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BREEDING MANAGEMENT OF BALI CATTLE AT BPTUHPT DENPASAR, PANGYANGAN, SUB-DISTRICT

PEKUTATAN JEMBRANA BALI

INTERNSHIP REPORT

By :
Ardan Legenda De A.
Ari Prayudha
Alvina DyahArumsari
Mirsa Ita Dewi Adiana
Muhammad Arif R.
Danung Nur Adli

135050100111093
135050100111098
135050107111187
135050107111189
135050107111225
135050107121002

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY PROGRAM


FACULTY OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
BRAWIJAYA UNIVERSITY
MALANG
2016

BREEDING MANAGEMENT OF BALI CATTLE AT BPTUHPT DENPASAR, PANGYANGAN, SUB-DISTRICT


PEKUTATAN JEMBRANA BALI

INTERNSHIP REPORT

By :
Ardan Legenda De A.
Ari Prayudha
Alvina DyahArumsari
Mirsa Ita Dewi Adiana
Muhammad Arif R.
Danung Nur Adli

135050100111093
135050100111098
135050107111187
135050107111189
135050107111225
135050107121002

Submitted to fulfill the requirement for the Bachelor degree of Animal


Husbandy

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY PROGRAM


FACULTY OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
BRAWIJAYA UNIVERSITY
MALANG
2016

ACKNOWLEDEGEMENT

Puji syukur penulis panjatkan kepada Allah SWT yang telah melimpahkan segala
rahmat-Nya, sholawat serta salam penulis haturkan pada junjungan kepada nabi Muhammad
SAW, sehingga penulis dapat menyelesaikan PKL beserta menyusun laporan yang berjudul
manajemen pembibitan sapi Bali di BPTU-HPT Denpasar desa Pangyangan kecamatan
Pekutatan kabupaten Jembrana provinsi Bali. Penyusunan laporan ini tidak terlepas dari
bantuan pihak lain, oleh karena itu penulis ingin menyampaikan terima kasih kepada:
1.

Kedua orang tua kami yang telah memberikan doa, semangat dan segala bentuk
dukungan lainnya.

2.
3.

Dr. Ir. V.M. Ani Nurgiartiningsih selaku dosen pembimbing yang telah membimbing dan
memberikan arahan dalam pelaksanaan maupun penyusunan laporan PKL.
4. Prof. Dr. Agr. Sc. Ir. Suyadi, MS selaku Dekan Fakultas Peternakan Universitas
Brawijaya Malang yang telah memberikan izin PKL di BPTU-HPT Denpasar,Bali.
5. Dr. Ir. Sri Minarti, MP selaku Ketua Progam Studi Peternakan Fakultas Peternakan
Universitas Brawijaya Malang yang telah membantu dalam proses perijinan ke Dekan
Fakultas Peternakan.
6. Ir. Jack Pujianto selaku Kepala BPTU-HPT Denpasar Bali, Yudi Parwoto, S.Pt selaku
pembimbing dan kepala kasubag pelayanan teknis yang telah mengizinkan dan
membimbing selama jalannya PKL di BPTU-HPT Denpasar Bali.
7. Dwi Prasetiyo, S.Pt, Eti Setiawati, A.Md, Drh. Edi Suprapto, Maskur SPt., Drh. Slamet
Hartono, Wardono, Nariyono Slamet, Mei Via Savitri, S.Pt, Putu Novia Gariri, S.Pt,
Ismadi dan pihak dari PNS BPTU-HPT Denpasar yang tidak bisa disebutkan satu persatu
yang telah membimbing, megarahkan dan membantu selama melaksanakan praktek kerja
lapang.
8. Gede Widi, Koming, Saiful, Choliq, Sujadi, Sutiko selaku tenaga honorer bagian kandang
dan gudang pakan yang senantiasa membantu, mengarahkan, dan membimbing selama
melaksanakan praktek kerja lapang.
Penulis berharap laporan ini dapat menjadi masukan dan informasi yang bermanfaat
bagi pihak-pihak yang membutuhkan.
Malang, 5 September 2016

Penulis

BREEDING MANAGEMENT OF BALI CATTLE AT BPTU-HPT DENPASAR,


PANGYANGAN, SUB-DISTRICT PEKUTATAN JEMBRANA BALI
Ardan Legenda de Arham1), Ari Prayudha), Alvina Dyah Arumsari1), Mirsa Ita Dewi Adiana1),
Muhammad Arif Rahman1), Danung Nur Adli1) dan V.M. Ani Nurgiartiningsih2)
1) Student at Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University
2) Lecturer at Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University

ABSTRACT

BREEDING MANAGEMENT OF BALI CATTLE AT BPTU-HPT DENPASAR,


PANGYANGAN, SUB-DISTRICT PEKUTATAN JEMBRANA BALI
Ardan Legenda de Arham1), Ari Prayudha), Alvina Dyah Arumsari1), Mirsa Ita Dewi Adiana1),
Muhammad Arif Rahman1), Danung Nur Adli1) dan V.M. Ani Nurgiartiningsih2)
1) Undergraduate Student of Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University
2) Lecturer of Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University

Summary

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................................
SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .........................................................................................
TABLE OF CONTENT ............................................................................................
LIST OF TABLE .......................................................................................................
LIST OF FIGURE .....................................................................................................
LLIST OF APPENDIX .............................................................................................
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................
1.1 Backgroud ................................................................................................
1.2 Satatement of the Problems .....................................................................
1.3 The Purpose of Internship Study .............................................................
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ..........................................
2.1 Productivity of Bali Cattle .......................................................................
2.2 Feeding Management ...............................................................................
2.3 Housing ....................................................................................................
2.4 Reproduction ...........................................................................................
2.5 Selection ..................................................................................................
2.6 Breeding Scheme .....................................................................................
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY ............................................................................
3.1 Location and Time ...................................................................................
3.2 Object of the Study ..................................................................................
3.3 Methods ...................................................................................................
3.4 Analysis of Results ..................................................................................
3.5 Limitation of Term ..................................................................................
CHAPTER IV RESULT OF ACTIVITIES ..............................................................
4.1 Overview of BPTU HPT Denpasar ......................................................
4.1.1 History of BPTU HPT Denpasar ................................................
4.1.2 Vission and Mission ......................................................................
4.1.3 Duties and Fungtions .....................................................................
4.1.4 Locationand Geographic ................................................................
4.1.5 Population of Cattle .......................................................................
4.1.6 Facilities .........................................................................................
4.1.7 Organizational Structure ................................................................
4.2 Breeding Program in BPTU HPT Denpasar .........................................
4.2.1 IPD (Intalasi Populasi Dasar) ........................................................
4.2.2 Breeding Center in Pulukan ...........................................................
4.3 Breeding Management .............................................................................
4.3.1 Pejantan Sapi Bali ..........................................................................
4.3.1.1 Performance Test ..............................................................
4.3.1.2 Progeny Test......................................................................
4.3.2 Breeding Cows...............................................................................

4.4 Produksi dan Penyebaran Bibit Sapi Bali ................................................


4.5 Mating Management ................................................................................
4.6 Livestock Health Management ................................................................
4.7 Forages Management (HPT)....................................................................
4.7.1 Forage Types .................................................................................
4.7.2 Forage Seeding Process .................................................................
4.7.3 Handling ........................................................................................
4.8 Feeding Management ...............................................................................
4.8.1 Feeding Processing ........................................................................
4.8.2 Pasture Feeding System .................................................................
4.9 Housing ....................................................................................................
4.9.1 Roofing and House Construction ..................................................
4.9.2 Floor Housing ................................................................................
4.9.3 Type of House................................................................................
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION...............................................
5.1 Conclusion ...............................................................................................
5.2 Suggestion................................................................................................
REFERENCES ..........................................................................................................
APPENDIX ...............................................................................................................

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1. Rataan Presentase Kelahiran, Kematian dan Calf Crop Sapi Pedaging ......
Table 2. Persyaratan Kuantitatif Bibit Sapi Bali Jantan ............................................
Table 3. Persyaratan Kuantitatif Bibit Sapi Bali Betina ............................................
Table 4. Data Sampel Pengukuran Pejantan Sapi Bali Umur 2 Tahun .....................
Table 5. Standart Penilaian Jantan Sapihan Umur 205 Hari .....................................
Table 6. Standart Penilaian jantan Setahun (Yearling Bull) ......................................
Table 7. Standart Penilaian Jantan 2 Tahun ..............................................................
Table 8. Nilai Progeny Test Peserta Uji Tahun Anggaran 2015 di BC Pulukan .......
Table 9. Data Sampel Pengukuran Betina Sapi bali Umur 1 Tahun .........................
Table 10. Standart Penilaian Pedet Betina Lepas Sapih Umur 205 Hari ..................
Table 11. Standart Penilaian Sapi Betina Satu Tahun ...............................................
Table 12. Standart Penilaian Betina Umur 1.5 Tahun ...............................................
Table 13. Produksi dan Distribusi Bibit Tahun 2010 2015 ....................................
Table 14. Disease and Treatment of Livestock in BPTU HPT Denpasar ..............
Table 15. Cattle Housing in BPTU HPT Denpasar ................................................

LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1. Organizational Structure of BPTU HPT Denpasar .................................
Figure 2. Breeding Scheme at BPTU HPT Denpasar .............................................
Figure 3. Bibit Sapi Bali Jantan Berdasarkan SNI ....................................................
Figure 4. Cara Pengukuran Bibit Sapi Bali ...............................................................
Figure 5. Pengukuran Statistik Vital Sapi Bali Jantan ..............................................
Figure 6. Bibit Sapi Bali Betina Berdasarkan SNI ....................................................
Figure 7. Inseminasi Buatan di BPTU HPT Denpasar ...........................................
Figure 8. Vitamine B Complex ..............................................................................
Figure 9. Calliandra ..................................................................................................
Figure 10. Kalimantan Grass .....................................................................................
Figure 11. Cutting Mexicana Grass for Stek .............................................................
Figure 12. Chopping Process .....................................................................................
Figure 13. Preparation Mixing Concentrate and Forages ..........................................
Figure 14. Complete Feed in Packaged .....................................................................
Figure 15. Delivery Complete Feed in Paddock........................................................
Figure 16. Feeding Pasture ........................................................................................
Figure 17. Housing Type Head to Head ....................................................................
Figure 18. Housing Type Tail to Tail ........................................................................
Figure 19. Housing Type Isolation ............................................................................

LIST OF APPENDIX

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background
Bali Cattle is one of the germplasm that have high sales value in the agribusiness
sector. Bali Cattle has another name Bibos javanicus which is a domesticated bull (Bibos
banteng). Bali Cattle is a local livestock that has proved able to adapt to the tropical
climate. Bali Cattle scattered in several locations on the island of Java, such as in Ujung
Kulon and the island of Bali which is central to the spread of Bali Cattle genes. Bali Cattle is
able to utilize coarse fibrous forage that is high, adaptability tropical climate and high fertility
(83%), and carcass quality is good with carcass percentage (56%) (Payne and Hodges,
1997). Bali Cattle has the color and shape of the body just like a wild bull. Bali Cattle bull
have characteristics which are: body color black, white knee down half-moon-shaped, horn
medial and black, wide head shape with a compact and powerful neck (SNI, 2015). Bali Cattle
heifer have characteristics which are: body color reddish, knee down white, white rumpshaped half-moon, the tail end of black and there was a line of eels in black on the back, short
horns, head shape is long and slender neck (SNI, 2015).
Bali island one of the central development center at the same breeds, Bali Cattle has
spread and grown to almost all corners of the archipelago. Bali Cattle population in Indonesia
around 4 billion head or about 16.00% of the total population of beef cattle in Indonesia
which is expected to supply the needs of the national meat (Central Bureau Statistic, 2011).
BPTU HPT Denpasar is one of the government agencies concerned with the preservation of
germplasm Bali Cattle . BPTU - HPT Denpasar has a fundamental duty one genetic
purification to produce and maintain the quality genetic of Bali Cattle . BPTU - HPT
Denpasar due to responsibilities and functions, implement quality management system are
included in the national standardization of Bali Cattle . National standardization can be seen
in the management of the breeding center in the procurement of breed selection, which refers
to the SNI on Bali Cattle . BPTU - HPT Denpasar addition to implementing a quality
management system which has the advantages of a national standard by the representative
place in breeding that with the adoption from ranch system management with the pasture to
supporting Bali Cattle management. Ranch method is supportive of Bali Cattle breeding,
because of the ranch suitable for Bali Cattle .
The concept of quality improvement genetic Bali Cattle programmed by BPTU - HPT
Denpasar-based on the Responbilities and functions there is the selection with the
performance and progeny test of Bali Cattle . The cattle tested were from groups of livestock
farmers who became the target of installation Population Association / IPD located in 9 (nine)
districts, namely Gianyar, Buleleng, Denpasar, Tabanan, Bangli and Karangasem, Jembrana,
Klungkung, and Badung. BPTU - HPT Denpasar as a partner institution is a partner is open
and support the advancement of education in Indonesia. The transfer of knowledge, especially
in terms of ins and outs of Bali Cattle . Students are expected to increase knowledge and
experience for the future by knowing how the maintenance management of Bali Cattle , and
the pedigree is in BPTU - HPT Denpasar ranging from how feeding to the handling of the
disease in cattle in supporting the management of Bali Cattle .

1.2. Statements of The Problems


The problems are:
1) How does the breeding management of Bali Cattle applied in BPTU - HPT Denpasar?
2) How does the management of health and reproduction of Bali Cattle are applied in
BPTU - HPT Denpasar?
3) How does the feed management of Bali Cattle are applied in BPTU - HPT Denpasar?
4) How does the housing management of Bali Cattle applied in BPTU - HPT Denpasar?
1.3. The Purpose of Internship Study
The internship purpose to:
1) To provide knowledge to the students on feed, health, and reproduction, housing and
breeding management of Bali Cattle applied in BPTU - HPT Denpasar.
2) Analyze and compare the theory with the reality that occurs in BPTU-HPT Denpasar.
3) Know and understand the constraints faced by in BPTU-HPT Denpasar.
1.4. The Advantages of Internship Study
Internship in BPTU-HPT Denpasar expected to provide good benefits for students,
companies, and universities, there are:
For Students
1) Understanding and appreciation of the actual and logical way of thinking and
discipline.
2) Improving the skills and work experience in the field of agribusiness.
3) Become innovators and problem solver, especially in Bali cattle breeding.
For College
1) Universities and colleges will be established in charging science or education to the
students, with their feedback as a result of integration of students with society.
2) Accelerate and enhance cooperation between universities as a center of science and
technology with other agency or department with government.
For BPTU-HPT Denpasar
1) As a means of upgrading the learning and insights to students.
2) Improving a competent personality.
3) As part of Corporate Social Responsibility which had been properly carried out by the
agency to the public.
4) Strengthening the fabric of cooperation between universities with institutions.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1. Productivity of Bali Cattle


The productivity is influenced by genetics, feeding, and management on cattle.
Susilawati and Affandy (2004) stated the advantages of using local superiority cattle is good
adaptability to the environment, the productivity can increase by improving the management
of maintenance, especially in terms of feed and the control of disease in the cattle.
Productivity is believed to exist three interacting factors as determinants of the productivity
the animal, the environment, and management of Bali cattle. The result of the interaction of
these three factors cause of low productivity there is (1) a low birth rate, (2) high calf
mortality rates, and (3) lower net growth rate of Bali cattle. Bali cattle has some weakness
that growth is relatively slow and has a calving interval longer than other cattle (Suyasa and
Sugama, 2010).
Talib (2002) stated the assessment of productivity can be seen by the measures
surface of the body, the size of the head, the size of the height, length, width, size inside and
circumference of cattle. The body measurements of the linear body can be used in measuring
the productivity e.g. the length of the body, witheirs height, chest girth of the cattle. The
parameter estimators weight can be the measurement by linear of size body and physiology
maturity level of Bali cattle. Productivity is the result of genetic and environmental influences
on components of productivity of cattle. The superiority performance influence of heredity
and the cumulative environmental factors experienced by cattle (Suyasa and Sugama, 2010).
The growth of the body length bull starts from the neck length, head length, body
length of the back and front body size cattle. The dimensions the chest starts from the
abdominal circumference, neck circumference, and back circumference of Bali cattle. Chest
girth and abdominal circumference have low growth potential, while the back and the neck
circumference has a high potential of growth of Bali cattle. Differences in the development of
the body parts caused by different functions and different components which compound parts
of the body Bali cattle (Suyasa and Sugama, 2010).
Suranjaya, Ardika and Indrawati (2010) stated the production of Bali cattle can be
seen from the various indicators of the properties of production such as birth weight, weaning
weight, the rate of weight gain, characteristics of the carcass (carcass percentage and carcass
quality) of Bali cattle. The reproductive traits can be seen as sexual maturity, the age of
puberty, calving interval, the percentage of pregnancy of Bali cattle. The production could
have seen from the breed, choosing good breed is one of the important aspects of production
Bali cattle. The selection has an important role in the production aspect e.g. a genetic trait,
health and body size of Bali cattle (Talib, 2002). The nature of production and reproduction is
influenced by several factors such as the breed cattle, soil conditions, the condition of
pastures, disease, and management of Bali cattle (Talib, 2002).
2.2. Feeding Management
Feed is one of the keys to success in maintaining and breeding beef cattle. According
Wibowo (2012) has an important role to feed livestock. Feed on calf is used for growth and in
3

cattle feed used as a source of energy. Additionally, the feed also functions to maintain the
immune system and health. The success of a breeding Bali cattle can be seen from the success
of feed management. Cattle that have a high genetic, but are not given a good feed can
optimizing avairerage daily gain. The nutrients needed is not fulfilled will impact on growth
is not the maximum and decrease body weight. Nutrient content in animal feed is very
important so animals can grow and produce (Rusnan, Kaunang, and Tulung, 2015).
2.2.1. Forage
Forage is the main feedstuffs for beef cattle in the form of grass consisting of
superior grass and some type of legume. Forage derived from plants include: weeds,
elephant grass (Pennicetum purpureum), Benggala grass. According to Elly, Sinaga,
Kuncoro and Kusnadi (2013) one of the factors which determine the success of cattle
development is the availability of forage quantity and quality considerable and
sustainable.
Forage important in the maintenance of cattle. The content of nutrients in forage is
needed cattle. Forage has the disadvantage that the price is influenced by the season and
requires a wide area. According to Nani (2009) requirements substitution feeding is done
by feeding forage requirement of 10% of their body weight.
2.2.2. Concentrate
Concentrate feed is a mixture of food stuffs which mixed in such a way that it
becomes a feedstuffs that functions to complement the nutritional deficiencies of other
feedstuffs (forage). Concentrate feed has a low crude fiber content and easy to digest.
Giving concentrates on cattle per cow per day 1% of body weight. According to Nani
(2009) states that the protein supply and energy balance in cows fattened can not be
fulfilled only from Forage, but very important role concentrate feed.
Concentrate feed is a feed source of protein and energy, while the forage is a
source of fibrous feed, feed for cattle should consist of feed rough / forage and feed
concentrates, the aim is to complement the lack of nutrients each other of feed stuffs so
that the appearance of cattle can be optimized. Giving a high concentrate is an effort to
accelerate the process of growth, carcass and meat production with high quality and
improve its economic value (Hartati, Wijono and Siswanto, 2007).
2.2.3. Feeding
Feed quality can be seen from the content of the feed. content of the feed must be
fulfilled in protein, minerals and vitamins. Beef cattle concentrate require a higher than
forage. Feed concentrates contain propionic acid needed by body of the cattle to grow.
Adequate feeding may increase the production of high and help improve the genetic
quality of cattle (Matthew, 2008).
Feeding Bali cattle consider the number or volume of feed and nutrient content of
feed. Bali cattle are released in the paddocks can selectively choose the type of feed that
is naturally able to meet the need for nutrients. Bali cattle which stabled should be
regulated feed composition in order to fulfill the required nutrients. Feeding beef cattle
can be done ad libitum and restricted (limited). Giving ad libitum often inefficient
because it would cause a lot of wasted feedstuffs and feed are left to rot so overgrown
with fungus and so would harm (Matthew, 2008).
4

2.3 Housing
Some things to be aware of the cage that is lay out the design, capacity and building
materials cage (especially the floor and roof of cage). All of them should be considered to
facilitate the flow of maintenance activities. Starting from the arrival feeder, ease the process
of providing fodder and drinking, ease of cleaning cage until the preparation for the
transportation of cattle ready for sale (Grace, 2005).
The location cage is very important in maintenance of beef cattle. Cages which close
to the highway makes it easy transportation which is very important for the transport of
livestock and animal feed. The layout of cage close to the population but there are cage
around the land used as a garden forage that does not cause pollution to the surrounding
population (Ward and Risdianto, 2011).
Type cage based on the capacity there are two single cage and double cage. Single
cage consists of a single line of cage which include alleys and ditches or trenches. Double
cage there are two kinds of head to head and tail to tail, incorporating the hallway for easy
feeding and controlling livestock (Ngadiyono, 2007). The function of cage is to protect the
beef cattle from the weather disturbance, a resting comfortably, control cattle in order not to
damage the plants around the location, where the collection of cattle dung, protect cattle from
animal intruders, and facilitate the implementation of the cattle maintaining (Abidin, 2006).
2.4. Reproduction
Bali cattle is one of the Indonesian native cattle which important and present in large
enough quantities. Bali cattle population in Indonesian ever recorded twice in 1984 and 1988.
Registration number Bali cow after it was never done again, so the number of Bali cattle is
currently not known with certainty. In 1988 Bali Cattle carrying amount 2,632,125 tail which
means approximately 26.9% of total beef cattle in Indonesian. Bali cattle population
percentage is the highest compared to Ongole Cattle, PO cattle and Madura cattle (Directorate
of Livestock Production, 2002).
Bali Cattle production capability can be seen from several indicators. The indicator is
that is the characteristic of production such as birth weight, weaning weight, the weight of
adult cattle, the rate of weight gain, characteristics of carcass (carcass percentage and carcass
quality) and reproductive traits such as sexual maturity, the age of puberty, the distance
lambing (calving interval) and lambing percentages. Some properties of the production and
reproduction is an important trait/economical that can be used as an indicator of selection.
Tabel 1. Rataan persentase kelahiran, kematian dan calf crop sapi pedaging
Bangsa
Kelahiran
Kematian
Calf Crop
Brahman
50,71
10,35
48,80
Brahman cross

47,76

5,58

45,87

Ongole

51,04

4,13

48,53

Lokal Cross

62,47

1,62

62,02

52,15

2,64

51,40

Bali
Sumber: Pane, (1990).

The table shows productivity of Bali cattle as Indonesian native cattle is higher,
compared with cows from Australia is still relatively low at his calf crop may reach 85%
(Trikesowo, Sumardi and Suyadi, 1993). Vercoe and Frisch (1980) stated that the
characteristic of the production and reproduction is influenced by several factors such as bos
of cattle, state land, pasture conditions, diseases and management.
2.5. Selection
Selection is one way to get a quality feeder cattle. The impact of the absence of
selection will result on reducing the quality of Bali cattle genetics. Program of local cattle
breeding and purification of Bali cattle mainly done to improve the genetic quality, which
planning should focus on selection and culling (Isaac, Nurhayu, Ella, Sariubang and
Rahmawati, 2013). Selection which not really going to impact on the genetic quality of cattle
Bali. According to Isaac, Nurhayu, Ella, Sariubang, Nurjadid, and Basri (2013) The decline in
the genetic quality of Bali cattle in last few years is due to inbreeding and the negative
selection such as high productive female cutting and use bulls that do not fulfill the criteria
are eligible males in the population.
2.5.1. Performance Test
Efforts to improve the genetic quality and increased productivity of cattle in a
sustainable manner is by test performance (Pane, 1990). Test performance is an one of
the methods tested on livestock to determine the extent of the level of performance or
appearance of cattle to get the best performance which was later revealed to offspring
when the advanced test (progeny test). Livestock performance test results is
recommended to be tested further in the tests offspring (progeny test) (Department of
Agriculture, 2007). Performan test are needed to prepare and introduce superior cattle in
areas of potential candidates to prepare a superior male (Sitorus, Subandriyo, Prasetyo,
Rachmawati, Tambing, and Setiadi Gunawan, 1995).
2.5.2. Progeny Test
Progeny test is performed to find superior candidates used as a superior male.
According to Putra, Sumadi, Hartatik and Saumar (2014) the purpose of the progeny test
is to see excellence Breeding Value (BV) of prospective male. It is to estimate the genetic
advantage inherited to their offspring. Progeny Test is one way to estimate the genetic
quality of livestock based on their appearance.
Livestock performance test results is recommended to follow further testing in the
tests offspring (progeny test). The basic formula progeny test method is to calculate the
breeding value of a male. Breeding value is determined by calculating the heritability trait
in cattle that will be tested progeny. The higher the value of the heritability of it is
relative the accuracy will be higher. Based Hardjosubroto (1994) states that to improve
the accuracy relative value by increasing the number of observations (data).
2.5.3. Selection of Bull
Test performance on the bulls need to be done to get superior offspring. Based on
Patmawati, Trinayani, Siswanto, Wandia and Puja (2013) states that the bulls were tested
in the range of ages 1-2 years so that in the initial phase optimum growth before reaching
sexual maturity. The development and growth of livestock at the time tested, then
obtained a description of the candidate bulls that have high productivity and quality.
6

Methods of testing in practice are choosing livestock candidate based on the


characteristic of qualitative and quantitative covering (1) measurements of length, height,
and chest girth, (2) weighing body weight, birth weight, weaning weight (205 days), the
weight of the age of one year, and the weight of two years, (3) observation of the color of
hair, skeletal structure, shape of head, leg shape, nail shape, the shape of the scrotum, and
deformities such as a tail in the form of vital statistics in the form of quantitative and
qualitative includes an assessment conducted objectively (Patmawati et al, 2013).
Tabel 2 Persyaratan kuantitatif bibit sapi Bali jantan
Umur
Parameter
Satuan
Kelas
(bulan)
Kelas I Kelas II Kelas III
Tinggi pundak
cm
115
110
105
18-24
Panjang badan
cm
125
120
119
Lingkar dada
cm
155
147
142
Lingkar skrotum
cm
25
>24-36
Tinggi pundak
cm
127
120
113
Panjang badan
cm
133
124
115
Lingkar dada
cm
179
158
148
Lingkar skrotum
cm
26
Sumber: BSN 7651.4 (2015).
2.5.4. Selection of Heifer
According Hartati, Wijono and Siswanto (2007) states that the parameters
observed physiological status, body weight and size of the linear parent body. Isaac et
al (2013) adds a parameter used is the parent body weight and size of the linear body.
then the results were analyzed descriptively. Linear size of the body is used to estimate
body weight. Approach by observing the linear size of the cow's body has a strong
correlation with weight (Handiwirawan et al., 1998). It reinforced the opinion of
Hardjosubroto (1994) that some cattle body size has been known to correlate and is an
indicator for body weight of cattle such as height, chest girth and body length.
Tabel 3 Persyaratan kuantitatif bibit sapi Bali betina
Umur
Parameter
Satuan
Kelas
(bulan)
Kelas I Kelas II Kelas III
Tinggi pundak
cm
107
104
100
18-24
Panjang badan
cm
112
105
101
Lingkar dada
cm
139
130
124
>24-36
Tinggi pundak
cm
110
106
104
Panjang badan
cm
114
110
105
Lingkar dada
cm
147
135
130
Sumber: BSN 7651.4 (2015).

2.6. Breeding Scheme


The role of breeding in livestock production is very important to produce livestock
that have good genetic and easily adapt to the environment. Improvement genetic quality of
livestock will be effective if known genetic parameters production properties that have
economic value along with the purpose of breeding (breeding objective) and pattern breeding
(breeding scheme) clear (Wiyono and Aryogi, 2007).
2.6.1. ONBS (Open Nucleous Breeding system)
Talib (2002) declared open nucleous breeding system is a system in which the
nucleus is not covered by gene flow. Genetic improvement on an open system of
selection results obtained in the base rate will contribute to the genetic improvement of
nucleus. The amount of the contribution depends on the rate of gene flow from the base
to the nucleus. Livestock candidate from another group that goes to nucleus resulting
phylogenetic relationship between the parent with the male farther away, so that the rate
of inbreeding is reduced. James (1979) suggested that genetic advances in open systems
is higher than the closed system. In an open system selection response increased from 10
to 15%, with lower inbreeding rate of 50% when compared with the closed system on the
conditions and the same size.
ONBS is a beef cattle breeding development system that is compatible to the
conditions of limited supply of bulls. This system can be used on small to medium scale
breeding the genetic quality of the cow is not enough according to the standard or the
breeding efforts that lead to producing cattle for slaughter. ONBS system can be applied
to farm people with scale maintenance of parent less than 10 cows and bulls availability
is limited by the genetic quality pickup. The implementation of this system remains
aimed at improving the genetic quality of cattle that is to be produced cattle with
productivity increases. Disadvantages of this system is the availability of quality and
quantity in the candidates cattle breeders are generally limited to people, then increase the
genetic quality obtained will not be too large, or require a long time (Wiyono and Aryogi,
2007).

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

3.1. Location and Time


The internship activity was conducted from July 25th to August 25th, 2016 in BPTUHPT Denpasar was located in Raya Gilimanuk-Denpasar, Pangyangan village, Pekutatan subdistrict, Jembrana district, Bali.
3.2. Object of the Study
The object of the internship was BPTU-HPT Denpasar-Bali. BPTU-HPT Denpasar is
breeding center focusing on the Bali cattle. BPTU-HPT Denpasar was under general of
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services of Indonesia has objective to selection and
produce breed (Performance test and Progeny test) of Bali cattle.
3.3. Methods
3.3.1. Participation
Implementation of the internship was participatory methods which participated in
performing all aspects relating to the breeding management of Bali cattle. Related aspects
of the internship include forges, processing, feeding, animal health, and breeding
management of Bali cattle.
3.3.2. Data Collection
Data collection was used in the internship through the directly involved interview,
documentation, and observation with workers, official staff, coordinator, and head of
BPTU-HPT Denpasar in breeding management of Bali cattle. Data collection included
population, vital statistic, breeding scheme, pedigree, nutrient content of the feed, and
base Installation basic population in BPTU-HPT Denpasar.
3.3.3. Literature Study
The literature study was conducted to compare the activities with existing theory as
supporting during the internship and the preparation of reports to be more scientific and
be a detailed discussion.
3.4. Analysis of Results
The results of the internship were analyzed descriptively and the results were
observed during the internship program compared with the related theory. Analysis for
breeding scheme in the BPTU-HPT Denpasar as follows:
1. Planning: analysis of planning during the internship in the management of feeding,
housing management, performance test, and ONBS program of the Bali cattle.
2. Organizing: analysis of structural organization during the internship in the
management of feeding, housing management, performance test, and ONBS program
of the Bali cattle.
3. Directing: Result from observation during the internship in the management of
feeding, housing management, performance test, and ONBS program of the Bali
cattle.
9

4. Controlling: analysis of control during the internship in the management of feeding,


housing management, performance test, and ONBS program on the Bali cattle.
3.5 Limitation of Term
1. Balliziekte

2.

Basic
Installation :
Population (IPD)

3.

Body length

4.

Breeding Center (BC)

5.

Breeding cows

6.

Cattle yard

7.

Chest Girth

8. Culling
9. Drenching
10. LS-PRO

:
:
:

11. Open Nucleus Breeding :


Scheme (ONBS)
12. Paddock
13. Panjut
14. Performance Test

15. Progeny Test

16. Vital Statistic

17. Witheirs height

Disease only happens in Bali cattle caused by


poisoning crops krasi.
Technical services unit contained the population as a
result of selection for genetic quality improvement
of Bali cattle.
The body parts were measured starting from a ballsocket to the pin bone joints of the cattle.
Central breeding and genetic improvement of the
cattle.
Technical of cattle which still productive of Bali
cattle
Place for gathered in one place for the process of
weighing and measuring in cattle.
Body parts near the bone scapula rear front legs
were measured in cattle.
Separation belonging of criteria in cattle.
Technical was given helminthic to the cattle
Pass product certification in Bali cattle
Breeding scheme with an open system in which the
nucleus and the plasma contribute to each other to
increase the genetic diversity of the cattle.
Management with grazing pasture system for cattle.
Term for malformation tail for Bali cattle
Selection test to select cattle based on qualitative
and quantitative properties, including measurement
and weighing of cattle.
Tests carried out on bull by mating with productive
cows randomly
Body size quantitatively vital enough to be measured
on the cattle.
The body parts were measured exactly behind the
shoulder of cattle.

10

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS OF ACTIVITIES

4.1. Overview of BPTU HPT Denpasar


4.1.1. History of BPTU HPT Denpasar
Bali cattle has an important role in socio-economic of Balinese society, but in
the decade of the 70's, were two major issues on Bali cattle. First, the declined in cattle
population of Bali in Indonesia caused by slaughtered productive cows and exports of
Bali cattle uncontrolled. Secondly, there are spillovers from the depletion of Bali cattle,
causing a decrease in population is accompanied by a decrease in the genetic quality of
cattle Bali. Starting from these two issues, the government established Project
Development of cattle breeding and Bali (Bali P3) in 1976, according to Minister of
Agriculture Decree No. 776 / Kpts / Um / 12/1976. The Government, given leading cattle
to the public as an effort to support the activities of P3 Bali through Bank Rakyat
Indonesia in 1977. The Bali P3 subsequently became Population Installation Association
(IPD).
Breeding Center (Breeding Centre Pulukan) establish in 1986 on the village
Pangyangan, District Pekutatan, Jembrana, as the test site and the selection of Bali cattle.
In 2007, based on the Minister of Agriculture No. 13 / Permentan / OT.142 / 2/2007, P3
Bali upgraded to Superior Livestock Breeding Center (BPTU) Bali cattle. In 2013, based
on the Minister of Agriculture No. 52 / Permentan / OT.140 / 5/2013, BPTU-HPT
Denpasar turned into Hall Superior Livestock Breeding and Forage Animal Feed (BPTUHPT) Denpasar.
4.1.2. Vission and Mission
4.1.2.1. Vission
BPTU has a vision towards the realization BPTU to improving the genetic
quality of Bali cattle breed, and germplasm national conservation agribusiness.
4.1.2.2. Mission
1) Implement breeding and preservation of Bali cattle.
2) Implement assessment genetic quality of Bali Cattle
3) Implement the development and deployment of Bali cattle breeds.
4) Develop cooperation with stakeholders in the development of the livestock
subsector.
5) Improving human resources quality in livestock implement administrative
management and evaluation of BPTU-HPT Denpasar.
4.1.3. Duties and Funtions
The duties and functions from of BPTU - HPT Denpasar has implemented
conservation, breeding, production,development, and dissemination of the results of from
selection to produce superiority breed Bali cattle nationwide.

11

Functions of BPTU-HPT Denpasar:


1) Implementation of rearing Bali cattle breeds
2) Implementation of conservation and breeding through purification technology
3) Implementation of recording of Bali cattle
4) Implementation selection is based on performance test and progeny test
5) Implementation of technical standardization superiority Bali cattle
6) Implementation of the certification superiority of Bali cattle
7) Provision of advice and rearing management superiority of Bali cattle
8) Implementation of spreading result from selection superiority of Bali cattle
9) Provision of public services conservation, breeding, production,development, and
deployment of production superiority Bali cattle nationally.
10) Implementation of the evaluation activities of breeding superiority Bali cattle
11) Implementation of administrative affairs and households BPTU-HPT-Denpasar
4.1.4. Location and Geographic
BPTU-HPT Denpasar office and BPTU-HPT Denpasar Breeding Center (BC)
located separately. BPTU-HPT Denpasar office is located on the Pegok Street No. III,
Village Sesetan, District Denpasar, Denpasar, Bali and BPTU-HPT Denpasar BC located
in the Pangyangan Village, Pekutatan District, Jembrana, Bali. BPTU-HPT Denpasar BC
has a land area of 102 hectares. BPTU-HPT Denpasar BC is at the location with slopes of
10% to 25% with a height of about 125 meters above sea and has rainfall with an average
458 mm/year, the temperature is 28oC to 30oC, with relative humidity between 60-70%,
based on the geographic. HPT-BPTU Denpasar BC located in the western part of the Bali
Island, stretching from west to east on 809'30'' - 828'02'' South Latitude and 11425'53''
- 11456'38'' Longitude.
4.1.5. Population of Cattle
BPTU-HPT Denpasar BC has 751 Bali cattle in June 2016 consisting of 175
cows, 112 heifers, 89 maiden heifers, 52 heifer calfs, 31 culling heifers, 8 mickey, 38
bulls, 44 weaners, 42 bull calfs , 160 bulk.
4.1.6. Facilities
Facilities owned BC-HPT BPTU Denpasar are:
- Two buildings of employee mess
- The administrative office building
- Two engine choppers for chopping
- Pickup for transporting feed and one truck for transporting feed
- One silo for making silage
- Two of the concentrate storages warehouse
- Sixteen paddocks for rearing
- Eight houses for bull
- The isolation house for unhealthy
- Two cattle yards for handling and processing Bali cattle
- The Laboratory of reproduction for analyzing semen
12

4.1.7. Organizational Structure


Head of BPTU-HPT Denpasar

Department Administration

Department Technical services


Functional Group

Coordinator
Logistic

Veterinary Department

Treasurer

Forages Department

Breeding Department

Figure 1. Organizational Structure BPTU-HPT Denpasar


The organizational structure BPTU-HPT Denpasar in Figure 1 by letter of Regulation
Minister of Agriculture No. 13 / Permentan / OT.140 / 2/2007. Headed by a head of BPTUHPT Denpasar who leading the department administration, department of technical services,
and functional groups. Department technical services leading the treasurer, logistic
department, veterinary department, breeding department, forages and feed department of
BPTU-HPT Denpasar. Department has roles and responsibilities of each year to report
developments in BPTU-HPT Denpasar Bali and work in accordance with duties and functions
with the aim to produce the breed of Bali cattle. Technical services department reported on
developments BPTU-HPT Denpasar duty to head of BPTU-HPT Denpasar to the director
general of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services.
The coordinator has responsible for the performance of the veterinary department,
forages and breeding department of BPTU-HPT Denpasar. Logistics is responsible for the
available logistics, facilities, and infrastructure associated with BPTU-HPT Denpasar. The
Treasurer is responsible for financial and accounting management, budgeted, and will be
reported to the coordinator BPTU-HPT Denpasar. Veterinary department has responsible for
animal health are located in the area of BPTU-HPT Denpasar and has a role on available
supplies of medicines and vaccinations of cattle. Forages department has responsible for
forages, feed warehouse, paddock , and the production of feed in BPTU-HPT Denpasar. The
breeding department has responsible for breeding, selection, performance testing, progeny
test, and the spread of Bali cattle breeds.

13

4.2. Breeding Program in BPTU HPT Denpasar


4.2.1. IPD (Intasalasi Populasi Dasar)
Population Installation Association (IPD) is the UPT BPTU- Denpasar contained
HPT livestock population as a result of selection for genetic quality improvement
activities. IPD is a breeding activity in a rural (livestock group assisted) and the
beginning of the selection of livestock. All animals do recording and identified to obtain
good genetic cattle. Cattle (selected) will participate in the selection and breeding
continued in Pulukan Breeding Center. Breeding center is a means of testing the genetic
quality in BPTU-HPT Denpasar. Cattle are from IPD and heredity breeding centers also
test performace Progeny test. The best results 5% of the performance test of bull is then
performed progeny test. The best results will be sent to the Central Artificial
Insemination or related institutions.
The task and functions of IPD in BPTU-HPT Denpasar described as follows:
a) Job Organization
IPD is under the Head of Technical Services Coordinator, carry out several
activities, among others:
- Development of Farmers
real activity of development breeders is socializing / counseling to livestock
farmers. Socialization activities / counseling is carried out by technical personnel in
accordance with District Veterinary Office cooperation. Extension activities held in
conjunction with the public service activities are carried out by technical personnel
BPTU-HPT Denpasar.
The purpose of fostering livestock farmers are as follows:
a. So that farmers know the purpose of development of farmers
b. So that farmers know their rights and obligations
c. Increasing knowledge or skills of farmers
d. Generating the efforts of farmers to try the field of cattle breeding
e. Introducing new things concerning the breeding of cattle.
Development material covers aspects / areas:
a. Field of cattle breeding
b. Field of Livestock development
c. Field of animal health
d. Field of forage
e. Field other provisions concerning breeding.
- Development of Livestock
Livestock development responsible for which aspects / areas of production,
reproduction, and selection. Field of reproduction includes mating. Field of production
includes the birth of livestock. Field of selection includes the selection of cattle
breeding in the category. To obtain valid data, identification of cattle (numbering and
recording) became the center of early breeding activities.
Completeness of information/data obtained from the Public Service (PU).
Various areas/aspects related to the task of livestock development are as follows:
1) Public Service
IPD conduct public services as much as 1 (one) visits in each group.
14

2. Livestock Record
Implementation of the recording livestock carried out by officers of the district.
The recording was made include livestock mating, birth, and the movement of
livestock. Results are reported to BPTU-HPT Denpasar each month from IPD
activities begin to be implemented.
3. Livestock Reproduction
a. Activity of Artificial Insemination (AI)
AI activities carried out by the district officer appointed by decree of the
head of BPTU-HPT Denpasar with straw prepared by BPTU-HPT Denpasar.
The results of operations reported to BPTU-HPT Denpasar each month.
b. Activity of pregnancy examinations
The activity of pregnancy examinations carried out by the district officer
appointed by decree of the head of BPTU HPT Denpasar. The results of
operations reported to BPTU HPT Denpasar each month.
4. Production
Production activities include the weighing and measuring. Body weight and
body size livestock at weaning age and one year of age is the criteria used in assessing
livestock production. This event is held at the time of Public Service.
5. Livestock Selection
livestock selection activities carried out on livestock inmates who qualify to do
the crawl following performance test in the Pulukan Breeding Centre.
6. Livestock Security
The safety precautions cows and their offspring carried out by technical
personnel BPTU-HPT Denpasar at the time of Public Services activity was
accompanied by the district officer. The goal is to treat sick animals, reduce the death
rate and improve the health livestock for the production increase. Some of the
activities of preventive measures include anti-stress injections, vaccination,
deworming and spraying drencing. Drencing implemented to control the order and
depress investment endoparasite cattle productivity increases, Drencing done orally or
injection. Drencing action is more focus in the offspring (calf). This activity is carried
out on the implementation of Public Service.
4.2.2. BC PULUKAN (Breeding Center in Pulukan)
The breeding scheme in BPTU - HPT Denpasar there are two breeding strategies
and breeding programs of Bali cattle. Strategies and breeding programs aim to improve
the superiority of genetic quality and good fertility of Bali cattle. BPTU-HPT Denpasar
responsibility is to record and selection the breed for bull and heifer of Bali cattle with
the performance and progeny tests. Improved quality of genetically affected by
heritability and differential selection in the Bali cattle. Assessment of the performance
test and progeny test, while performance test measurement with quantitative and
qualitative data Bali cattle.

15

KRS: Karangasem
BLL: Buleleng
TBN: Tabanan
GIA: Gianyar
BGL: Bangli
JMB: Jembrana
BDG: Badung
KLK: Kelungkung
DPS:Denpasar

Figure 2. Breeding scheme on BPTU-HPT Denpasar


The selection of bull selected from the BPTU-HPT Denpasar and Basic
Installation Population (IPD) spread in nine districts of the province of Bali. The bull
who have been selected with the requirements of at least 10% best with the numbers 70
to 80 will proceed into performance test in BPTU-HPT Denpasar. The bull who do not
pass the selection are not included in the performance test will be included in the criteria
for culling. The bull tested for one year will be grouped according to the ranking, then go
to the next stage for the progeny test in BPTU-HPT Denpasar. The bull who are selected
have the best criteria of 5%, then 10% will be returned to the public through the IPD and
the remainder will be spread throughout Indonesia. The bull has qualified with 50%
votes will be the intensification of natural mating and out of Bali province, while 35% do
for fattening.
The advantages of assessment used outside the body characteristics of Bali
cattle are as follows:
a. The body color normally reddish brown for heifer and blackish for bull depending on
the age of Bali cattle.
b. Body conformation between the head index, neck, and body of Bali cattle.
c. Standard growth and body weight gain accordance with the specified age of Bali
cattle.
d. Malformation e.g. tul-tul body color (the color of white patches on the body of the
cattle) and panjut (color white tip of the tail) of Bali cattle.

4.3. Breeding Management


Breeding in BPTU - HPT Denpasar aims to improve the genetic quality of superior
cattle and good fertility in Indonesia. BPTU - HPT Denpasar activities are breeding programs
and recording every breed that would be candidates for bulls and heifers or breeding cows.
16

4.3.1. Bull of Bali Cattle


According to the vision of BPTU - HPT Denpasar which is increase the genetic
quality of breeding stock of Bali Cattle and germplasm conservation-minded national
agribusiness, the maintenance of the bull in order to get the Elite Bull is absolutely
conducted. Characteristics of pure Males Bali Cattle are white on the rump, the periphery
of the upper lip, and the bottom leg begins tarsus and Carpus to limit the upper edge of
the nails, the color of hair on the tail is black, the color of hair in the middle ear is white,
and black stripe on the back. This is in accordance with SNI 7651.4.2015 about Bali
cattle breed that the qualitative requirements of male Bali Cattle breeds are:
a) Body color is black, white knee down, half-moon shaped white rump, black tail tip;
b) Horn grow well, leading to the middle and black;
c) The shape of the head with the neck width compact and powerful.

Figure 3. Bull of Bali Cattle Breed based on SNI


To maintain the performance of superior bull Bali Cattle, BPTU - HPT Denpasar
does the selection of performance test. Performance test aim to obtain the best
performance which was later revealed to his calf when Progeny Test was done.
4.3.1.1. Performance Test
Performance Test is a livestock testing activities to choose breeds of Bali
Cattle based assessment standards set by BPTU - HPT Denpasar. Performance test
(PT) in BPTU - HPT Denpasar is done routinely every month. Parameters of
performance test implementation that is qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative
assessment assessed on various criteria including body shape, fur color,
temperament, and genetic defects. Quantitative measurement parameters include
body length, chest girth, the witheirs, and body weight.

.
Figure 4. Statistic Vital of Bali Cattle
Explanation : a) witheirs height ; b) body length; c) chest girth

17

Performance Test sample data of Bull Bali Cattle at BPTU - HPT Denpasar
as follows:
Table 4. The sample data measurements of Bull Bali Cattle Age 2 years
Muscle and Shape
BW
Disabi
No Ear tag
Colour
Temp
(kg) TG
lity
PB
LD
Muscle
1
0102.13 235 115 126 149 Uncompacted Black
Tame 2
0110.13 182 106 102 141 Uncompacted Not
Tame Tutul
change
3
0111.13 220 119 120 149 Uncompacted Half
Tame change
4
0112.13 231 115 115 150 Uncompacted Black
Tame 5
0116.13 205 109 108 141 Uncompacted Not
Tame change
Source : BPTU HPT Denpasar , 2016.
Based on the measurement sample Bull Bali Cattle above known that Bull
Bali cattle No. 0102.13 and 0111.13 in the High Gumba (TG), Body Length (PB)
and Chest Girth (LD) appropriate to SNI 7651.4.2015 about Bibit Sapi Bali. This
value corresponds to the minimum requirements of class II of quantitative Bull Bali
Cattle which is 110, 120 and 147. The Bull Bali Cattle number 0110.13, 0112.13
and 0116.13 did not meet standards of SNI. Body Lenght value of the livestock
does not reach the minimum quantitative requirements breed of Bull Bali Cattle,
this was due to lack of good feed management that feeding is not fixed and the
amount gift that is not appropriate body weight. Additionally, climatic factors or
extreme weather in BPTU - HPT Denpasar Bali Cattle affect the body dimensions.
This is in accordance with Bugiwati (2007) stated that the development of the cow's
body besides animal genetic factors, influenced by the maintenance management
system, environmental factors include the availability of water, temperature, disease
factors, and others.

Figure 5. Statistics Vital Measurement of Bali Cattle in BPTU HPT Denpasar


Bull Bali Cattle selection by BPTU-HPT Bali Denpasar has several stages
of the age of weaning (205 days), younger age (365 days), and adult age (2 years).
Below is a table of bull assessment weaning standardization:

18

Inf
-

Table 5. Assessment Standards Weaning Bull Age 205 days


No.
Description
Good
Medium
1

2
3

Body weight (kg)


- Standard
- Score
Colour
- Standard
- Score
Disability
Muscle and Shape
- Body Length
. Standard
. Score
- Chest Girth
. Standard
. Score
- Witheirs Height
. Standard
. Score
- Muscle
. Standard

Bad

> 100
86 100

86 100
58 85

< 86
20

Brownish red
60

Brown

Brown Dark

No

45
No

30
Yes

>93
86 100

87 - 93
58 85

< 87
20

> 116
86 100

108 116
58 85

< 108
20

> 96
76 85
Compacted
Infront of and
behind
80

91 96
58 - 75

< 91
20

Uncompacted

Uncompacted
and unharmony
20

. Score
60
Source : BPTU, 2016
Information : - Every defect will have a value of 0 means that the cows must be Cull.
Based on Table 5 and the above description, calf weaning (205 days) when
there is a physical defect, temperament wild / fierce or deviate from Bali Cattle
pure criteria then the overall value will be "0" (zero). Calf weaning (205 days) on
disability will be Cull, but for calf weaning having a rank will be maintained and at
the age of one year will participate PT test (Performance Test).
Requirements bull candidates will PT tested must be a year old. PT test
carried out during the year and each month was observed the body weight, fur
color, temperament, chest girth, witheirs height, body length, scrotum state, and the
state of muscular later in the recording and assessment. Below a table of
standardized assessment one-year-old bull (Yearling bull):

19

Table 6. Standardization of Bull Assessment a year old (Yearling bull)


Classification
No
Description
Good
Medium
Bad
Body weight
1 - Standard
>150
125 150
< 125
- Score
86 100
56 - 85
20
Temperament
2 - Standard
Tame
Untame
Wild
- Score
80
20
0
Colour
3 - Standard
Harmony
Half change
Not change
- Score
60
45
30
4 Disability
Muscle and Shape
- Body Length
. Standard
>104
97 - 104
< 97
. Score
86 100
58 85
20
- Chest Girth
. Standard
> 132
123 132
< 123
. Score
86 100
58 85
20
5 - Witheirs Height
. Standard
> 106
100 106
< 100
. Score
76 85
58 - 75
20
- Muscle
. Standard
Compacted
Uncompacted
Uncompacted and
Infront of and
unharmony
. Score
behind
80
60
20
Source : BPTU, 2016
Information : - Every defect will have a value of 0 means that the cows must be Cull.
Bull Catlle which has been undergo testing for a year and it has been
evaluated, the cattle classified according rank. Bulls who qualified top 5%, the bull
will do Progeny Test, 10% will be returned to the community (IPD) and the
remaining 85% will be distributed throughout Indonesia and fattened. Here is the
standardization of the bull assessment 2 years old:

20

Table 7. Standard Assessment of Bull 2 years


No
1

3
4
5

Description
Body weight
- Standard
- Score
Temperament
- Standard
- Score
Colour
- Standard
- Score
Disability
Scrotum
- Standard
- Score
Muscle and Shape
- Body Length
. Standard
. Score
- Chest Girth
. Standard
. Score
- Witheirs Height
. Standard
. Score
- Muscle
. Standard
. Score

Good

Classification
Medium

Bad

> 265
86 100

220 265
58 - 85

< 220
20

Jinak
69

Terkendali
20

Liar
0

Black
80
-

Half black
60
-

Not change
0
-

Big, chewy,
Symmetrical
80

Medium, chewy,
Symmetrical
60

Small, unchewy,
Unsymmetrical
0

>122
86 100

115 - 126
58 85

< 115
20

> 162
86 100

156 162
58 85

< 156
20

> 122
76 85
Compacted
Infront of and
behind
80

115 122
58 - 75
Uncompacted

< 115
20
Uncompacted and
unharmony

60

20

Source : BPTU, 2016


Information : - Every defect will have a value of 0 means that the cows must be Cull.
4.3.1.2. Progeny Test
Zuriat test or the progeny test is one way to estimate the genetic quality of
livestock based on their calf appearance (Putra, et al 2014). Zuriat test which
carried out in BPTU - Denpasar HPT is using cattle with a ratio of 1 bull: 30 heifers
and using 1 AI bull. Progeny test is done by a group of bull mated with productive
females (Breeding cows). The test is carried out randomly and then the offspring of
Bull test participants are compared with the other test participants of Bull offspring,
whereas AI Bull as a comparison (reference).

21

Total Breeding cows were mated with Bulls test participants or AI must be
equal and maintenance environment Pregnant Cows should be uniform. This is to
avoid the value that can be influence due to the different environments. An
evaluation of the offspring in each group when the calf breeding cows aged 1 year
(365 days). The evaluation results are then compared with the offspring of AI group
to look at improving the quality of Bull tested.
Progeny test for Bali cattle does in 2015 located on the breeding center
Pulukan. The participant of progeny test is from Performance test, which Bali
cattle passed the test in 2013. The progeny test continued with the mating program
in October s.d. December 2013, in order to get offspring of Bali cattle who was
born in July s.d. October 2014. The Measurement of body weight of heifer in July
s.d. October 2015 on BPTU-HPT Denpasar. The number of participants Progeny
test as many as four bull with ear tag numbers 0133.11; 0511.11; 0549.11; and
0540.11, as a comparison using a marriage of Artificial Insemination (AI) of Bali
cattle. The bulls, which have values of the ratio of control from standard of BSN
and BPTU-HPT Denpasar can be used to improved genetic quality, while the level
of quality improvement of each bull in the following table:
Table 8. Progeny Test Value in BC Pulukan (2015)
Weight ration 365
No.
Bull
Progeny value
Information
days
101,28
1
AI
0
102,43
2
0133.11
1,15
102,45
3
0511.11
1,17
104,61
4
0549.11
3,33
102,57
5
0540.11
1,29
Source : BPTU- HPT Denpasar, 2016
Conclusion The above table is the best bull from Progeny testing with
eartag number 0549.11 with a value of +3.33 progeny of Bali cattle. Results
Progeny year 2015 on top bull recommended to be sent to BBIB as much as four
heads namely cattle numbered ear tag 0549.11; 0540.11; 0511.11 and 0133.11 for a
value greater than the value of AI.

4.3.2. Heifer of Bali Cattle (Breeding Cows)


Cows (breeding cows) in BPTU - HPT Denpasar maintained properly in order to
increase the appearance reproduction. A great cows group in Performance and genetic
quality of so-called "elite cows". Parameters of Selection are qualitatively and
quantitatively. Qualitative assessment assessed on various criteria including body shape,
fur color, temperament, and genetic defects. Quantitative measurement parameters
include body length, chest girth, height Gumba and weight. Selection of cows in BPTU HPT Denpasar refers to the SNI 7651.4.2015 about Bibit Sapi Bali qualitatively, namely:
22

a) body color reddish, white knee down, half-moon-shaped white rump, black tail
tip and there was a line eel black on the back;
b) Short Horn;
c) The shape of the head of a long and slender neck.

Figure 6. Breeding Cows Breed based SNI


Bali Cattle Cows sample data of Performace Test in BPTU HPT - Denpasar as
follows:
Table 9. Sample Data Measurement of Bali Cattle Cows Age 1 year
No Eartag
Bw
Muscle and Body Shape
Colour
Temp Mal.
(kg) TG
PB
LD
Muscle
1
0204.14 133 104 99
123 Compacted
Brown
Tame
2
0209.14 119 95
92
104 Compacted
Brown
Tame
3
0212.14 111 97
101 109 Compacted
Brown
Tame
4
0216.14 113 95
95
102 Compacted
Brown
Tame
5
0221.14 109 91
91
107 Compacted
Brown
Tame
Source : BPTU HPT Denpasar , 2016.
Based on the above data samples, livestock numbers 0204.14 based classification
standards by assessment BPTU - HPT Denpasar fall into the category of MEDIUM.
Standard classifications the medium category are BW 109-136 kg, temperament
Controlled, brown coat color, there are no defects, PB 95-101, LD 116-128, TG 96-101,
compact and muscular rear accordingly. Livestock numbers 0209.14, 0212.14, 0216.14,
0221.14 classified as bad because there are some classification parameters are not entered
minimum standards by assessment BPTU - HPT Denpasar.
Selection of breeding cows, female calves were selected start weaning (205 days).
Below assessment standard female calf weaning (205 days) and heifer aged one year to
be used as Breewding Cows candidate.

23

Inf.

Table 10. Assessment Standards Calf Weaning (205 days)


No.
Description
Good
1

Medium

Bad

Body weight (kg)


- Standard
- score

> 92
86 - 100

78 92
58 - 85

< 78
20

Colour
- Standard
- score

Reddish
60

Brown
45

Dark brown
30

Disability

No

Yes

No

> 89
86 100

83 - 89
58 85

< 83
20

> 112
86 100

103 112
58 85

< 103
20

> 93
76 85

88 93
58 - 75

< 88
20

Uncompacted

Uncompacted
and unharmony

60

20

Muscle and shape


- Body length
. Standard
. Score
- Chest girth
. Standard
. Score
- Witheirs Height
. Standard
. Score
- Muscle
. Standard
. Score

Compacted,
Infront of and
behind
80

Source : BPTU, 2016


Information : - Every defect will have a value of 0 means that the cows must be Cull.

24

Table 11. Assessment Standards Heifer Aged One Year


Classification
No
Description
Good
Medium
1
Body weight
- Standard
>136
109 136
- Score
86 100
56 - 85
2
Temperament
- Standard
Tame
Untame
- Score
80
20
3
Colour
- Standard
Brownish red
Brown
- Score
60
45
4
Disability
5
Muscle and Shape
- Body Length
. Standard
>101
95 - 101
. Score
86 100
58 85
- Chest Girth
. Standard
> 128
116 128
. Score
86 100
58 85
- Witheirs Height
. Standard
> 101
96 101
. Score
76 85
58 - 75
- Muscle
. Standard
Compacted
Uncompacted
Infront of and
. Score
behind
80
60
Source : BPTU, 2016

Bad
< 109
20
Wild
0
Dark Brown
30
-

< 95
20
< 116
20
< 96
20
Uncompacted and
unharmony
20

BPTU - HPT Denpasar in 2015 choosen four groups of breeding Cows. Bali cattle
are placed in a different paddock. Three groups to be mated with bull, which passed
performance test and one group mated with AI bull (livestock comparison). The
assessment of the parent basically the same as the ratings dara ready to marry (age 1.5
years) and an assessment of the offspring and the frequency of birth of the parent itself.
Here is a standard classification of female age of 1.5 years BPTU - HPT Denpasar:

25

Table 12. Assessment Standards Heifer Aged One Half Year


Classification
No
Description
Good
Medium
Bad
1
Body weight
- Standard
> 190
150 190
< 150
- Score
86 100
58 85
20
2
Temperament
- Standard
Jinak
Terkendali
Liar
- Score
69
20
0
3
Colour
- Standard
Brownish red
Brown
Brown Dark
- Score
60
45
30
4
Disability
5
Ambing
- Standard
Big, chewy,
Medium, chewy,
Small , unchewy,
Symmetrical
Symmetrical
Unsymmetrical
- Score
80
60
20
6
Muscle and Shape
- Body Length
. Standard
>110
101 - 110
< 101
. Score
86 100
58 85
20
- Chest Girth
. Standard
> 145
136 145
< 136
. Score
86 100
58 85
20
- Witheirs Height
. Standard
> 112
103 112
< 103
. Score
76 85
58 - 75
20
- Muscle
. Standard
Compacted
Uncompacted
Uncompacted and
Infront of and
unharmony
. Score
behind
60
80
20
Source : BPTU, 2016
Information : - Every defect will have a value of 0 means that the cows must be Cull.

26

4.4. Production and Distribution Breed of Bali Cattle


BPTU and HPT Denpasar especially Breeding center Pulukan to 2015 resulted in the
production of seedlings as many as 68 tail, which consisted of 15 males and 43 females, breed
produced in 2015 certified on a number of these breeds have been distributed to some areas as
many as 68 tails. Breed production as much of the cattle breeding program that has tested the
performance or the performance test will be spread seed to be sent to other provinces.
Tabel 13. Production and Distribution Breed in 2010-2015
No

1.

4
5

Year

2010

2011

2012

2013
2014

2015

Production Distribution
Province/UPT
(Tail)
(Tail)

125

105

100

60
62

68

125

105

100

3
68

68

Sex

Bali
Sulsel
Sultra
BBIB Singosari
Kaltim

Male
21
1
27
4
52

Total
Female (Tail)
21
42
1
27
4
52

Bali

41

22

63

Lampung

36

40

UPTD Bali

Bali

44

Jambi

Sumsel

Kalsel

Kaltim
Riau
BBIB Singosari
Riau
Bali
Riau
BET Cipelang
Bali
Kaltim
BET Cipelang
BBIB Singosari

8
3
4
3
15
3
2

Bengkulu
Total
520
469
Source : BPTU HPT Denpasar, 2016

243

27

2
12

20

56

9
24
24
9
7

28
3
4
3
57
3
9
26
24
9
7

228

471

42

4.5. Mating Management


Mating system conducted by the BPTU-HPT Denpasar done in two ways, by natural
mating and artificial insemination (AI). Natural mating was applied to cattle in the paddock,
whereas AI is applied to the cows were in the barn. BPTU-HPT Denpasar also applied
embryo transfer method, but this method is rarely used because it requires cooperation with
embryo transfer parliament.

Figure 7. Artificial Insemination (AI) in BPTU-HPT Denpasar


Artificial insemination is applied to the house eight, which containing cows. The first
procedure of the AI is estrus synchronization by injecting the PGF2a hormone in the cow will
be in AI. The second procedure is prepared tools and materials. The tools and materials for AI
are I-gun, aquades, soap, glove, tissues, tweezers, plastic sheets, warm water, and container
that containing straw. The third procedure is assembling gun and straw to be ready for use
after thawing the straw in warm water. Fourth procedure is palpation with a left hand to hold
the cervix and inject the right-hand gun.
Pregnancy examinations in BPTU-HPT Denpasar done by Rectal palpation and USG.
Rectal palpation performed on cattle yard or in the cage clamp for easier to control cattle.
Palpation generally did 2-3 months after the marriage. The first procedure is preparing tools
and materials which are clean water, glove, and soap. The second procedure is to clamp cows
in cage clamp. The third procedure that is positioned behind the cattle body sideways with
legs forming the letter T, it aims to avoid the kick from the foot of cattle. The fourth
procedure that is by lifting the tail with his right hand while the left hand wearing the glove
has been given a rectal lubricant soap, went into cattle rectal. Palpation did by finding the
uterus tract in cattle. If the uterus in cows is branched into two and could be pulled it can be
estimated that the cow is not pregnant.
4.6. Livestock Health Management
The disease is a threat that needs to be watched by each farmer. Most diseases are not
lethal but can cause prolonged health problems if not treated. The disease can also inhibit the
growth of livestock and reduced livestock productivity. A cattle can be said to be an ellite bull
when cattle are free from a variety of diseases and good health. Breeding Center BPTU-HPT
Denpasar implement some prevention and treatment process on all cows that are already
existing or newly arrived.
Prevention conducted by BPTU-HPT Denpasar include routine and non-routine
activities. Prevention activities routinely include Drenching, Spraying, Vaccination Jembrana
Disease (JD) and Septicemia Epizootics (SE) as well as the health control every day, while
the not routine activities are health care for post-parturition cow and newborn calf. SE
28

vaccine given to prevent snoring cattle diseases and vaccines JD is to prevent Jembarana
diseases. Vaccines SE performed every 6 months, in June and December. Vaccines JD did
once every year with 1 booster or repetition, usually conducted in February and then be
repeated in March. The purpose of repetition is to reduce the risk of an unvaccinated cattle
and anticipate if vaccines are not yet formed antibodies for livestock.
Disease prevention methods that conducted by BPTU-HPT Denpasar for cattle
procurement is quarantine. Quarantine is to anticipate if there are a sick cattle before it is
inserted into the paddock or house. The treatment given to cattle in quarantine includes the
provision of vitamins, antibiotics for 7 to 10 days, vaccines injection such as Epizootics
Septicemia (SE), Jembrana Disease (JD), and spraying. Spraying has sprayed the liquid into
livestock body using a tool that automatically spraying. Spraying aims to kill bacteria and
microorganisms. The composition of the mixture is Buttock antiseptic and water at a ratio of 1
ml: 1000 ml.

Figure 8. Vitamin B-Complex


Breeding party center-HPT BPTU Denpasar also conduct environmental sanitation
activities such as cleaning cages and feeding places. Cleaning is done by cleaning the dirt
with a shovel and then the floor sprayed with water using a hose. Scattered food remains
cleaned with a broom. Sanitation for equipment only is done by cleaning dirt with clean
water.
BPTU-HPT Denpasar conducted treatment on a sick or injured cattle. The treatment
process is sick or injured cattle begins with a medical examination. The medical examination
carried out every day at the house, in the paddock, and in the cattle yard. This check is
performed in order to determine which animal is sick or injured, if there are animals that are
sick or wounded, the employee will report to the health of livestock department. Health
department will ask the employee to observe the behavior of the sick or injured cattle.
Observation of the sick cattle is done by observing the consumption of feed (for cattle were
stabled), behavioral, and physiological condition. Sick cattle tend to be aloof, decreased
appetite, lethargy, and eyes look glassy. After observation, health department will determine
the treatment given to the cattle. There are two treatments that given to the cattle. The first
treatment that is if a cattle illness or injury suffered is not severe and is not contagious, it is
enough to treat the cattle then returned to the house or paddock. The second treatment is when
the disease is quite severe and contagious, then the cows will be placed in isolation cages. The
purpose of the isolation cage is that cattle can get special treatment and prevent the disease
spread to other cattle.

29

Diseases that have occurred in BPTU-HPT Denpasar, such as:


a) White eye disease
White eye disease caused when cattle graze on pasture. The cattle eyes exposed or
scratched to the flower or grass so the eyes would itch. Cattle will scratch his eyes with his
feet that cause eye irritation, watering, white, and if not treated immediately will cause
blindness. Treatment of sore eyes using oxytetracycline 1% or ag + and the prevention of
this disease is by cutting the grass.
b) Balliziekte disease
This disease was first discovered in Bali cattle. This disease caused when cattle
consuming some type of plants, like kirinju (leaves the ground), sibentar interest
(Eupotorium inufolium), and dew grass (Drymaria cordata). The infected cattle is injured
in some parts of the body. The wounds are symmetrical, which means if the left foot was
wounded, right foot will be also wounded. This disease will indirectly reduce the rate of
growth due to poor appetite. Treatment can be done to prevent cattle from direct sunlight
and water, antibiotics, and vitamins. The goal of treatment is to avoid secondary infections
because until now there is no medicine that can cure the Balliziekte disease.
c) Diarrhea
Diarrhea in Bali cattle is often the case in this BPTU typically caused by E. Colli and
toxidea in calves. Common symptoms in this disease are inflammation of the intestines,
watery stool, decreased appetite and drinking, weak and lethargic. The treatment for
diarrhea done of antibiotics with appropriate doses of cattle body weight, antihistamines,
and vitamins.
d) Bloat
Bloat is characterized by abdominal bloating as it contains gas. Symptoms often
appear that cattle often sighed, kicked their stomach, craning his neck and if it is acute the
cattle would collapse. The treatment is done by giving anti-flatulent orally in a ratio of 1: 3
(100 ml medicine: 300 ml of distilled water).
e) Demodex and Scabies
Demodex and Scabies are itch disease in cattle. Demodex and Scabies are caused by
parasites that live on the bodies of cattle. The symptoms of this disease are the cattle often
scratched his body and scabs appear on the skin surface of the animal. Treatment of this
disease is giving Ivermectin to reducing ectoparasites and endoparasites in the part of the
body that infected. Differences between Demodex and Scabies is the type of parasite, which
Demodex caused by Sarcoptes mange and Scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei.

30

Table 14. Disease and treatment of livestock in BPTU-HPT Denpasar


Month
No Disease
1
2
3
4
5
6 7
8 9 10
1
BEF
9
1
5
2
Kahexia
5
3
2 6
3
3
Enteritis
3
2
1
55
4
Tympani
1
3 2
1 2 1
5
Fisik
1
1
6
Balliziekte
1
1
7
Konjunctifitis
1
8
IBR
9
Trypanosoma
10
Leptospirosis
3
Source : (BPTU, 2015)

11

12

Amount
15
22
61
13
2
2
1
0
3
3

4.7. Forages Management (Hijauan pakan Ternak/ HPT)


The forage (HPT) is grasses and legumes from the certain region and another country.
The forage is important for cattle breeding. The forage is one aspect of feeding that needed for
Bali cattle breeding management. The characteristics of forage are high nutrition, high
productivity, and easy to cultivate.
4.7.1. Forage Types
2) Legume
Legume is high protein content forage, in order to capable as a natural
concentrate. Legume can replace grass on summer. BPTU-HPT Denpasar has some
legumes like Indigovera, Desmodium, Calliandra, Turi, Kelor, and Mini Lamtoro.

Figure 9. Calliandra
3) Grass
The grass is easy to plant and has high productivity forage. BPTU-HPT
Denpasar has some grasses like: Mexicana grass, Brachiaria plantaginea, Setaria
grass (Setaria sphacelata), Cetosia, Rujinensis grass (Brachiaria ruziensis), Signal
grass, Odot grass, Star grass, Kalimantan grass, and Leucaeuna. Poatong (2003)
explains Leucaeuna is addition protein source for ruminant cattle.

31

One of Leucaeuna type is lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala). Leucaeuna can


be by-pass protein source and can to be used for increase cattle growth. Lamtoro
leaf and fruit have high protein and energy. Lamtoro leaf and fruit are high
availability local raw material.

Figure 10. Kalimantan Grass


4.7.2. Forage Seeding Process
Forage has some seeding treatments, like: plant media processing, planting, and
handling.
1) Plant Media Processing
Plant media processing is a plant media treatment for creating the physical
characteristic and it is good for plant life and growth. Good plant media can fulfill
plant nutrition for growin. BPTU-HPT Denpasar uses plant media formula is soil,
manure, husk ash, and dolomite with the ratio of 3:2:1:1/2 or three buckets of soil,
two buckets of manure, a bucket of husk ash, and a half bucket of dolomite. The
function of soil as a plant media. The function of manure as a nutrition supplieer.
The function of husk ash as a soil microorganism binder. The function of dolomite
as soil acid neutralizer. Acid soil condition will prevent root for absorbing nutrient.
2) Planting
Planting has two important elements like planting substance and planting
range. Planting range depends on plant type. Planting for paddock grass needs near
planting range. Seed and stek are always to use for material planting.
3) Stek
Stek is seeding from plant cutting between two pols form root on productive
shoot forage. Example: Mexicana grass, Odot grass, Setia grass.

Figure 11. Cutting Mexicana grass for stek

32

4) Seed
Seed is an embryonic plant in a protective outer covering. Example:
Indigovera, Turi, and Lamtoro.
4.7.3. Handling
Plant handlings are cleaning plant from weeds and watering. Weeds are an
unwanted plant because it can decrease productivity. Weeds eradication can be done
manually and mechanically. Weed eradication by hand (without tools) is a manual
method, while mechanical methods are using hoe and sickle. BPTU-HPT Denpasar does
watering in the morning and afternoon at 07.30 AM and 15.00 PM.
4.8. Feeding Management
4.8.1. Feeding Processing
Beef cattle Breeding Business should provide enough fodder for livestock. The
great feed can be obtained from forage and concentrates (Department of Agriculture,
2006). Feed used in BPTU-HPT Denpasar is complete feed. The complete feed is a
mixture of grass and concentrates with the predetermined ratio. According Hartati,
Wijono and Siswanto (2007) rations for fattening beef cattle should consist of rough feed
/ forage and concentrates. The aim is to complement the lack of nutrients each other of
feed stuff that can be optimized for livestock performance. The production complete feed
of is done by division WASTUKAN (supervisory feed quality). Feed production process
include chopping, mixing, bagging and delivery.
1) Chopping
Chopping is a complete feed processing using the physical way is chop of
elephant grass. Chopping process using chopper machine that has three blades to
minimize particle of forage optimally. The function of minimizing the size of
forage that is to make it easier to digest by livestock. According to Hidayat,
Haryono, Marsudi and Gunanto (2006) states that the particle which has large size
impact on a surface area that attacked by microorganisms is reduced so that the
reform process is slow. Chopping process starts at 07.30 a.m. until 10.00 a.m. in
WITA. Food that will be cut, first be stored overnight. It aims to reduce the water
content and wither the forage.

Figure 12. Chopping Process

33

2) Mixing
Mixing is the process of improving forage nutrition with the addition of the
concentrate. According to Nani (2009), concentrate is a mixture of feedstuff that
mixed in such a manner that it becomes a feed stuff that functions to complement
nutritional deficiencies of other feed stuff (forage). Mixing process of forage and
concentrate is done manually. Comparison of forage and concentrate that is 80%
forage and 20% concentrate. The average daily production uses 4 tons of forage
with an additional 600 kg of concentrate. The mixing process conducted at 10.30
a.m. to 11.00 a.m. in WITA.

Figure 13. Preparation mixing concentrates and forage


3) Bagging
Bagging is packaging process of complete feed into the sack. Packaging is
done to ease the process of distribution of feed into each cage or paddock. Bagging
also conducted to save the feed to be fed to livestock on the next day. Correct feed
storage can increase the nutrient content of feed through the fermentation process.
Feed which packs badly can reduce the quality of feed. Each one sack consists of
approximately 15 kg of complete feed. The bagging process conducted at 11:00
a.m. until 12:00 a.m. in WITA.

Figure 14. complete feed in packaged


4) Distribution
Distribution feed is the transport process of complete feed to the paddock
and stables. Distribution feed 4 times a day. Distribution started from 07.30 a.m. to
deliver complete feed into the cage. The second distribution conducted at 09:00
a.m. for the transport of concentrate to the paddock. Third distribution carried out at
13:30 p.m. to the cage. Last distribution conducted at 14:00 p.m. for the transport of
feed to the paddock.

34

Figure 15. Delivery complete feed in paddock


4.8.2. Pasture Feeding System
Cattle in BPTU-HPT Denpasar maintained using the extensive and intensive
method. Extensive maintenance is using a grazing system where cows are grazing in the
paddock area. Paddock size varies, from 5 to 6 hectares of the composition of herds that
is between 100 to 200 head of cattle per paddock with a ratio of 30 male 1 female appeal.
Paddock restricted to one another with a barrier of fences that have a height about 120
cm. Guardrail in BPTU-HPT Denpasar using iron fences and those that use a barbed wire
fence.
Paddock area is an area of pasture forage in the form of competidor grass there.
Competidor grass used for productivity is high at 36 tons per year. Another advantage of
competidor grass that is resistant to conditions of heat and hold grind. Facilities available
in the paddock area is a place to drink, shade trees and shelter (in paddock 4 and 5).
Shade trees serve to protect the animals from heat or rain. Additional hay feeds given to
cattle feed variety in paddock area.
Treatment in the paddock is done by rotating the grazing in the paddock area,
embroider unproductive competidor grass and remove weeds that found in the paddock
area. Paddock rotation system use is made to provide rest periods in order to produce
normal again after use. Competidor grass unproductive needed stitching. It aims to
maintain the quality and quantity of grass contained in the paddock area. Krasi plant is a
weed that must be removed from the paddock area. Krasi young plants can be removed
by mechanical means, namely by depriving Krasi plants and their roots. Krasi plants that
already have strong roots removed using chemical means to spray pesticides.

Figure 16. Feeding Pasture

35

4.9. Housing Management


Housing is a building that serves cattle protect from bad weather and wild animal
(Abidin, 2002). Construction of the housing is designed according to local climatic
conditions, type of livestock, and maintenance purposes cattle itself. In designing livestock
barns is important to consider about the height of the building, roof position, as well as the
floor of the house. Housing construction as one of the environmental factors livestock must be
able to ensure the health and convenience of the animals. BPTU-HPT cage in Denpasar
amounted to nine pieces of each enclosure has a different size depending, among other things:
Table 15. Cattle Housing in BPTU-HPT Denpasar
Type
Housing 1
Housing 2
Housing 3
Housing 4
Housing 5
Housing 6

Function
Temporary Cattle
LS-PRO & Superior cattle
LS-PRO & Superior cattle
LS-PRO & Superior cattle
LS-PRO & Superior cattle
LS-PRO & Superior cattle

Lenght
(m)
12,62
10
10
6,2
4,88
10

Housing 7
LS-PRO & Superior cattle 10,00
Housing 8
Cow
20,00
Housing 9
Unhealthy Cattle
2,30
(isolation housing)
Source : BPTU HPT Denpasar, 2016

Wide (m)

Height (m)

9
7,4
3,25
5,10
6
8

2,7
2
2,00
1,95
2
2,2

7,20
10,00
2,10

3,80
3,20
1,70

4.9.1. Roofing and House Construction


Framework house in BPTU-HPT Denpasar mostly made of steel, construction of
enclosure walls is made open so that the air exchange smoothly and sunlight can still get
into housing. This is in accordance with the statement of Abidin (2002) that the sun,
especially in the morning, should be able to enter directly into the house. Sunlight can
turn pro-vitamin D into vitamin D and it is very good to kill the germs that live in the
housing.
Roof type in BPTU-HPT Denpasar made of zinc with a metal frame, but there is
one house that using tiles. This is in accordance with Yani (2007) which states that the
roof can be made of tiles, zinc, thatch, asbestos and others. Type of gable roof used is
intended that the air circulation is maintained because of the condition of the roof only
partially covers housing area. This is not consistent with the statement Hartati (2007) that
the model roof for upland areas should use shade or gable, while the lowlands are semi
monitor or monitors.

36

4.9.2. Floor Housing


Floor type in BPTU- HPT Denpasar using materials from cement so the cattle can
rest well, easy to clean and must be strong so it is not easily destroyed by trampling
cattle. The slope of the floor has been based on the standard of 3% -5% to aid the disposal
of feces and urine with water flow, but in BPTU-HPT Denpasar not all enclosures have
the same slope of the floor. This is in accordance with Hartati (2007) which states that the
floor of the cage should always maintain drainage, so sloped rearward for easy disposal
of dirt and maintain the condition of the floor remains dry. The slope of the floor ranges
between 2-5%, which means that each 1-meter length of the floor, the floor height of the
rear decreased by 2-5 cm. Where feed and water are provided individually or for each
animal. The feeding and drinking places had the size of each 10 m long, 40 cm wide and
35 cm high.
4.9.3. Type of House
House generally has two types, namely individual and loose housing (Abidin,
2006). Individual housing is consisting of a room or a building and ais only used to
maintain a single head of cattle each space. loose housing is consisting of a room or a
building, but is used for cattle in large quantities. Each Performance test (PT) cattle has
space with a length of 2.6 meters wide and 2 meters wide which mean it has a 5.2 m2.
This is in accordance with Hanafi (2010) that, the individual house can be a partition on
the front of the animal, from the manager to the body section of the cattle or start
manager to cattle hip height bulkhead as high as cow weight. Cattle were placed in
individual house, tied with rope on the front. The size of individual houses adjusted to the
size of the cattle's body, which is about 2.5 m long and 1. 5 m in width.

Figure 17. Housing type head to head


Figure 18. Housing type tail to tail
Housing in BPTU type i head to head and tail to tail. At the front of housing type
head to head is the manager (where feed and drinking water place), while the rear is a
sewage ditch. PT cattle tail to tail types, has a length of 10 meters, 7 meters wide and
3.25 meters high with a capacity of seven cattle, made barriers with steel so that it
becomes the an individual house. The advantage of this type of housing is easier for
officers in cleaning cattle dung. This is in accordance with Ngadiyono (2007) that the
type of housing divided into two, in a single housing and double housing. The single
enclosure consists of a single line of housing that includes alleys and ditches or trenches.
Double housing, there are two kinds of cattle head to head and tail to tail equipped a
hallway for easy feeding and controlling cattle.

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Figure 19. Housing Type Isolation


Isolation house has a function for animals that need special handling like cattle
was sick but not infectious, cows who do not want to breastfeed their calves and cattle of
procurement (IPD) have not been able to Yespt in the paddock. Isolation house placed far
from healthy houses, in order not to infect other animals. In general, from a technical
point of housing in BPTU-HPT Denpasar unit Breeding Center Pulukan is good enough
because it is far from residential areas, construction of housing is strong, easy to clean,
has a good air circulation, not damp. This is according to Grace (2005) which states a few
things to be aware of the housing including the layout design, capacity and building
materials, especially flooring and roofing of house.

38

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1. Conclusion
Based on the results of the discussion can be summarized as follows:
1) The important breeding program in BPTU - Denpasar HPT divided into two : IPD
(initial selection target of the herd) and Breeding Center in Pulukan (following next
selection). Livestock from IPD and Breeding Center Pulukan offspring take a
performance test. 5% of the best results in performance test bulls, continued to zuriat
test. The best results are sent to the Balai Inseminasi Buatan (BIB).
2) Breeding or selection of livestock in BPTU - HPT Denpasar refers to the SNI and
Standards Assessment Directive livestock BPTU - HPT Denpasar. Assessment is done
qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative consists of body shape, fur colour,
temperament and genetic defects, while the quantitative parameters, among others,
length, withers, chest circumference and body weight.
3) Implementation of Progeny Test conducted on candidates of bull mated with a group
productive heifer (breeding cows). The tests were conducted at random and then the
offspring of sires trial participants compared to bull descendants of other trial
participants, while the offspring bull IB as a comparison. An evaluation of the
offspring in each group breeding cows when calves a year old (365 days) then
compare with the offspring of a group IB, to see improved quality of males tested.
4) Quality of bull ta take progeny test in Breeding Center Pulukan have a good result, as
seen from four candidates cattle tested, all bull that passes value quality improvement
offspring over artificial insemination (AI).
5) Progeny best of trial participants is bull number 0549.11 bulls with progeny value of
+3.33. Progeny Test results year 2015, the bulls that have recommendation to sent to
BIB as four head of cattle, namely:
- Bull with ear tag 0549.11, value +3.33
- Bull with ear tag 0540.11, value +1.29
- Bull with ear tag 0511.11, value +1.17
- Bull with ear tag 0133.11, value +1.15
5.2. Suggestion
1) Improvement of water supply facilities improved with the creation of artesian wells,
wells aesthetic that water availability both in the paddock and housing available ad
libitum.
2) When the water supply already good, water bunk in paddock used buoy system is in a
state of lower condition, the water will be filled in automatically so that water
availability will be ad libitum to avoid dehydration cattle.
3) Cattle crushes in cattle yard repaired with modern systems so that handling cattle does
not use a rope and not hurt the animal.
4) Housing construction should be improved as the slope of the floor made 2-5% in order
to simplify and efficient in cleaning the cage.
41

5) Legumes in HPT not just be a collection but applied in the paddock. It would be
provide additional nutrition through a feeding legume in the paddock.
6) Controlling or maintenance of plants in the paddock for more attention, as the growth
of plants that are toxic (eg. Krasi) to reduce the occurrence of diseases such as
balliziekte.
7) Supplied digital scales in the barn, so that the results of feed put into a sack can be
counted quickly and accurately (balanced between the feed sacks and the others).
8) The paddock for pregnant heifers made more secure, in order to avoid wild animals
(eg wild dogs) which will take the calf.
9) To produce superior bull based on minimum standard of SNI, the frequency and
amount of feeding is not changed every times, because it can affect the growth of
body dimensions of Bali cattle.

42

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