00 mendukung00 menolak

4 tayangan8 halamanjournal

Dec 09, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

journal

© All Rights Reserved

4 tayangan

00 mendukung00 menolak

journal

© All Rights Reserved

Anda di halaman 1dari 8

SAND

Hasbullah Nawir 1

Fumio Tatsuoka 2

and Reiko Kuwano 3

ABSTRACT

Viscous aspects of the stress-strain behaviour of sand under general stress conditions were evaluated by

performing special drained triaxial compression tests on relatively dense Toyoura sand. The yield

characteristics of sand were identified by applying unload/reload cycles under otherwise monotonic loading

at a constant strain rate. It is shown that the yield stress observed is significantly affected by viscous effects

associated with changes in the strain rate or creep deformation or both not only along a fixed stress path with

a single stress variable, but also in a two-dimensional stress space of triaxial compression. It is argued that it

is necessary to take into account viscous effects in the constitutive modeling for sand.

Keywords: Viscous effect, yield point, yield loc i.

INTRODUCTION

In the framework of the classical elasto-plastic approach, several different shapes of yield locus

on the stress plane for large-scale yielding of sand have been proposed based on experimental

observations by different researchers. Tatsuoka and Ishihara (1974), among others, performed a

series of special triaxial compression tests to evaluate the shear yielding characteristics of Fuji

River sand. In their tests, to obtain the shear yield loci, a sequence of unloading and reloading were

applied at respectively different confining pressures and this procedure was repeated during

otherwise monotonic loading. On the other hand, effects of loading rate and its change on the

stress-strain behaviour as well as creep deformation and stress relaxation could be significant,

particularly when approaching the failure state, even with air-dried sand and saturated sand under

fully drained conditions (e.g., Tatsuoka et al. 2000, 2001). A constitutive model has been proposed

to simulate such viscous effects (Di Benedetto et al. 2002; Tatsuoka et al. 2002). It seems, however,

that any study on the viscous effects on the shear yield characteristics of sand by a systematic

experimental scheme has not been performed. This issue was studied in the present study.

Dept. of Civil Eng., Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia, formerly

Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo, Japan. E-mail: hasbi@geot.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

2 Dept. of Civil Eng., University of Tokyo, Japan. E-mail: tatsuoka@geot.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

3 Publics Works Research Institute, Independent Administrative Institution, Japan E-mail: kuwano@pwri.go.jp

TEST PROCEDURES

Medium dense rectangular-prismatic specimens (18.0 cm

in height and 11.0 cm 11.0 cm in cross-section: Fig.1) of

Toyoura sand with void ratios of 0.685 - 0.700 were prepared

by the air-pluviation method using four sieves with an

opening of 1.0 mm while adjusting the flow rate of air-dried

sand particles. A pair of 12 cm-long vertical LDTs (local

deformation transducers) and four pairs of 8 cm-long lateral

LDTs were used to locally measure axial and lateral strains.

To avoid an interaction with the lateral LDTs, the vertical

LDTs were set on 7 mm-wide vertical belts that were made

by trimming off the corners of the specimen. Each pair of

lateral LDTs was set at one and two thirds of the specimen

Fig. 1 Test specimen

height on the four lateral surfaces of the specimen. A series of

drained tests were performed in an automated way by using a

precise gear system driven by a servo-motor (Tatsuoka et al. 1994; Santucci de Magistris et al.

1999) together with an electrical pneumatic transducer for the cell pressure control. After the

specimen was saturated, it was isotropically consolidated to v ' (effective vertical stress)=

h ' (effective horizontal stress)= 30 kPa and then subjected to loading along respectively specified

stress paths under triaxial compression stress conditions. A wide variety of stress path and creep

loading were applied either keeping constant or changing h ' during otherwise monotonic

loading at a constant strain rate. Viscous effects on the shear yielding characteristics of Toyoura

sand were evaluated by applying unload/reload cycles first in the case of single independent stress

variable and then on the triaxial compression stress plane.

TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Shear yielding with a single stress variable

Figs. 2a, 3b and 4a show the measured stress paths from the first three tests, in which

unload/reload cycles were applied at different h' values. As each sequence of unloading and

reloading was applied at a constant h' , both p ' = ( v '+ 2 h ')/3 and q = v ' h ' changed

during unloading and reloading. Despite the above, the yielding observed is due primarily to shear

yielding, as shown below. Compression (volumetric) yielding is not discussed in this paper. In

addition, although the stress amplitude in each unload/reload cycle exceeded the stress range for

elastic deformation, it was not so large to induce noticeable irreversible shear strains that would

largely alter the microstructure produced by respective previous stress history.

In the first test (Fig. 2), a sequences of primary loading, unloading and reloading were applied at

a constant h' along each of stress paths 2-5, 7-10, 12-15, 17-20 and 22-25, while keeping the

absolute value of axial strain rate constant, equal to &0 = 0.080 %/min (the basic axial strain rate).

The specimen was not aged at the maximum deviator stress qm immediately before unloading. Fig.

2b shows the q - ir relations from this test, where ir is the irreversible shear strain equal to the

total shear strain minus the elastic shear strain evaluated by the hypo-elastic model defining the

elastic deformation for strains less than about 0.001 % (Hoque and Tatsuoka 1998). It may be seen

from Fig. 2b that along the respective reloading stress-strain curve, a clear yield point can be

defined at the same shear stress level as the one from which unloading was started, so q y (the yield

2

shear stress) qm . In this and the other two tests, to evaluate shear yield loc i on the q-p plane,

unload/reload cycles were applied changing the p value after unloading while before reloading in

each cycle . This issue is discussed in the next section.

In the second test (Fig. 3), unload/reload cycles were applied along stress paths 5-8, 9-13, 15-18

and 20-23. Each unload/reload cycle was applied also at a constant h' while reloading was made

at an axial strain rate that was different by a factor 12.5 or 1/10 from the one before unloading. The

specimen was not aged at the maximum stress state before unloading. The yield points denoted

along the reloading stress-strain relations in Fig. 3b, which were obtained as the points of

maximum curvature along each stress -strain curve in the full-log plot. It may be seen by comparing

Figs. 2b and 3b that as the strain rate during reloading becomes higher than the one before

unloading, the yield stress level q y along the respective fixed stress path becomes larger when

compared the value under otherwise the same conditions, and vice versa. The effects of such a

strain rate change as above on the yield stress increases with the increase in the difference between

the strain rates before unloading and during reloading.

In the third test (Fig. 4), along the stress paths 8-10 and 18-20, a creep test was performed for

five hours at the maximum stress points before unloading, while reloading was made at the same

strain rate and confining pressure as those before unloading. It may be seen that by creep loading at

the maximum stress state immediately before unloading, the yield stress q y becomes larger when

compared the value under otherwise the same conditions.

The results shown above indicate that and the yield deviator stress q y is not unique when the

stress path during the previous loading history is the same, unlike what the classical elasto-plastic

theory predicts, but their relative magnitude is affected by viscous effects during the strain history

until and at the yielding point. It is necessary therefore to account for the viscous effects when

accurately predicting the yielding characteristics of sand.

It may also be seen from Figs. 3b and 4b that after the shear yield point has been passed during

reloading, the stress value somehow overshoots the original primary stress-strain relation that

would have been obtained if an unload/reload scheme had not been applied. This fact shows that

the viscous effects decay with the increase in the (irreversible) strain (Di Benedetto et al. 2002:

Tatsuoka et al. 2002).

1400

1400

1000

Initial stress-state:

'v = 3 0 k P a

'h = 3 0 k P a

800

18

13

20

1200

24

15

10 14

8

16 17

19

21

22

600

Loading sequence

400

0

0

9

11 12

35

4

200

a)

23

1200

25

Test 1:

e0 = 0.696

6

1

200

1000

800

400

600

13

10

12 11

ir

7 6

4

21

22 21

19

1716

800

15

14

400

b)

24

18

600

Absolute value of v =

.

( v) 0 = 0 . 0 8 0 % / m i n u t e

25

20

'v = 3 0 k P a

'h = 3 0 k P a

200

23

Test 1:

e0 = 0.696

I r r e v e r s i b l e s h e a r s t r a i n , ir ( % )

2000

Test 2

e0 = 0 . 6 8 6

1400

2 123

1200

27

16

1000

18

26

28

22

24

25

1 11 3 1 7

20

19

12

6 8 14 15

800

600

7

9

10

400

3

4

200

1

Test 2

e0 = 0.686

30

400

600

800

1000

23

21

2 8 27

22

25 24

18

1000

16

1 1 13

6

17

20 19

1 5 14

8

12

500

7 10 9

3

30

5 4

.

0 = 0.080 %/minute

200

26

1500

: . v = 0

1 6 0 0 7 - 8 , 1 0 - 1 1 , 1 7 - 1 8 a n d 2 0 - 2 1 : v = 12.5 0

29

29

a)

2000

5 - 6 , 1 2 - 1 3 , 1 5 - 1 6 a n d 2 2 - 2 3 : v = ( 1 / 1 0 ). 0

12

b)

1200

Irr.shear strain,

ir

(%)

Fig. 3 a) Stress path; and b) relationships between q and for loading at different strain rates.

ir

1600

28

Test 3

e0 = 0.700

1000

Creep 1

(5 hours)

800

18 2 0

19

1315

21

1 0 14

8

16 17

24

26

27

22

9

11 12

400

Creep 2

(5 hours)

1000

Creep 1

(5 hours)

800

600

30

25

23

1200

600

15

13

14

29

24

2 0 27 2 6

18

19

22 21

16

17

10

8

9

12 11

400

3 5

6

1

0

0

200

.

0 = 0.080 %/minute

200

200

a)

23 25

Creep 2

(5 hours)

1200

28

Test 3

e0 = 0.700

1400

29

Deviatoric stress, q

1400

1600

30

400

600

800

4 76

12

b)

1000

5

ir

= v

6

ir

ir

- h ( % )

Fig. 4 a) Stress path; and b) relationships between q and for loading with creep.

ir

In addition to those described in Figs. 2, 3 and 4, four other tests were performed to define the

shear yield loci on the q - p plane of triaxial compression. In these and other similar tests, after

primary loading up to a certain maximum stress point (m), the shear stress was unloaded at the

same constant 'h , as stress path 2-3-4 in Fig. 5a. Then, the p value was increased at a decreased

constant shear stress q, as stress path 4-5. Finally, reloading was started at a larger 'h , as stress

path 5-6. Fig. 5b shows the result from a test in which the axial strain rate during, primary loading,

unloading and reloading was the same. A pair of corresponding maximum stress point and shear

yielding point forms a segment of shear yield locus. It may be seen that the shear yield locus

expands as the shear yield level increases. Tatsuoka (1980) showed that, for Fuji River sand, each

shear yield locus corresponds to a respective irreversible shear strain.

Three other tests were performed also by following stress paths similar to those shown in Fig.

5a to evaluate the viscous effects on the shear yield loci on the q - p plane. Fig. 6 shows results

from a test in which the strain rate during reloading was either larger or smaller than the one before

unloading at a lower 'h , while the specimen was not aged at the maximum stress state

4

immediately before unloading. Fig. 7 shows results from another test in which the strain rate

during reloading was the same as the one before unloading (at a lower 'h ), but the specimen was

aged for five hours at the maximum stress state immediately before unloading. Fig. 8 shows results

from the last test performed in the present series of test, in which combined effects of both factors

(strain rate change and creep deformation) on the shear yield loci on the q - p plane described

above were evaluated using a single specimen. That is:

a) the specimen was aged for five hours at the maximum stress state immediately before

unloading (point 3) while reloading was started from point 5 (at a higher 'h ) at a strain rate

higher by a factor of 10 than the one during primary loading (up to point 3);

b) reloading was started from point 8 at a strain rate lower by a factor of 1/100 than the one during

primary loading (up to point 6) without ageing at point 6;

c) reloading was started from point 11 at a strain rate higher by a factor of 10 than the one during

primary loading (up to point 9) with ageing at point 9 for five hours; and

d) the same loading history as above was applied from point 15.

2000

2000

1800

21

21

Test 4

e0 = 0.697

18

1600

1600

0 = 0 . 0 8 0 % / m i n u t e

1400

15

19

1200

12

1000

20

17

16

9

800

10

6

600

400

14

13

11

15

1200

12

Yield point

17 16

800

14 13

1011

600

8 7

3

200

5

22

20 19

1000

400

1 2

18

1400

200

a)

Test 4

e0 = 0.697

1800

200

400

600

b)

800

1000

5 4

22

1 2

1200

ir

Fig. 5 a) Stress path; and b) relationship between q and for normal loading.

ir

1800

1800

1600

0 = 0.080 %/minute

15

12

1000

1 2 . 5 ( v ) 0

16

9

14

13

1 0 11

6

.

1 2 . 5 ( v ) 0

.

( v ) 0

7 8

600

400

.

( v )0

200

17

.

( v) 0

1000

Yield point

13

.

( v) 0

18

.

1 2 . 5 ( v )0

800

15 1 4

6

12 1 1

600

400

8 7

.

( v ) 0

200

1 2 . 5 ( v ) 0

400

600

800

1,2

ir

Test 5

e0 = 0.689

54

1000

17

b)

200

.

1 2 . 5 ( v )0

1 2

16

1200

3

4

.

1 2 . 5 ( v ) 0

( v )0

1200

800

1400

19

1600

1400

a)

18

Test 5

e0 = 0.689

ir

10

1800

1800

18

Creep 3

(5 hours)

1600

Creep 2

12

(5 hours)

1000

16

15

1200

17

800

13

10 11

Creep 1

(5 hours)

600

1 7 16

Yield point

800

9

14 13

6

Creep 1

(5 hours)

600

11 10

8 7

400

Test 6

e0 = 0.692

3

5 4

200

0 = 0.080 %/minute

200

400

600

800

1000

0 = 0 . 0 8 0 % / m i n u t e

1,2

b)

ir

Shear strain, ( % )

10

11

1400

1400

1000

15

Creep 2

(5 hours)

12

9

800

13

10 11

600

Creep 1

(5 hours)

400

3

4

200

1

0

0

100

200

Stress path

8-9

2-3, 11-12

5-6, 14-15

300

400

14

500

:

:

:

700

800

12

9

800

Yield point

14 13

6

1 1 10

600

8 7

Creep 1

400

200

5 4

b)

900

Creep 2

1000

. = ( 1 / 1 0 ) .

0

.v .

v= 0

. = 1 0 .

v

0

600

15

Test 7

e0 = 0.691

.

0 = 0.080 %/minute

1200

Test 7

e0 = 0.691

.

0 = 0.080 %/minute

1200

12

1000

15

Creep 2

(5 hours)

1200

Test 6

e0 = 0.692

200

14

400

a)

18

1400

1400

a)

Creep 3

(5 hours)

1600

1-2

ir

10

Fig. 8 a) Stress path; and b) relationship between q and for loading with different strain rates and

creep.

ir

2000

1.04

1800

Measured segments of

shear yield locus

1400

0.96

1600

1200

1000

800

600

400

(with viscous effects)

200

0

With creep

1.00

200

400

600

800

1000 1200

0.92

With axial strain rate

.

.

increase, from 0 to 12.5 0

0.88

0.84

Normal loading

(constant strain rate)

0.80

0.76

decrease,

.

.

from 12.5 0 to 0

0.72

0.68

1400

200

400

600

800

It may be seen from Figs. 6b, 7b and 8b that similar ly to the trend seen in Fig. 5b, the q value

increases with the increase in the p value along each segment of shear yield locus. It may also be

seen that the shear yield stress is affected by the strain history. That is, when the strain rate during

reloading is higher and lower than the value before unloading , the yield shear stress becomes

respectively higher and lower than the value under otherwise the same condition. In addition, the

yield shear stress becomes higher also by ageing at the maximum stress state. Finally, the effects of

these factor above are additive to each other.

To represent the observed shear yield loci, the following equation was assumed:

Fst ( ij , s , &s , hs ) =

q / pa

X st (s , &s , hs ) = 0

( p '/ pa ) s

(1)

where pa is the reference pressure (98 kPa in the present case); X st ( s ,&s , hs ) is the shear

hardening function, which is a function of the shear hardening parameter s with positive values

of X st / s ; & s = s / t ; hs is the parameter representing the effects of strain history on the

viscous effects on the shear hardening; and s is the power, which is constant for each shear yield

locus, which may or may not be lower than unity depending on the viscous effects on the concerned

yield locus. In the simplest approximation, s could be the irreversible shear strain ir = vir hir .

In a more general framework, the stress path-independent modifie d irreversible shear energy could

be employed as s (Peng et al. 2002). Fig. 9 summarizes the segments of shear yield locus defined

from the tests described in this paper and other similar tests. Then, the value of s for each

segment was obtained as:

(2)

where the subscripts m and y denote the maximum stress point and the shear yield point. The s

values are plotted against the p value at the respective shear yield point (Fig. 10). It may be seen

that the s value for the shear yield locus segments for which the strain rate is the same before

unloading and during reloading is rather independent of p (and q/p), while it is equal to around

0.84 . On the other hand, the value of s is not unique for the other tests due to viscous effects: i.e.,

it becomes larger and smaller than 0.85as the strain rate during reloading becomes respectively

larger and smaller than the value before unloading, and it increases by creep immediately before

unloading. In Fig. 9, a set of shear yield loci according to Eq. 1 with s = 0.84 are depicted, which

are in accordance with the measured ones allowing for some deviations due to different viscous

effects.

The yield loci free from viscous effects could be represented in a similar form with Eq. 1 as:

Fs f ( ij , s ) =

q / pa

X sf ( s ) = 0

( p '/ pa ) s

7

(3)

where X sf ( s ) is the inviscid shear hardening function, which is a function of only s for the

monotonic loading case. In this way, a constitutive model for sand that has been proposed to

simulate the viscous effects for the case of single stress variable (Di Benedetto et al. 2002;

Tatsuoka et al. 2002) could be extended to simulate the viscous effects under more general stress

conditions as observed in the present study.

CONCLUSIONS

From the experimental results presented above, it can be concluded that the shear yielding

characteristic s of sand could be considerably affected by viscous effects. It is necessary therefore

to take into account the viscous effects in modeling the yielding characteristics of sand.

REFERENCES

Di Benedetto,H., Tatsuoka,F. and Ishihara,M. (2002), Time-dependent deformation

characteristics of sand and their constitutive modeling, Soils and Foundations, 42(2), 1-22.

Hoque,E. and Tatsuoka,F. (1998), Anisotropy in the elastic deformation of materials , Soils and

Foundations, 38(1), 163-179.

Peng,F.-L., Tatsuoka,F. and Siddiquee,M.S.A. (2002), An energy-based modeling of sand and its

FEM application, Proc. 15th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference (this conference).

Santucci de Magistris,F., Koseki,J., Amaya,M., Hamaya,S., Sato,T. and Tatsuoka,F. (1999), A

triaxial testing system to evaluate stress-strain behaviour of soils for wide range of strain and

strain rate, Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 22(1), 44-60.

Stroud,M.A. (1971), The behaviour of sand at low stress levels in the simple shear apparatus,

Ph.D Dissertation, University of Cambridge.

Tatsuoka,F. and Ishihara,K. (1974), Yielding of sand in triaxial compression, Soils and

Foundations, 14(2), 51-65.

Tatsuoka,F. (1980), Stress-strain behaviour of an idealized anisotropic granular material, Soils

and Foundations, 20(3), 75-90.

Tatsuoka, F., and Molenkamp, F. (1983), Discussion on yield loci for sands, Mechanics of

Granular Materials: New Models and Constitutive Relations, Elsevier Science Publisher B.V.,

75-87.

Tatsuoka,F., Santucci de Magistris,F., Hayano,K., Momoya,Y. and Koseki,J. (2000), Some new

aspects of time effects on the stress-strain behaviour of stiff geomaterials, Keynote Lecture,

The Geotechnics of Hard Soils Soft Rocks, Proc. of Second Int. Conf. on Hard Soils and Soft

Rocks, Napoli, 1998 (Evamgelista and Picarelli eds.), Balkema, 2, 1285-1371.

Tatsuoka,F., Uchimura,T., Hayano,K., Di Benedetto,H., Koseki,J. and Siddiquee,M.S.A. (2001),

Time-dependent deformation characteristics of stiff geomaterials in engineering practice, the

Theme Lecture, Proc. of the Second International Conference on Pre-failure Deformation

Characteristics of Geomaterials, Torino, 1999, Balkema (Jamiolkowski et al., eds.), 2,

1161-1262.

Tatsuoka,F., Ishihara,M., Di Benedetto,H. and Kuwano,R. (2002), Time-dependent deformation

characteristics of geomaterials and their simulation, Soils and Foundations, 42(2), 103-129.

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.