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BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNOTATION

DICTATION TECHNIQUES AND THE KINDS

This assignment is to fulfill one of the requirements


to follow Microteaching subject guided by Wawan HS, M.Pd

UNIVERSITY OF ISLAM KADIRI


FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
DECEMBER

Annotation 21
Effects
The
ofEffectiveness
Dicto-Comp and
of Dictation
DictationMethod
on the Writing
in College
Skill
English
of
Female
Vocabulary
Adult Iranian
Teaching
EFL Learners
Author
Rahil Adel & Mahmood Hashemian
Year
September
18, 2015
Author
Qu Tang,
College of Foreign Studies of Guilin University of
Publisher
Published
by
Canadian
Technology, ChinaCenter of Science and Education
Journal
English Language Teaching; Vol. 8, No. 11; 2015
URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v8n11p17
Year
July 2012
Contain
of
This study
was an PUBLISHER
attempt to compare
the L2 learners/teachers
of
Publisher
ACADEMY
Manufactured
in Finland
Annotation
2 kinds
of writing:
dicto-comp
and dictation.
We explored
the7, pp.
Journal
Theory
and Practice
in Language
Studies,
Vol. 2, No.
effect1472-1476,
of controlled
writing
July
2012 on the accuracy of the writing of
adult http://artikel.dikti.go.id/pelatihan/index.php/pojs03/article/vie
Iranian EFL learners. Prior to the study, the participants
URL
were wFile/601/273
30 adult EFL learners was checked through an OPT test.
Contain of Annotation
ThirtyThis
participants
paper introduces
were assigned
the theories
to 10 one-hour
that support
sessions:
dictation
Group
A used
method
dicto-comp
and theand
effective
Group strategies
B used dictation.
for applying it. Besides,
Following
this paper
this practice,
also explains
the participants
how the teachers
in bothshould
groupsdowere
to help the
askedstudents
to writeenhance
texts as the
enthusiasm
posttest about
and confidence
similar topics
for learning,
to the one
of thestimulate
pretest. The
learning
results
motivation,
showed that
reduce
the participants
or eliminateworking
their
in thedifficulty
dictation and
wrote
take
more
measures
accurately
to improve
than those
theirwho
ownwrote
language
in
dicto-comp
skills, so
format;
as to raise
however,
the efficiency
but both dictation
of memorizing
and dicto-comp
vocabulary
geve and
positive
achieve
effects
the on
purpose
the writing
of increasing
of the participants.
vocabulary.
Comment
As the texts revealed, applying dicto-comp and dictationas
Comment
two kinds
As the
ofwriter
controlled
said that
writings
memorizing
had anwords
impact
is one
on the
of the
writing
keys to
of adult
learn
L2English
learnersand
because
also the
controlled
most boring
writing
taskincludes
for many
listening
Chinese
to thestudents.
teacher who
therefore,
is reading
the application
a text, and of
taking
dictation
notes,method
then into
creating
vocabulary
a similarteaching
one, or writing
so as tothe
help
sentences
the students
downto effectively
immediately.
memorize
ForEnglish
covering
words.
theseAnd
steps,
great
theachievements
learners are tohave
first,been
listenmade
very well
through
andour
then,
efforts.
reevaluate
Dictation
theirtechnique
knowledge
should
and use
notitbe
in a correct
isolatedform
because
whileitthe
really
readcan
text
increase
is a pattern
students
for them
enthusiasm
to
follow.
andGiving
improve
dicto-comp
their efficiency
or dictation
of memorizing
technique words.
in female
And
adult
only
over 55
in this
years
way
oldcan
it was
the not
students
good properly
idea because
use English
the mind
vocabulary
power
of them
andare
improve
low. Ittheir
is better
comprehensive
used for young
capacity.
learners because they
still have good mind power and spirit
Title
Title

Title
Author
Year
Publisher
Journal
URL
Contain of Annotation

Comment

Annotation 3
The Effect of Transcribing on Beginning Learners Dictation
Mohammad Afsharrad; Semnan University, Semnan, Iran;
October 2014
ACADEMY PUBLISHER Manufactured in Finland.
Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 4, No. 10
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276248054_The_Effe
ct_of_Transcribing_on_Beginning_Learners'_Dictation
In its undulating trend through the history of language teaching,
dictation has been used as a tool in both teaching and testing. It
has been employed as a tool for either helping learners with
some language skills/sub-skills or testing their language
proficiency. Considering that dictation tests tap learners overall
language proficiency, it is logical to think that improving
learners ability in taking dictation improves their language
proficiency. In this study we have considered dictation as an
end, have proposed transcribing as a technique to improve it,
and have examined the effect of transcribing on dictation.
Thirty one elementary female learners participated in this study.
The findings of the study show that transcribing has a
significant positive effect on learners dictation. Therefore, we
recommend transcribing exercise as one of the techniques to
help elementary learners improve their language proficiency.
The positive effect of transcribing on dictation, EFL teachers of
elementary levels are advised to include transcribing exercise as
one of the techniques at their proposal to develop elementary
EFL leaners overall language proficiency. Learners are also
advised to use transcribing when they prepare for a dictation
test.
From that positive effect, dictation is very effective to increase
some skills of English.

Title
Author
Year
Publisher
Journal
URL

Contain of Annotation

Comment

Annotation 4
Written Spelling to Dictation: Sound-To-Spelling Regularity
Affects Both Writing Latencies and Durations
Marie Delattre and Patrick Bonin and Christopher Barry
2006
American Psychological Association
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and
Cognition 2006.
http://leadserv.u-bourgogne.fr/files/publications/000173written-spelling-to-dictation-sound-to-spelling-regularityaffects-both-writing-latencies-and-durations.pdf
The authors examined the effect of sound-to-spelling regularity
on written spelling latencies and writing durations in a dictation
task in which participants had to write each target word 3 times
in succession. The authors found that irregular words (i.e., those
containing low-probability phoneme-to-grapheme mappings)
were slower both to initially produce and to execute in writing
than were regular words. The regularity effect was found both
when participants could and could not see their writing
(Experiments 1 and 2) and was larger for low- than for highfrequency words (Experiment 3). These results suggest that
central processing of the conflict generated by lexically specific
and assembled spelling information for irregular words is not
entirely resolved when the more peripheral processes
controlling handwriting begin.
The results of Experiment 3 show that the combined effects of
sound-to-spelling regularity and the lexical variable of word
frequency influence the central processes of spelling that then
cascade to the peripheral processes of writing execution. The
conflict generated by the different spellings provided by the
assembled and lexical routines for irregular words continues to
exert an influence even after handwriting is initiated. However,
there was no main effect of word frequency on writing
durations, and inspection of the interaction between regularity
and frequency showed that there was only a small (23 ms) and
unreliable effect of word frequency on the writing durations of
regular words. This may suggest that it is only the unresolved
conflict concerning the spelling of irregular words that cascades
to affect writing execution; variables that simply affect the ease
of retrieving a spelling (such as frequency) appear not to
necessarily cascade in the same fashion.

Annotation 7
6
A Review on the Effect Annotation
of Using Dictogloss
Tasks and Fake Scoring on
The Effects of Educational Multimedia in Dictation and Its Role in
Children's Dictation Ability
5 Dictation Difficulty
Improving
Dysgraphia
inAnnotation
Students
with
Author
Batool
Faghani,
Ali dictation
Derakhshan
& Ali
Zangoei
Title
Using
to
teach
pronunciation
(Usando o ditado para
Author
Esmaeel
Azimi
and
Saeed
Mousavipour
Year
September 4, ensinar
2015 a pronncia)
Year
2014 Linguistics Research
Publisher
English
Author
Patrick BLANCHE
Publisher
CONTEMPORARY
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 2014, Iran
Journal
Vol.
4,
No.
3;
2015
Year
2004
Journal
5(4), 331-340
URL
Publisher http://dx.doi.org/10.5430/elr.v4n3p58
Linguagem & Ensino
URL
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280096722_The_Effects_of_Ed
Contain
of
Writing
is
one
of the
important
skills that should be mastered by
Journal
Vol.
7, No.
1, 2004language
(175-191)
ucational_Multimedia_in_Dictation_and_Its_Role_in_Improving_Dysgr
Annotation
the foreign language
learners to convey their concepts in written form, so
URL
www.rle.ucpel.tche.br/index.php/rle/article/viewFile/219/186
aphia_in_Students_with_Dictation_Difficulty
teachers should
contemplate
on different
applicable techniques
to promote
Contain
the teaching
has notofalways
been
Contain
of of Annotation
The purposeAlthough
of the present
researchofispronunciation
to study the effects
educational
this skill. Oneneglected,
of these techniques
is
dictogloss
task.
Dictogloss
task
is
a not
has its
been
long time,dysgraphia
and this situation
does
Annotation
multimedia in dictationitand
roleforinaimproving
in students
technique of dictation
that can be used
teaching of
writing
appear
tomethod
be changing
the for
best
some
with dictation
difficulty.
Research despite
methodology
is efforts
categorized
as being
cooperatively.prominent
It has fourFLT
steps
which
are
preparation,
dictation,
professionals.
The
present
article
shows
quasi-experimental. The statistical population of the study includes how
reconstruction,
and analysis
correction.
Dictogloss
procedure
is
dictation
can
beand
used
in the
a novel
waygrade
to teach
pronunciation
students with
dictation
difficulty
of
second
of primary
schoolsin
practical and flexible
enough
to
account
for
the
needs,
interests,
and
almost
any FLacademic
classroom.
A practical,
stepwise
procedure
of Arak in the
2011-2012
year.
The population
(including
39is
learning preferences
of
learners.
Kids
and
even
adults
need
reassurance
in detail,
and follow-up
activities
are outlined.
This
students) is explained
selected through
utilization
of Poisson
sampling
procedure.
and flexibilityway
fromoftheir
teachers
while
learning.
They
need
not
to
be
students suggests
thattobringing
thethe
From the designatedworking
sample,with
20 members
are selected
be put in
interrupted while
producing,
and
sometimes
their
mistakes
are
better
not
to
pronunciation
back
into FLare
classrooms
require
experiment teaching
group andofthe
remaining 19
members
put in thewill
control
be announcedaand
corrected
at the time.ofAtraditional
motivational
strategyespecially
to reach
thorough
re-evaluation
methods,
group. Clinical
interview,
dictation test,
and Wechsler
Intelligence Scale
that goal was those
to ignore
their writing
mistakes
in scoring
simplyrole.
and
in which
pronunciation
used
play abycrucial
for Children- Revised
(WISC-R)
are utilized
totodistinguish
students with
that the
mistaken
part
have been
Comment slightly showing
Thethem
procedure
and
activities
in could
this research
are written
in goodin the
dictation difficulty from normal-progress students in learning disability
correct form. illustration.
Given the background
of unsatisfactory
number
of studies
on
They are inclusive
(of reading,
writing
and
center. Dictation test for data compilation and Man-Whitney- Wilcoxon
improving children
language
performance,
especially,
their
speaking)
ratherlearning
than exclusive.
They do
not require
a
U-Test (MWW) for data analysis are used. The findings of the study
writing in pre-school
age,
this
review
study
is
aimed
to
highlight
a
superlative knowledge of phonology and work well atuseful
different
depict that the level of improvement of dysgraphia of those students who
technique in the
language
teaching
activities,
not
just
English.
It
has
an is
levels and in large classes. They also reveal how dictation
rely on educational multimedia in dictation has a positive statistical
endeavor to find
the influence
of giving
fake high
scores in a dictogloss
congruous
with the
top-down,
communicative.
significance in comparison with those who rely on normal educational
task on kids' dictation
ability.
It is
thatstill
teachers
should
be
Therefore,
if most
FLrecommended
educators today
believe
that the
procedures (p<.001). Therefore, educational multimedia in dictation has
encouraged todictation
voice their
capable
of any required
as aviewpoints
technique and
can be
only
be associated
with a
a positive impact in improving dysgraphia in students with dictation
changes regarding
their class
and be able The
to rely
on themselves
traditional,
notsituation
a communicative.
researcher
purpose
difficulty.
rather than books.
spite of to
being
fair,
it is sometimes
needed
to
lessen
usingIndictation
teach
pronunciation
shows
how learning
this
technique
Comment
Most educational
multimedia
tools and
applications
consider
the strictness is
towards
some with
students.
It is concluded that and
fakeeven
highselfscoring
compatible
cooperative,
disabilities in dictation
generally;
however, interactive
the software application
used
on a permanent
dictogloss
task is
a suitable,
applicable,
and appropriate
directed
learning,
thus
how
meaningful
dictation
can
be.
in the present research studies learning disability professionally and In fact,
device for EFL
teachers
andislearners
to achieve
their educational
aims.
dictation
inherently
student
student
individually.any
Such
a software
application
has acentered
potentialand
to resolve
Comment
This review attempted
to
study
and
find
out
the
possible
way
to
help
controlled.
Of course,
dictation is
probablyto
notthetheresults
onlyvery
students learning
disability
fundamentally.
According
of
young language
learners in
their
dictation
writing
or, perhaps, other
writing
improbable
tool
we
have
to
teach
pronunciation.
Nor
does
it
this study, it is suggested that educational multimedia in dictation should
activities. Regardingly,
the
output
suggests
that
fake
high
scoring
using
suit
everybodys
learning
or teaching
style. Yet
it should
be utilized in
coping
with students
learning
disabilities
in dictation.
dictogloss taskcertainly
had a strongly
positive
effect
on
weak
learners'
real scores
have
a placemultimedia
in any modern,
multi-modal
Furthermore, a number
of other
applications
can beFLT
utilized
in their dictogloss
performance. As a comment, syllabus designers and
methodology.
in coping with other learning disabilities, considering the prevalent
teacher training instructors are expected to include any techniques to give
educational regulations and standards.
more weight to motivating the learners as one possible pathway to solve
similar problems, like this study, teachers should not be afraid of the
possible side-effects of such procedures.
Title
Title

Annotation
14
Annotation
13
Annotation
10
11
Annotation
98 Listening Comprehension Ability
Annotation
12
Title
The Effect
of Partial
Dictationaton
Title
Note
Dictation
in Classrooms
thethe
Secondary
School
Level:
Its
Title
Dictation
in
the
ESP
classroom:
a tool
to
improve
Effects
of
Different
Types
of Dictation
Practice
on Immediate
Combining
dictogloss
and
cooperative
learning
to language
promoteand
Title
TheIntermediate
Using
role
Dictation
of listening
to Improve
comprehension
Language
inProficiency
dictation
of
Iranian
EFL
Learners
implications
proficiency
Author
ParyaPerformance
Mohammad
Habibi,
Rahimi,
Azadeh
Nemati,
and Sharmin
Delayed
on Shiraz
Tests
ofUniversity
Present
Tense Habibi
To Be Verbs and
language
learning
Author
Amir
Marzban1
and
Maryam
Abdollahi2
Author
Mrs.
Bahunlang
Tron
Author
Galina
Kavaliauskien
and
Irena
Darginaviien
Year
AugustArticles
March/2008
2012
Author
George
Jacobs and John Small
Year
2013Indefinite
Year
Year
Publisher
Indian
The
Asian
Journal
EFL
of
Journal,
Science
and Technology
Year
April
2003
Author
RoyaExplorer
Khoii and
Elham
Pourhassan
Publisher
Science
Publications
Publisher
CTE
(PGT),
Shillong
Publisher
Mykolas
Romeris
University,
Vilnius, Lithuania
Journal
Vol. Reading
5Research
No.
10,8Number
1 of Applied
Publisher
The
Matrix
Year
2011Volume
Journal
International
Journal
and Basic Sciences
Journal
Journal
English
forUniversity,
Specific Purposes
World,
v.8, issue 23
URL
http://www.indjst.org/index.php/indjst/article/download/30542/
http://asian-efl-journal.com/905/quarterlyJournal
Vol.3.
No.1
Publisher
Islamic
Azad
North
Tehran
Branch
URL
www.irjabs.com/files_site/paperlist/r_1428_130914160025.pdf
URL
https://www.academia.edu/9318242/Note_Dictation_in_Classrooms_at_
URL
http://www.esp-world.info/
URL
http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/jacobs_small/article.pdf
26467
journal/2008/03/using-dictation-to-improve-languageJournal
Contain of
This study
investigated the effects of partial dictation on the listening
the_Secondary_School_Level_Its_implications
Contain
of
Annotationhttps://www.academia.edu/4195113/Effects_of_Different_Types_of
Dictation
has
been
used
in language
testing for
aample
longtechnique
time,
but
Contain
of
Annotation
This
article
describes
dictogloss,
integrated
A
cursory
look
at most
students
inanKurdistan
isskills
to
show
URL
proficiency/
Annotation
comprehension
(LC)
ability
of
Iranian
intermediate
EFL
learners.
Two
Contain of
Dictation
in
its
simplest
form
refers
to
a
person
reading
some
text
aloud
its
in of
language
hasdictation,
been
questioned
by
for
language
learning
inteaching/learning
which
students
work
together
create
Contain of Annotation
thatbenefit
Dictation,
thegroups
role
though
widely
comprehension
known
as learners
a testing
in
can
astoan
be
_Dictation_Practice_on_Immediate_and_Delayed_Performance_on
homogeneous
oflistening
intermediate
EFL
atdevice,
theWhen
Abrar
Annotation
so
that the
listener(s)
can
write
down
what
is
being
said.
used
in
some
language
teachers.
dictation
seems
to be
aintegral
reconstructed
version
ofCurrently
awere
text read
to
them
by
their
teacher.in
considered
partainof
good
language
learning
learning,
technique
has
to
often
improve
been
learners
overlooked
_Tests_of_Present_Tense_To_Be_Verbs_and_Indefinite_Articles
Language
Institute
Qaemshahr
chosen.
Each
group
consisted
the
language
classroom,
the aim
has
traditionally
been
for
students
to
undergoing
a
revival
as
a
useful
teaching
device.
It
is
thought
Contain of
Theproficiency.
present
study
investigated
the effects
ofeffect
three
types
of
dictation
The
article
begins
for
explaining
the
basic
dictogloss
technique,
the
development
This
of
study
EFL
investigates
curriculum.
the
To
conduct
of
dictation
the
study
with
80
of 30down
female
intermediate
EFL
students.
Onefor
of word,
the groups
was chosen
write
what
is said
byhelp
the teacher,
word
laterthat
checking
that
dictation
can
allthem
language
skills,
is,
Annotation
practice
(standard
dictation,
and
dictogloss)
on
contrasting
itgroup
with
dictation,
and
citing
research
students
65
EFL
learners
were
selected
to traditional
see develop
from
if dicto-comp,
it
helps
Islamic
Azad
improve
University,
their
language
Sanandaj
as
the
experimental
(EG),
and
the
other
as
the
control
group
their owngrammar,
text against
the
original
and
correcting
the
errors
made.
While
oral
communication,
pronunciation,
elementary
EFL
learners'
immediate
and
delayed
performance
related
to
the
use
ofdivided
dictogloss
in
second
instruction.
Branch.
proficiency.
They
To
were
this
end,
an
experimental
into
groups
Alanguage
group
and
Band
(EG)
andlistening
were
and a on
(CG).
They
both
took
a
listening
test
as
a
pre-test.
For
one
term,
this certainly
has its uses,However,
there are there
countless
variations
thatusefulness
can make it
are
no
data
ontook
the
testscomprehension.
ofof
present
tense
bestudents
verbs
indefinite
articles
inproficiency
English.
Next,
dictogloss
istothe
situated
inand
relat
ion
to
eight
current,
taught
control
dictation
group
(CG)
in
two
were
different
selected.
ways.
They
For
both
group
Aawere
it
was
doneof
consisting
20
sessions,
in
the
control
group
given
more interesting
and
learner-centered.
In
most
classrooms,
dictation
is
at tertiary
level.
Theelementary
present
work
aims
at with
Thedictation
participants
consisted
ofconditions,
55
level
young-adults
overlapping
trends
in
second
teaching.
Then,
in the
traditionally
test
asexercises
a pre-test.
while
All
for
the
group
Blanguage
it The
wasespecially
in
accordance
teaching
the
listening
in
their
textbook.
experimental
group,
in
employed
mostly by teachers
to
difficult
portionslearners
and more so
investigating
ofcounter
dictation
byEach
examining
studying
English
inthe
three
intact
classes.
group
received
key
section
ofbenefits
article,
aindescription
isimproving
provided
of
how the
processing
materials,
were
listening
the
comprehension
and
listening.
addition
to
the
listening
exercises
the
textbook,
was
given
partial
when teachers
areand
to explain
abstract
content.
Dictation
hasattherefore
attitudes
drawing
conclusions
at
its
suitability
tertiary
treatment
regarding
the use
oflearning
one
ofthat
the
three
different
forms
of
literature
on
cooperative
enables
teachers
toto
better
The
result
for
both
of
ANCOVA
groups
except
revealed
that
the
EG
group
Bterm
regular
leads
practice
higher
dictationsame
11
times
during
term.
of had
the
LC
ability
undergone
a paradigm
shiftthe
where
itAt
is the
nowend
widely
used
asthe
a technique
level.
dictation
forwas
three
sessions.
At the
end
ofpost-test
the
treatments,
twomore
understand
how
dictogloss
works
and
to use
dic
performance
with
dictation
infor
dictation.
one semester.
The
wastogloss
administered
both
groups
post-tested
with
the
same
listening
from a
tooflighten
theaims
workload
of teachers,
to
save
time
in case test
of
ataken
teacher
The
of
research
are
to
determine
students
attitudes
to
immediate
posttests
were
administered
to athe
three experimental
effectively.
Included
in
this
section
is
rationale
for
using
in
a
semester
after
the
experiment
had
terminated.
The
results
TOFEL
test,and
which
also
used as the
listening
pre-test.
Results
of ait
being
absent
as
aawas
tool
to complete
thetool.
syllabus
on time.methods
However,
dictation
as
language
learning
research
Comment
Unless
dictation
isgroups
meaningful
foralso
theThe
students,
they
wouldnt
groups.
After
three
weeks
they
were
given
two
delayed
dictogloss
with
global
issues
content.
Finally,
eight
variations
showed
that
both
showed
improvement
in
their
t-testbe
showed
that dictation
dictation in
haditself
a significant
effect
on the and
listening
must
noted that
has
manyduringadvantages
it is
include
learners
feedback
on
prior-,
and
post-dictation
be able
to
form
properly
inresults
dictation
processes.
Dictation
is
posttests.
The
analyses
of
the
revealed
that
the
standard
on
the
basic
dictogloss
procedure
are
presented.
performance
on
the
whole
proficiency
test.
However,
with
comprehension
ability
of
the
participants
in
the
experimental
group.
hoped that
this study
will
render outcome
valuable of
help
toresearch
teachersison
how
to
activities.
The
intended
the
to
draw
Comment
The
first
section
of
this
article
described
how
dictogloss
fits
made group
meaningful
when it serves
logic
behind
presenting
dictation
had
outperformed
thethe
other
groups
on the
respect
to
the
components
of the
test,
thetwo
EG
showed
The
mean
gain
scores
of
the
experimental
group
were
significantly
make dictation
an effective
method that
can be
employed
in classroom
conclusions
on
the
benefits
oftoand
using
dictation
asand
with
current
trends
in
language
teaching.
Among
these
trends
is
listening,
semantic,
syntactic,
pragmatic
properties
of
immediate
tests
of
tense
be
verbs
and
indefinite
articles,
improvement
inpresent
grammar,
vocabulary,
reading,
listening
higher
than
those
of
the
control
group.
teaching.a teaching / learning tool at tertiary level. The participants in
offact
student
-student
collaboration.
Key
principles
language.
So
this
research,
notofgroups
only
emphasized
aimprovement
useful for
way of
and the
the use
dictogloss
and
dicto-comp
had
outperformed
the
comprehension,
while
themost
control
group
showed
Comment
Considering
that
all
but
the
language
learners,
Comment
Dictation
has the
always
been
a rather
controversial
activity
in the
this
are
students
ofthe
two
different
specializations
who
understanding
andcomprehension
facilitating
this
collaboration
were
discussed
teaching
in
dictation,
can beto
standard
group
on
delayed
posttest
of but
present
tense
justinstudy
indictation
thelistening
vocabulary
section
of
the
test.
especially
countries
English
language
is taught
aalso
foreign
classroom
especially
in that
language
classrooms.
Like
any as
other
activity
study
English
forthere
specific
at the
faculty
ofspelling
social
in
the
second
section
of
thepurposes
article,
including
the principle
ofand
used
sHowever,
anproblem
effective
method
to
improve
the
students
be verbs.
was
no
statistically
difference
language,
have
ofsignificant
whatever
listen
dictation
has
a number
of understanding
advantages butthe
at gist
the same
time is they
not free
policy,
romeris
university,
Lithuania.
cooperation
as
aof
value
and
the
use
of
global
issues
Comment
dictating
The
results
ability.
of
the
study
showed
that
the
experimental
groupasof
between
themykolas
means
theavenue
three
groups
on
their
delayed
posttest
to, this
research
can
open
an
perceive
the content
problem
from
limitations.
However,
in spite oftoitsfirstly
limitations,
dictation
is still
one
means
of
operationalizing
this
principle.
Variations
on
made
some
improvement
in
their
language
proficiency.
The
indefinite
articles.
existed as
and
secondlydevice
to establish
a methodology
in language
teaching
favored
a
teaching
at
some
stages
of
language
teaching.
Learners
attitudes
to dictations
infinal
ESPsection.
classes
haveneed
beentoSome
Comment
Given
the
findings
of
this
research,
language
teachers
dictogloss
were
explained
in
the
control
accordingpractitioners
to propertiesview
of partial
dictation
and useofitinculcating
in languagethebe
language
dictation
as
a
method
investigated.
Theshowed
following
have
been
drawn.
First,
convinced
that, although
dictation
is one ofhow
the
oldest
techniques
in
TheBecause
current
paradigm
not
just
we
teach
and
how
group,
however,
no conclusions
improvement
on
the
proficiency
pedagogy.
this
study is
found
thatabout
dictation
can
have
apractice
positive
language
proficiency
in students
especially
theare
badly
needed
in
class
dictations
of
authentic
materials
beneficial
to
students
language
teaching,
should
not
beability
removed
from
the subtest.
schedules
students
learn.
Itit is
just as
much
about
why
students
learn andof
its
components
except
for
theof
vocabulary
effect
ontest
theand
listening
comprehension
elementary
EFL
listening
comprehension.
While
considering
our
very
own
classrooms,
it
at
tertiary
level,
as
they
help
perfect
listening
and
writing
EFLThe
classes,
and
itItwould
be reasonable
to allocate
somethan
timeskills
to it
why
weteachers
teach.
is
about
seeking
to minutes
create
anlonger
atmosphere
in
class
for EG
was
held
about
10
learners,
EFL
can
use
this
technique
in
their
classes
with
more
has beenand
found
that
most of the
teachers adopt
dictation
as aSecond,
method of
raise
awareness
problematic
language
areas.
especially
at
lower
levels
language
proficiency.
Besides,
they
which
students
are
self
-motivated
and
an
active
role
in
that
of
CG.
Though
itofof
was
inevitable,
astake
thestudents
researcher
had
to
confidence.
In
some
countries
such
as
Iran
where
do
not
have
teachingclass
and more
so as are
a device
for simplifying
the difficult
content
dictations
designed
to
create
a
friendly
learning
should
goown
beyond
usingand
dictation
merely
testthe
of
spelling
and
their
learning
thatEFL
of as
their
classmates
and
teachers.
ensure
that
everything
else
was
the
sameacan
for
two
classes
access
native
English
speakers,
teachers
make
use
of this
and
alsoto
for
timely
completion
of the
syllabus.
environment
in
which
students
collaborate
in
pairs
or
small
consider
its
potential
forbe
helping
students
knowledge
Furthermore,
can
seen
this article
inEG
thetheir
choice
of
except
for
theas
dictation,
this in
longer
time
for
might
have
technique
to piece
familiarize
their
with
theimprove
English
by
Through
this
of work
thestudents
investigator
has
been
ablespoken
to highlight
groups.
Third,
dictation
activities
provide
opportunities
for
each
in other
areas
of language
andIfoftheir
ability
in using
differentcan
topics
forIfdictogloss,
part
this
classroom
atmosphere
contaminated
thestudents
results.
the
better
performance
of EG
native
speakers.
EFL
arefact,
exposed
only to
English
spoken
by
the
advantages
of
note
dictation
and
also
to
a
certain
extent
identified
learner
to
compare
her/his
written
work
with
amore
peers
work.
language
skills.
This
is
because,
when
involved
in
writing
dictation,
include
a
desire
to
understand
the
world
and
to
make
it
a
better
on
the
post-test
might
be
partly
due
to
having
language
Iranian
EFL teachers,
even after
learning
considerable
grammar
and
note
dictation
aspost-dictation
an effective
method
of teaching
that can
be employed
Fourth,
comprehension
exercises
proved
whether
individually,
as into
the
case of dicto-comp,
or
place.
practice
as
compared
CG.
vocabulary
they cannot
understand
native
Englishtry
speakers
easily.
by
subject
teachers.
Thepre-teaching
teachers
should
therefore
tobeadopt
the
beneficial,
but
vocabulary
might
optional
collaboratively,
as
in
the
case
of
dictogloss,
students
will
be
Dictation
makes
EFL
learners
aware
of
many
aspects
of
the
improveddepending
note dictation
accompanied
with otherinappropriate
on themethod
students
general
proficiency
language.
encouraged to focus
some
of their
attention
on form and
become
pronunciation
of
English
spoken
by
native
speakers.
maymeaningful.
also affect
methods in order to make teaching-learning interestingIt and
the use of moreability
than one
all pronunciation.
four language skills.
theirinvolved
listeningincomprehension
andor
their

Title
Author
Year
Publisher
Journal
URL
Contain of
Annotation

Comment

Annotation 15
Effects of Different Types of Dictation on Grammatical Competence of
Iranian Intermediate Male And Female Efl Learners
Sahar Alipour and Omid Tabatabaei
2013
CTE (PGT), Shillong,
ISSN: 2251-6204
http://thesis.iaun.ac.ir/39303087-en.pdf
The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of dictocomp and standard dictation on boosting male and female intermediate
iranian efl learners' grammatical competence. To achieve the objectives
of the study, 120 intermediate learners studying english at a language
institute in isfahan, iran, were selected as the participants of the study
after a placement test (the oxford quick placement test) was conducted
to meet the homogeneity criterion. The learners were then divided into
four groups of equal size: female dicto-comp group (fdcg), male dictocomp group (mdcg), female standard dictation group (fsdg), and male
standard dictation group (msdg). All the participants in different groups
took a grammar pretest. Fdcg and mdcg learners were exposed to dictocomp in their classes, while fsdg and msdg were in classes in which
standard dictation was practiced. Subsequently, all the learners were
given a grammar posttest. Comparisons of pretest and posttest scores of
the four groups through paired-samples t tests revealed that both dictocomp and standard dictation exerted statistically significant effects on
the grammatical competence of both female and male efl learners, yet
dicto-comp appeared to have greater effects on the grammatical
competence of the learners, and female learners were found to improve
slightly more than did male learners. Implications of the study include,
among other things, a more serious incorporation of both standard
dictation and dicto-comp in the language teaching and testing curricula.
This study revealed the positive effect of standard dictation and dictocomp on grammar improvement of Iranian EFL learners. In addition,
there was no significant difference between the performance of male
and female learners meaning that gender was not an influential factor
as far as the effectiveness of dictation is concerned. Therefore, this
study was a sort of confirmation for previous studies highlighting the
importance and value of dictation both as a testing and teaching device.
Dictation can be an outstanding activity to practice and improve this
general capacity, since it motivates the learner to pay attention to the
forms as well as to the meanings of grammatical structures, both
semantically and pragmatically.