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Energy Systems:We need is a thermod.quality .

it means capacty of
system to produce work or heat.t can exist in various forms(chem,mecha,light ..)
1)fossil fuels:coal,crudeoil,n.gas
2)renewable energy:hydro,biomass,wind
Primary eng . sources:which correspond too those that exist prior to human
reduced modification.t includes coal,crude oil,n.gas or solar,radation,biomass...
Secondary eng sources:are obtained from the transf. Of primary sources.Such a
gasoline from crude oil or charcoal from wood.
Energy units:Joule is the standart eng unit.its a very small quantity of energy
compared to the amounts we use in Daily lifeo we will use another one Kilowatt.
ts thee multiplier of heat and calorie.
Power is defined as:the amount of enery delivered per unit time(J/s)
1st law of thermod:energy cant be created or destroyed.t can only change
forms.ts related to the change of internal energy to the work done on the
system and heat transf. nto system.U=W+Q
Entropy and 2nd law of thermod:t adresses the concept of energy.Entropy is a
quality related to disorder.The bigger disorder the bigger entropy.2nd law tells us
that in an isolated system when entropy increases,systemcan increase or remain
the same.
OL AND NATURAL GAS: Petroleum or crude oiiland n.gasare organic h.carbons
and derived from ocean biomass that grew due to lack of solar energy.
GENESS OF OL AND N.GAS: Oil and gas are buried in sediments of sad and
mud.As time passed progressive layers of material and sediments were deposited
becuz of the P made by the upper layers.The mix of organic matter and
sediments were converted into sedimentary rock.Wthout O2 the organic majr
phenomena governs all and gas formation corresponds to an dawnwardmotion of
sediments.New sediment layeraccumulate on the layer.the organic matter
containden in the sedimentcan be t.formed into Karogen.With increasing T and P
it is t.formed into oil and gas.
N.gas can be t.formed by pipelines or in liq form(LNG)Both methods are
expensive and require a long time.
TAR SANDS: oil sands are eavyand a mix of sand or clay,water and heavy crude
oil.Over time,the llighter fraction of oil escalated ,the remaining fraction has been
partly degraded by bacteria leaving heavyh.carbon product.
OL SHAKE: A fine grained sedimentary rock containing large amount of
karogen.Oil shake can be considered as an immature oil.
COAL BED METHANE:t is methane found in coal seams.t is formed by either
biological or thermal processesoccuring at a large depth where the T is high.
COAL :Coal reserves are large compared to oil and N.gas and an important
energy source for future.

GENESS OF COAL:Coal is astraified sedimentary rock compressed of more than

%50 carbon and has both organic and inorganic content.
For coal to be formed,peat has to be buried.Peat is formed from the
decomposition ofdead organic material and decomposed in an O2 poor
ts called Hermicoal process. The organic matter buried in the sediments
undergoes a series of complex transf. Assisted by organisms.2nd step is a
physchochemical decomposion.A coalification processoccuring becuz of the burial
environment produces a thermal cracking.Later this cracking produced coal.
RANK OF COAL:its obtained by measuring the moisture content.Coal is a
complexhetoregenous material composed of many organic materials.they can be
classified into 3 group:
1)vitrinite group:originates from coalification of woody plant material such as
roots,brenches..t contains cellulose and lignin
2)liptnite group:is derived more decay resssistant parts of contains
spores,waxy parts,cuticles..
3)inertinite group:cn-ontain material which has been degraded prior to
coalification.ts found in charcoal.

Peat is a young organic material compared to coal.ts used in agriculture and to

improve the quality of soil. ts used in 3 forms ;
1)sad peat : for household fuels
2)millet peat: used for power stations or to prepare briquettes
3)briquettes :smallblocks of compressed peat for household fuel
Coal is extremely used as a fuel for production of electricity for cooking and
heating.ts a eedstock for carbochemistry to produce dyes and fertilizers.
Proven reserve :that can be easily recovered in the future
Estimated reserve:reasonably believed to be recovered.
COAL COMBUSTON FOR POWER GENERATON:pulverized coal combustion tech. s
used to produce electricity.itsavaible for a large range of coal can be used as a
fuel.Coal powder is burned.Heat generated in the burner is transf. Through a heat
exchanger to produce superheated steam. With The high T and P, the steam is
expended in a steam trbine to power generator.
Some types of generation methonds are:
Advanced pulverized coal combustion

fluidized bed combustion

pressurized bed combustion
COMBNED HEAT AND POWER GENERATON:in CHPG ,electricity and heat are
produced at the same time.its used to provide heat in coldregions where winter
is long.duce superheated steam for asteam tu
electricity with a high efficiency and lower emmision of pollutantsthan
convectional coal-fire power plants. But this plant has high capital costs.syn gas
is produced in the gasification unit.its a mix of H2 and CO .the gases at the
trbine are heat exchanged with water or steam to produce superheated steam
for a steam trbine.
COAL LQUFCATON TECH:while coal reserves are greater than those of oil , lig
fuels are much more conveinent to use than coal.There are two common ways:
1)Direct liq. Of coal:this process is used for bituminous and subbituminous
coals.coal is reduced to a power which is mixed with vacuum gas oil.Before
undergoing a partial hydrotreatment,vacuum .diesel is sent back to the reactor is
synthesized with naphta undergoes a hydrotreatment.The products are LPG
,naphta and oil.
2)ndirect liq of coal:in this process,1st step is to convert coal to syn gasusing
pure O2.
The impurities are reoved from the syn gas.The fischer topsh
reaction is performed.Diesel fuel btained this way is very pre.This Tech. Can be
applied for lignite,bituminous,subbituminous or biomass fuel.The products are
naphta,kerosene,diesel and fuel oil.
ENERGY FROM WATER:moving water contains energy which can be used .its been
employed for countriesto do mechanical work.Hydropower is a renewable energy
source which is governed by the solar energy reaching the World.The water
evaporater from sea,river .they form clouds.water in the cloud condenses into
rain.Precipication corresponds to a small amount of energy.Natural or artificial
reservoir can be used to store water .that can be used to produce electricity.
Basic idea is to produce elements that are displaced due to the motion of
ater.Energy may be extracted from the waves becuz of the mechanical forces
applied to the elements are different.
TDAL ENERGY:water mills are used.The basic techniques are to blockestuvaries
with a barrier forcing water to flow throuh turbines to generate electricity.An
alternate tech. s to use a couple of dam is open and seawater fills the basin.The
dam is closed when the tide goes down and the water can be released to flow
through a trbine.
BOMASS: is a biological materialderived from living organisms.A renewable
source of energy .Used to produce electricity or power.This often used to mean
plant based material but biomass can be both animal and vegetable derived.
Some of the bomass sources are;virgin wood,energy crops,agricultural
residues,food waste and industrial waste.
The difference between fossil fuels and biomass is the time scale.Becuz they form
hundreds of millions of years. Biomass is not just a renewable energy source also
valuable as a feedstock for building materials such as paper and plastic and
greenhouse effect is much smaller than ossil fuels.(greennhouse effect is the
process by which radiation from a planets atmosphere warms the planets

surface) Biomass producing can be directly(cmbustion) or indirectly( after

converting into biofuel) produced from photosynthesis.
The basic chem. Trans can be written as Sunlight+CO2+H2O=C6H1206+O2
Different techs can be used to produce electricity from biomass like direct
combustion,performing gasification,pyrolysisand aneorobic digestion.The biomass
that is used can be directly burned in a thermal plant or fuels can be produced in
3 physical states solid,liq,gas . The fuel also transport and pretreatment are
important part of the cost of the energy production.

THE TRANSF. METHODS OF BOMASS: Biomass can be converted into energy with
thermo,biological transf. Techniques
1)Thermochem conversion:bomass can be used in direct cbuston to produce heat
trans into solid fuel, by pyrolysis into liq fuel or converted into gas.
2)biologic conversion:can be done either fermentation ,hydrolysis or by the
anaerobic digection which leads to biogas.
With all of these methods the energy density is still lower then fossil fuels.
SOLAR ENERGY:Solar energy can be taken as to get heat or produce electricity
needen in the wrld. And its really hard to store this electricity and transport it.its
only avaible during thee daylight .some atmospheric conditions may reduce solar
The simplest form of harnessing solar enery is thermal energy.Usage for
health,shower,eating,buildings .solar energy is cheap and simple .
solar energy during day and release it during cooler periods.
Chimneys :During the day the solar energy heats the chimney and its used to
ventilate and cool the building
A solar roof pond consists a water tank and its a massive syste just like
chimneys.Sun warms the water inside the tank during the say.ts used during
night.House is also heated by
Radiation during the day,tank is open ,heat is stored ,during night tank is
uncovered and the heat is radiated .its used for cooking ,electricity production..
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY:the energy contained inside the eath ,geothermal eng. s
has been used by mankind forseveral years.the first application was heating
water for baths of homes , for cooking and
GEOTHERMAL PLACES: high geothermal fields are found in the region of high
geological activity.They are located at the borders of tectonic plates ,in regions of
volcanic activity or places wherethe crust of the earth is thinner.
Some geothermal resources consist of dissolved methane.They are found under
high P and high T .3 forms of energy can be derived from such a field.Heat from
hot liq,Hydraulic work from the high P and energy containded in the dissolved
methane gas.
GEOTHERMAL TECHS:the simplest way is directly use the heat.The Geothermal
fluid is pumped through a heat exchanger to heat air or it may be circulated in a
heat network to heat buildings.

The simplest way to produce electricity from hydrothermo sources is to use drysteam or flash steam systems.
n the dry-steam system:the steam is extracted from the well and its directed
through a steam turbne .
n Flash steam systems:are used when the local resources is mainly a liq at high
T .The principle is reducing the P of the liq and directing the resultant steam
through the trbine.
Binary cycle power plants: this system produces electricity from the source in a
heat exchanger,hear from the water.The secondary fluid is flashed to vapor and it
drives to the trbine .the rejection of the primary fluid prevents pollution of the
WND ENERGY:The difference between different locations on the surface on the
earth creattes differentials which cause air flows we know as wind.These T
difference results from solar heating on the earth, which varies from region to
region .
The first users of windeng were egyptians.they used vertical axiss macinesarabs
made changes in tech. And made horizontal axiss machines.During World war
such turbines used to produce electricity.
HYDROGEN ENERGY:there are many elements consisting H .Electricity can be
used to produce H from Water .compared to electricity, H has the advantage of
being stored more easily.t can be carried n containers or pipes to transport.
Properties of Hydrogen:is the smallest and lightest consists 1 proton
and 1 electron .its the most found element on the universe.found in
water,h.carbons,biomass the activation eng of H is smaller than n.gas .A
sparkle causes explosion of H .
1)vaporeforming:this technique consists of using water to produce H from
h.carbons .its the most used process n industry.mainly with light h.carbons or
The overall reaction:CH4+2H2O=CO2+4H2
By vaporeforrming: C+H2O=CO+H2O
2Partial oxidation:residues of h.carbons can be converted in the presence of O2
into H2 and CO.this process can be applied to n.gas.
3)coal a process similar to the partial oxidation.the 1st stage ,that
coal is gasified in the presence of water and O2 in order to produce syn gas.This
is converted to H2 and CO2.
There are 3 man techs: fixed bed tech,fluidized bed tech,forced film tech .
4) ELECTROLYSS OF WATER:An electrolysis cell is composed of two electrodes an
anode o4 potential and katode potential.they are connecttted to a current uses the electric charges are transf. By ions.
This process needs electricity so its used when cheap electricty is avaible.
5)from biomass:H is produced by biomas either by thermochem or biochem
processes .the cost is much higher compared to using fossil fuels or n.gas .
There are 3 ways of production with enzymes of H :
1)photosynthetic process 2)anaerobic process 3 ) photofermentation
SRORAGE OF H2:H is a very reacttive element.There is 3 main types of storage
1)gas storage: H can be stored on board vehicles or in stationary tankstank must
be light,reliable and inexpensive.

2)liq storage:liq H occupies less volme than gas.liq H is less dangerous and
3)solid storage(metal hydrates):its difficult to solidify H2 becuz of large energies
required and very low T is needed.
4)carbon nanotubes:H2 can be stored in them by chemiabsorbtion or
physisorbtion.single or multiwalled nanotubes are used.H2 is absorbed in the
spaces between the walls.
1)alkaline fuel cell: simple and cheap.the air must be free from CO2 becuz its
2)proton electrolyte membrane cell: the membran must conduct protons but not
electrons.the gases musnt past.
3)phosphoric acid fuel cell:allows large outputs bur has a dissadvantage of using
corrosive liqs.low price,cell is not sensitive. Working princple is lie PEMC
4)molten carbonate fuel cell:electrolyte is a mix of molten ,high output can be
5)solid oxide fuel cell:uses a ceramic made of solid oxide.the fuels are H,n.gas
and h.carbons
6)direct methanol fuel cell:it can be used in portable equipment, such as laptop.