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# 1.

Draw the block diagram of the system with generator swing equation and excitation field
winding. Then discuss the effect of field winding without any perturbation (change in the field
flux) on the synchronous and damping torque.
2. For the same block diagram, what happens when the field winding flux is changed due to
oscillations in the system? Discuss the effect on Kd and Ks.

From the above figure, it can be seen that, even though the system damping is zero. The oscillations
due to the rotor angle deviation eventually die out. This is because at typical machine oscillating
frequencies, the fd results in a positive damping torque.
3. Compute the participation factors corresponding to the complex eigen value of A=[-0.4 0 0.01; 1 0 0; -1.4 9.8 -0.02]

From the eigen values we can see that the system with given A matrix has two complex modes
and one exponentially decaying mode. The complex mode has positive real part suggesting that
the mode increases with time. From the participation matrix, it can be seen that the participation
of 1st state in the 1st mode is 56.81 % and on the 2nd and 3rd mode it is 21.59 % respectively.
Similarly, the participation of the 2nd state in the first mode is 20.29% and 39.85% in the second
and third mode. Likewise, the participation of the 3rd state in the first mode is 22.89% and 38.55%
in the second and third mode respectively.

4. Given the following constants and A matrix variables, assemble the A matrix for the system
with generator swing equation, exciter/AVR and field winding.
a. K1 = 0.9224, K2 = 1.0739, K3 = 0.297, K4 = 2.226, K5 = 0.005, K6 = 0.3572, w0 = 377 rads/s,
0 = 65.52 degrees, KD = 0, H = 3.2, TR = 0.2, KA = 400, a32 = 0.236, a33 = 0.3511, a34 = 0.104.
We have,

11 =

= 0, 12 =

1
2

= -0.144125, 13 = 22 = -0.1678, 14 = 0;

21 = 0 = 377,22 = 0, 23 = 0, 24 = 0;
31 = 0, 32 = 0.236, 33 = 0.3511, 34 = 0.104;

41 = 0, 42 = 5 = 0.025, 43 =

## = 1.786, a44 = = -5;

Here, the first state variables is the speed deviation, second state variable is rotor angle deviation,
third state variable is change is field flux linkage and the fourth state variable is terminal voltage.

## b. Assume with KA, a42 = -KA*K5/TR, a43 = -KA*K6/TR, a44 = -1/TR

So, new a42 = -10, a43 = -714.4, a44 = -5.
New A matrix is given by,

5. From part 4.a, find the eigen values of the system. Discuss the damping situation of
electromechanical modes.

The eigen values of the given A matrix shows positive real part for the electromechanical
modes associated with rotor speed deviation and the rotor angle deviation. So, for the given
A matrix the electromechanical modes are not stable.
ASSIGNMENT 5
6. Given the following constants and A matrix variables, assemble the A matrix for the system
with generator swing equation, exciter/AVR and field winding.
a. K1 = 0.9224, K2 = 1.0739, K3 = 0.297, K4 = 2.226, K5 = 0.005, K6 = 0.3572, w0 = 377 rads/s,
0 = 65.52 degrees, KD = 0, H = 3.2, TR = 0.2, KA = 400, a32 = 0.236, a33 = 0.3511, a34 = 0.104.
Assume with KA, a42 = -KA*K5/TR, a43 = -KA*K6/TR, a44 = -1/TR.
So, new a42 = -10, a43 = -714.4, a44 = -5. The A matrix is given by,

## The eigen values of the given system is calculated as:

If we look at the eigenvalues of this A matrix, the eigen values associated with the first two
state vectors which are rotor speed deviation and the rotor angle deviation respectively, have
negative real part in the eigenvalues. This shows that the given system has stable
electromechanical modes and the oscillations damps with respect to time.