instantaneous).

Mz v2r Z tan u Lzg + Lg Z dz

0

Lzg

Gg e Z tan udz

0

Lzg

+ Lg

mN 2 v2S e Lzg + Lg Z dz = Fr Lzg + Lg + Fn e

Lzg

3

Force exerted by Cardan shaft on the driving shaft

is same as Fr in magnitude, but opposite in direction.

Even under the non-deflection section, the driving shaft

also withstands bending momentum changing with the

rotating drilling bit.

This article focuses on researching the loading and

fatigue status of thread of driving shaft. In order to

simplify research and neglect minor factors, upper parts

of TC bearing and diverter cap are simplified during

model establishment. The loading models are shown in

Figures 4 and 5; the Y-axis is the direction of well drilling, in which Fr is the force generated by the centrifugal

inertia force of rotor and Cardan shaft, M is the actual

output torque, and Fy includes hydraulic thrust G1 produced by rotor and self-weight Gg of rotor and Cardan

shaft

Fy = G + Gg

The bottom of PDM is connected to drill bit; therefore, the load borne to upper thread of the driving shaft

is almost same as the drill bit. In the meantime, they

simultaneously withstand variable axial load and torque, which are shown in Figures 6 and 7.11

fatigue life of thread

Dynamic finite element model

The contact surface of the pin thread and the box

thread is a complex spatial spiral surface. Its force

shaft.

bearing analysis involves material nonlinearity, geometric nonlinearity, and contact nonlinearity.

Therefore, it is quite difficult to establish a complete

and accurate mathematical model and obtain the analytical solution. At present, the problem is solved by

finite element method.

Zhu et al.

Poissons ratio

0.3

2.1 3 105

930

0.114

For the 3D calculation of the thread joint, the implicit algorithm makes calculation difficult due to the

inconsistency of contact in between shoulder and mesh

surface of thread teeth under states such as separation,

adhesive contact, and slide contact. Besides, the existence of material and geometric nonlinearity further

increases difficulties of seeking solution.12 However,

the explicit method during calculation presents explicit

progression (iteration is not required). Thus, it is very

suitable for calculating high nonlinearity akin to 3D

thread mesh. Therefore, ABAQUS/Explicit algorithm

is adopted herein for simulation calculation.

Explicit algorithm uses the central difference method to

accomplish the time integration of the equations of

motion, and the dynamic conditions of the next incremental step are obtained using the dynamic conditions of the

previous incremental step.13 At the t moment, the dynamic

equilibrium equations of the nodes are as follows

ut = M 1 Pt It

where M is the mass matrix of node, u is the displacement of node, P is an external force applied, and I is the

internal stress of element.

Making the time integration to formula (5) can calculate the speed and displacement of the node

Dtt + Dt + Dtt

t

u

u_ t + Dt = u_ tDt +

2

2

2

ut + Dt = ut + Dtt + Dt u_ t + Dt

According to the constitutive relation of the material, the element stress can be calculated

st + Dt = f st , de

Density (kg/m3)

7.85 3 103

driving shaft

A three-dimensional model is established according to

the type of connecting thread of the driving shaft of

F172 mm PDM. In order to establish the threedimensional thread model with high accuracy and computational efficiency, the dividing method of dividing

block is applied to complete the meshes of thread joint,

the fine mesh is applied in the thread segment, and the

sparse mesh is applied in the part far from the threaded

segment. Figure 8 shows the finite element models. The

element type is C3D8R. The specific parameters of the

finite element model are given in Table 2.

The finite element connection control equation of

thread is15

9

v

small strain in actual deformation, deij is the virtual

strain, xi is the load vector on the surface of the unit,

dui is the virtual displacement, and s is the superficial

area.

thread and taper thread

In this part, stress analysis of straight thread and taper

thread of the driving shaft is accomplished, and the

working load of driving shaft is loaded to the finite element models: torque of 10 kN m and axial load of

150 kN. For the driving shaft with straight thread, this

Table 3. Contrast of load bearing simulation result of upper direct thread and taper thread of driving shaft.

Maximum Mises stress (MPa)

221

252

263

323

281

296

284

383

straight thread; contact pressure, to a certain extent,

reflects the sealing performance of the thread, and

therefore, in the condition of high sealing requirements,

the taper thread is a better choice for the driving shaft.

However, in most cases, the sealing performance

requirement of the thread of driving shaft is not very

high, and too large contact pressure will lead to thread

gluing accidents. Therefore, from the aspects of normal

working conditions and reduced probability of thread

gluing accidents, straight thread is preferred for the

driving shaft.

Figure 9. Load-bearing analysis of box thread.

the static mechanical properties of the driving shaft are

analyzed, but the load conditions of driving shaft are

extremely complicated during the drilling process.

Therefore, it is necessary to carry out not only the static analysis of the structure but also the analysis and

calculation of fatigue life of dynamic loadtime process. Purely in terms of bearing stress state, analysis on

fatigue can be roughly divided into uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue. The fatigue damage of the upper thread

of driving shaft is a kind of typical non-proportional

multiaxial fatigue damage. However, cost arising out of

fatigue test is quite expensive, and adoption of proper

fatigue simulation model under the precondition of

saving cost may also produce results with higher accuracy; therefore, FE-SAFE fatigue analysis software is

adopted herein for fatigue life analysis.

cap. Figures 9 and 10 show the comparison of contact

pressure and Mises stress between straight thread and

taper thread.

Big Mises stress and contact pressure are produced

when the thread withstands axial pressure and torque

load, which is given in Table 3.

Table 3 shows that the Mises stress and contact pressure of driving shaft with straight thread are both lower

than those of driving shaft with taper thread.

Therefore, under the action of working conditions with

large torque and large load, straight thread is preferred

for the driving shaft. Meanwhile, the contact pressure

accuracy of the fatigue life calculation model, threedimensional finite element model of thread for the same

structure is established based on NOV Grants fatigue

test data16 of REG-6/8 joint. Again, fatigue calculation

method herein is used to calculate fatigue life of REG6/8 structure under the same load condition, with contrasting results given in Figure 11.

The data that NOV Grant company gets from fatigue experiment toward REG6-6/8 joint have four

groups, which are regarded as the abscissas of the spots

of fatigue life dispersion zone in Figure 11; the simulation results of fatigue life are taken as ordinate of the

spots of fatigue life dispersion zone in Figure 11. Based

Zhu et al.

results.

experiment results, all spots are found to be located in

double-dispersion zone, indicating a high consistency

between simulation results and experiment results. And

again, all the material parameters used in simulation

model are lower limit as provided by the prevailing

standard, while those of materials used in actual production are usually higher than specified value. As a

result, the simulation results and experiment results

have highest similarity, with smallest error of service

life only at 2%, and the calculation results are inclined

in the safe side. So, the fatigue life calculation model

established herein can be used to conduct calculation

related to fatigue life of thread joints.

Figure 13. Axial loadtime process.

withstands three types of alternating loads: radial load

Fr, axial weight on bit, and torque, but the three loads

changed according to the time and the revolution of

rotor. Moreover, the peak values of the three loads

have phase difference with the passage of time, and it

belongs to non-proportional loading. The variation

rule of load is subject to the random vibration theory.

When the drilling bit breaks rocks, vibration characteristics vary around an average value.

Figures 12 and 13 represent torquetime process and

axial loadtime process, respectively, in a depth of

4 km calculated by full well dynamics equation with the

time span of 3 s. During this time span, very violent

radial load, axial load, and torque experienced by the

driving shaft pose very big influence on the fatigue life

of structure.

The size and direction of radial load Fr change with

the revolution of rotor; in Figure 3, point O, x-axis, and

y-axis form the plane OXY. Set the angle between Fr

and x-axis as b. The Fr is decomposed into Fx and Fy in

them is

Fx = Fr 3 cos b

10

Fy = Fr 3 sin b

11

the size of Fr as 1, so in the period of 3 s, the load

time processes of Fx and Fy are shown in Figures 14

and 15, respectively.

Take the analysis example of this article as an example and set 4 km as drilling depth and the bore diameter

as 213 mm. According to Hamilton principle and finite

element method, the equation of dynamic model of a

3D full well drilling string system is calculated as

follows17

+ C U_ + KU = F

MU

12

Figure 16. S-N curve of 42CrMo.1922

that he proposed to estimate fatigue life. So far, the

critical plane method is the most accurate calculation

model of multiaxial fatigue. The equation of critical

plane method is

b

c

s9f

Dg max

+ ken = 1:65

2Nf + 1:75e9f 2Nf

13

2

E

where s9f is the fatigue strength coefficient, b is the fatigue strength exponent, e9f is the fatigue ductility coefficient, c is the fatigue ductility exponent, E is the elastic

model, Nf is the fatigue life, en = D(e1 e3 )=2 is the normal strain, and k is a constant.

is the damping matrix of the drill string system, K is the

is the genstiffness matrix of the drill string system, U

eralized acceleration matrix of the drill string system, U_

is the generalized velocity matrix of the drill string system, U is the generalized displacement matrix of the

drill string system, and F is the load matrix of the drill

string system.

Material parameters and fatigue calculation model. The driving shaft is made of 42CrMo alloy, which meets with

requirements of poor working conditions of PDM. FESAFEs material library contains Seeger18 approximation algorithm. Materials tensile limit (ultimate tensile

strength (UTS)) and the elastic modulus can be used to

generate approximate material fatigue data. Figure 16

shows S-N curve of 42CrMo.

Brown and Miller23 proposed a critical plane theory

to regard the range of maximum shear strain Dg max

and normal strain en as the fatigue damage parameters.

Brown replaced the strain parameter of Manson

load, all the fatigue failure of straight thread and taper

thread happened. Fatigue damages are both in the first

effectively engaging thread tooth of pin thread. This is

consistent with the engineering practice. The fatigue

analysis results are compared in Table 4.

The time span of alternating load is 3 s, so the minimum fatigue life of straight thread and taper thread are

225 and 162 h, respectively. The results show that the

driving shaft with straight thread has higher fatigue life,

and stress level is one of the indicators which affect the

fatigue life, also subject to influence by the loading

form, stress concentration, and so on.

analysis of load components

Structural optimization

From the foregoing analysis, it is known that the fatigue life of driving shaft with straight thread is higher

than that of driving shaft with taper thread. But the

existing straight thread structure still has the improvement space. Based on the existing structure and API

Zhu et al.

Table 4. Fatigue life simulation results of straight thread and taper thread of driving shaft.

Straight thread

Taper thread

Minimum fatigue

First thread tooth of pin thread

105.433

105.291

(a) original structure and (b) optimized structure.

Figure 18. Sinusoidal loads.

the connecting thread of the driving shaft (Figure 17).

In the original structure, the top of the driving shaft

is connected to the diverter cap. On account of that,

there is a tool withdrawal groove at the end of the box

thread of diverter cap, so the end face of driving shaft

has a certain distance from the internal end face of the

diverter cap. According to the design principle of

double-shouldered thread, the convex table, having the

same width with tool withdrawal groove, is machined

before preparing upper connecting thread of driving

shaft, and the convex table contacts with inside end

surface of diverter cap to form supporting shoulder so

that anti-torsion performance of upper connecting

thread of driving shaft is thus improved. In the meantime, so as to enhance anti-bending performance of

thread, key structure parameters of thread are optimized based on orthogonal optimization method.

Conclusions are thus drawn: thread form angle: 90

and pitch: 3 teeth/in; based on such conclusion, antibending strength of thread is thus greatly improved.

of the thread of driving shaft

The PDM is located in the upper part of the drill bit;

therefore, the axial load of the PDM is pressure. In case

of pure study on axial load, even under very rare

extremely high work condition (instantaneous drill

pressure more than 500 kN), axial load exerts very little

influence on fatigue. Therefore, pure study on axial

no big significance. Therefore, research shall have its

focus on the influence on fatigue life of driving shaft by

bending moment and torque.

life of the thread of driving shaft

During the drilling process, the PDM functions to

transmit torque. On account of the influence of the

make-up torque and the down hole working conditions, the torque of the172 mm PDM is not more than

20 kN m, and the torque has large effect on the fatigue

life of thread; therefore, the fatigue life of the single-/

double-shouldered driving shaft thread is studied when

the torque load is 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 kN m.

The definition of the life prediction dispersion

zone is

NS ND

Dispersion zone = Max

,

ND NS

14

where NS is the predicted fatigue life of singleshouldered driving shaft thread and ND is the predicted

fatigue life of double-shouldered driving shaft thread.

In comparing the sensitivity of the fatigue life of the

single-/double-shouldered driving shaft thread for each

load component, all the load spectra are expressed by

sinusoidal load. Figure 18 shows the sinusoidal load.

Figure 19 shows the calculation results of fatigue life.

10

20 kN m, the fatigue life of double-shouldered thread is

much higher than that of single-shouldered thread, and

all the spots are not located in double-dispersion zone.

In the structure design, the fatigue limit of the structure

is usually based on the load cycle times of 107; on this

basis, the torque fatigue limit of single-shouldered

thread is located in the range of 1012 kN m. If the torque load exceeds this range, the load cycle times will

not reach 107. However, the torque fatigue limit of

double-shouldered thread is located in the range of 14

16kN m, which has an increase of 14.3%37.5% compared to the single-shouldered thread. It is thus concluded that the anti-torque performance and fatigue

life acted by torque of double-shouldered thread are far

superior to those of single-shouldered thread.

thread, and all the spots are not located in doubledispersion zone. The radial load fatigue limit (bending

moment fatigue limit) of single-shouldered thread is

located in the range of 8090 kN. If the radial load

exceeds this range, the load cycle times will not reach

107. However, the fatigue limit of radial load (bending

momentum) of double-shouldered thread is 120

140 kN, which has an increase of 25%42.8% compared with that of single-shouldered thread. It is thus

concluded that the anti-torque performance and bending fatigue limit of double-shouldered thread after modification have a great improvement compared to those

of single-shouldered thread.

Conclusion

1.

fatigue life of the thread of driving shaft

At the angle build stage of drilling process, with the

constant change of build-up rate and the continuous

rotation of the drill bit, the driving shaft must be subjected to the bending moment M, and the size and

direction of M are constantly changing. To conduct a

quantitative calculation, the M is converted to a radial

load FM, and in addition, through formulas (10) and

(11), FM is decomposed into FMx and FMy, which are

perpendicular to each other.

The fatigue life of the single-/double-shouldered

driving shaft thread is studied when the FM are 80, 90,

110, 120, 140, and 150 kN. And the load spectra are

still expressed by sinusoidal load. Figure 20 shows the

calculation results of fatigue life.

Analogously, the radial load ranges from 80 to

150 kN, and the fatigue life of double-shouldered thread

is still much higher than that of single-shouldered

2.

herein to conduct the simulation of thread of

the driving shaft, and the fatigue life prediction

model is established based on the BM critical

plane rule. By comparing the calculation results

of the two models, the performance of the existing two kinds of thread structure is evaluated.

The calculation results are relatively in agreement with the actual data, and such an importance conclusion as straight thread is more

favorable for extending service life is thus

drawn. Under the same working conditions, the

fatigue life of the driving shaft with straight

thread is 28% higher than that of the driving

shaft with taper thread.

Based on the existing straight thread plan,

improvement measures are proposed herein.

After calculation based on the mathematic

model established herein, it is known that the

improvement plan may help increase anti-torque

fatigue life by 14.3%37.5% and bending

Zhu et al.

11

speaking, improvement plan will significantly

improve service life of thread as long as approximately 300 h, just commensurate with return

drill. Therefore, such move will help greatly

save drilling cost.

Declaration of conflicting interests

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with

respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this

article.

Funding

The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this

article: This work reported in this article was supported by

the Natural Science Fund for Outstanding Youth Science

Fund (Grant No. 51222406), New Century Excellent Talents

in University of China (NCET-12-1061), Youth Scientific

Research Innovation Team Project of Sichuan Province

(2014TD0025), International Cooperation Project of Sichuan

Science and Technology plan (2016HH0008).

References

1. Zhu X-H, Tong H and Zhao H-C. Mechanics characteristics evaluation of driving shaft in positive displacement

motors. Petrol Dril Tech 2007; 35: 5658.

2. Shahani AR and Sharifi SMH. Contact stress analysis

and calculation of stress concentration factors at the tool

joint of a drill pipe. Mater Des 2009; 30: 36153621.

3. Dao NH and Sellami H. Stress intensity factors and fatigue growth of a surface crack in a drill pipe during

rotary drilling operation. Eng Fract Mech 2012; 96:

626640.

4. Santus C. Fretting fatigue of aluminum alloy in contact

with steel in oil drill pipe connections, modeling to interpret test results. Int J Fatigue 2008; 30: 677688.

5. Lin Y-H, Shi T-H and Yao Z-Q. A model to compute

the mechanical property of drill pipe tool joint and its

application. J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ 2005; 39:

10581062.

6. Chen S-L. Drill pipe thread failure analysis and measures

to improve. Chongqing: Chongqing University, 2008.

7. Zhu X-H, Dong L-L and Tong H. Failure analysis and

solution studies on drill pipe thread gluing at the exit side

of horizontal directional drilling. Eng Fail Anal 2013; 33:

251264.

design and operating limits.

9. Li Y-T, Qi H-P and Li Q-S. Casting process and experimental research of 42CrMo ring blanks based on castrolling forming technology. J Mech Eng 2013; 49: 4954.

10. Su Y-N. Research and application of positive displacement

motor. Beijing, China: Petroleum Industry Press, 2001.

11. Xiao G-Y, Xu J and Zhu X-H. Analysis on vibration

characteristics of bit-drill string system. Sino-Global

Energ 2011; 16: 5357.

12. Di Q-F. Three-dimensional mechanical analysis of the

double-shouldered tool joint. Acta Petrol Sin 2012; 33:

871877.

13. Zhuang Z, You X-C and Liao J-H. Finite element analysis and application of ABAQUS. Beijing, China: Tsinghua

University Press, 2009.

14. Ren H. Stress analyses and structure improvement research

of API oil tool joint. Shanghai, China: East China University of Science and Technology, 2011.

15. Yang Y, Ke Y-L and Dong Y-H. Finite element simulation of high-speed cutting. Acta Aeronaut Astronaut Sin

2006; 27: 531535.

16. NOV Grant Prideco-Drilling Products Catalog 11 [DB/

OL], http://www.GrantPrideco.com

17. Zhu X-H, Liu Q-Y and Tong H. Research on dynamics

model of full hole drilling-string system with threedimensional trajectory. Acta Petrol Sin 2008; 29:

288291.

18. FE-SAFE user manual: fatigue theory reference manual,

vol. 2, section 3. Sheffield: Safe Technology Company,

2002.

19. Eifler D. Inhomogene Deformationserscheinungen bei

Schwingbeanspruchung eines unterschiedlich warmebehandelten Stahles des Typs 42CrMo 4: zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktor-Ingenieurs von der

Fakultat fur Maschinenbau der Universitat Karlsruhe

(TH) genehmigte Dissertation. Karlsruhe: Fakultat fur

Maschinenbau, 1981.

20. Chr B and Seeger T. Materials data for cyclic loading,

Parts AE. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers,

1987, pp.205225.

21. Chr B and Heuler P. Vergleich der Lebensdauervorhersage

nach dem Kerbgrundkonzept und dem Nennspannungskonzept. Darmstadt: Fraunhofer-Institut fur Betriebsfestigkeit, 1983.

22. Fattorini F and Ronchiatog B. Mechanical properties of

engineering steel produced via ingot and CC route for

automotive components. Steel Res 1989; 60: 1924.

23. Brown MW and Miller KJ. A theory for fatigue failure

under multiaxial stress-strain conditions. Proc Instn Mech

Engrs 1973; 187: 745755.

- AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF DUAL PHASE STEELSDiunggah olehAndré Hagen
- Design of Crane Steel beamsDiunggah olehshak543
- Crane Design GuideDiunggah olehxstyllex
- Steel PropertiesDiunggah olehyenimaar
- Assessment of Fatique Life According to FKM-Code Within Hyper WorksDiunggah olehcpxuexi
- Report No 9 - Hot spot/Notch Stress analysis - Using FEMAPDiunggah olehnima1977
- Heat TreatmentDiunggah olehAshish Bora
- NASA Process Specification for the Heat Treatment of Steel AlloysDiunggah olehisraelkk
- Cisc Crane Support SteelDiunggah olehDražan Miloloža
- Heat Treatment of MetalsDiunggah olehrajesh
- B 296 - 03 _QJI5NG__Diunggah olehmalika_00
- crosbyDiunggah olehJason Roberts
- CraneGuide2E3PWebRevDiunggah olehkichito
- Cisc - Crane Soportin Steel Structures 2doDiunggah olehElines Carolina Lárez Rojas
- Guide for the Design of Crane-Supporting Steel StructuresDiunggah olehGregor Kokot
- TurnbuckleDiunggah olehAbi Latiful Hakim
- science 3 notesDiunggah olehapi-294158678
- ASME 4Diunggah olehprasoon_eil
- 2008-61059-20081021-7,8.pdfDiunggah olehsergio_rolla
- 50CrMo4Diunggah olehDiogo Nascimento
- TFT Ring-Like Forging Properties Improvement Theme_Profile 2017Diunggah olehAlexandru Grigore
- Study of Heat Treatment Process in Hex Bolt Ijariie6031Diunggah olehSatosh Kapdi
- Falla de resorteDiunggah olehjhon ortiz
- TRANSPARENCIAS RESORTESDiunggah olehOliver Kraus
- Turnbuckle CrosbyDiunggah olehBudi Santony
- CompositeStructureDesignAndAnalysis.pdfDiunggah olehpfael
- 203192429-Apendice-5-Asme-VIII-2.pdfDiunggah olehBrenda
- CraneGuide.pdfDiunggah olehTran Trong Hieu
- importance of induction hardening case depth.pdfDiunggah olehKundan Kumar Mishra
- 2017_03 QuasiStatic Spot Weld Strength of advanced high-strength sheet steelsDiunggah olehAnonymous GhPzn1x

- A320-15aDiunggah olehManuel Muñoz
- ES.5.14.0010 - Rev a - Fab'n, Insp'n & Install'n of CS PipeworkDiunggah olehsorenarya
- AIRMATLS Prelim Hand OutsDiunggah olehFerr John Painagan
- catalogo Failure Analysis of.pdfDiunggah olehk4piii
- Duplex Stainless Steel FabricationDiunggah olehnktiah1207
- 2507-Spec-Sheet.pdfDiunggah olehjavoidea696526
- Pressure Vessel CalculatorDiunggah olehGodwin
- 16MnCr5 SpesifikasiDiunggah olehbagusalien
- 504-507Diunggah olehSinhroo
- 1.4404_enDiunggah olehyraju88
- Aerospace Fastener Applications Instructor Notes Part2 R2010Diunggah olehLuis Vidal
- Spandex recyclingDiunggah olehKasra Golban
- Terex TC 4 auger teeth; available at www.utilityparts.comDiunggah olehupc7591
- Sudura InoxDiunggah olehLica Emil
- Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking (DNV RP F112)Diunggah olehGuillaume Boyer
- Buried Steel PenstocksDiunggah olehSantiago Parillo Oha
- Heat TreatmentDiunggah olehAshish Bora
- 1.4057 AISI 431 DATA SHEET.pdfDiunggah olehGagat Gongat
- Complete Step by Step AK BuildingDiunggah olehAdam Hemsley
- ASTM A-193Diunggah olehJesus B
- Mil Std 1689 RevaDiunggah olehdunaco
- ASME SECTION II A SA-213 SA-213M.pdfDiunggah olehHyunjong Moon
- NDT of Precipitation Hardened SteelsDiunggah olehMahade Hasan Dipu
- Nickel Development Institute - Design Guidelines for the Selection and Use of Stainless SteelsDiunggah olehrickrobbins
- E703-98 EC Sorting of NonFerrous.pdfDiunggah olehTerfaia Nadjat
- SN200_2010-09_eDiunggah olehÜmit Uçak
- A-945Diunggah olehGustavo Suarez
- THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT PARAMETERS AND GRAIN REFINEMENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A357 ALLOYDiunggah olehdbpublications
- A 958 _ 96 ;QTK1OC1SRUQ_.pdfDiunggah olehMung Duong Xuan
- MechanicalDiunggah olehrustumu

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.