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Designation: A 521 96

An American National Standard


AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS
100 Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken, PA 19428
Reprinted from the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Copyright ASTM

Standard Specification for

Steel, Closed-Impression Die Forgings for General Industrial


Use1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 521; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope

A 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing


of Steel Products3
A 509 Definition of Terms Relating to Steel Forging4
A 576 Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought,
Special Quality2
A 711 Specification for Steel Forging Stock2
E 10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials5
E 23 Test Method for Notched Bar Impact Testing of
Metallic Materials5
E 94 Guide for Radiographic Testing6

1.1 This specification covers untreated and heat-treated


steel, closed-impression die forgings (Note 1) for general
industrial use.
NOTE 1For the definition of a forging, refer to Definition A 509.

1.2 The classes of forgings are as follows, the choice


depending on design and stress or service to be imposed:
1.2.1 Class CAUntreated, carbon steel forgings,
1.2.2 Classes CC, CC1, and CEAnnealed, normalized
and tempered, carbon steel forgings,
1.2.3 Class CFNormalized and tempered carbon steel
forgings,
1.2.4 Class CF1Double normalized and tempered carbon
steel forgings,
1.2.5 Class CGQuenched and tempered, or normalized,
quenched and tempered carbon steel forgings,
1.2.6 Class AAAnnealed, normalized, or normalized and
tempered alloy steel forgings,
1.2.7 Classes AB and ACNormalized and tempered alloy
steel forgings, and
1.2.8 Classes AD, AE, AF, AG, and AHNormalized,
quenched, and tempered alloy steel forgings.

3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
3.1.1 annealingthe forgings shall be reheated to a temperature which produces an austenitic structure and then cooled
slowly. A furnace charge thus treated is termed an annealing
charge.
3.1.2 cooling prior to heat treatmentafter forging and
before reheating for heat treatment, the forgings shall be cooled
to provide substantially complete transformation of austenite.
3.1.3 normalizingthe forgings shall be reheated to a
temperature which produces an austenitic structure and then
withdrawn from the furnace and cooled in air. A furnace charge
thus treated is termed a normalized charge.
3.1.4 quenchingthe forgings shall be reheated to a temperature which produces an austenitic structure and then
quenched in a suitable liquid medium by spraying or immersion. A group thus treated is termed a quenching charge.
3.1.5 temperingthe forgings shall be reheated to and held
at the proper temperature, which will be below the austenitic
transformation range, and then cooled under suitable conditions. A furnace charge thus treated is termed a tempering
charge.

NOTE 2The appendix tables list recommended tolerances for a


number of materials other than those covered by the above classes. The
tables are for information only and the purchaser must define the condition
in which he desires forgings made from materials not described above.

1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded


as the standard.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
A 29/A 29M Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon, HotWrought, Special Quality2
A 322 Specification for Steel Bars, Alloy, Standard Grades2

4. Ordering Information
4.1 The purchaser shall specify in the inquiry, contract, and
order the class of steel desired; and any exceptions, modifications, or agreements with regard to the provisions of this
specification.

1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel,
Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
A01.06 on Steel Forgings and Billets.
Current edition approved Sept. 10, 1996. Published July 1997. Originally
published as A 521 64. Last previous edition A 521 76 (1992)e1.
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.05.

Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol


Discontinuedsee 1982 Annual Book
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol
6
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol
4
5

01.03.
of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.05.
03.01.
03.03.

A 521
5. Process
5.1 The steel shall be made by any or all of the following
processes: open-hearth, electric-furnace, or basic-oxygen.

tensile properties prescribed in Table 1 when tested in accordance with the latest issue of Test Methods and Definitions
A 370.
13.2 The yield strength shall be determined by the offset
method, using an offset value of 0.2 % of the gage length, or by
the total extension under load method, using an extension value
of 0.005 in./in. (0.5 %) for Classes AD and AE, 0.006 in./in.
(0.6 %) for Classes AF and AG, and 0.007 in./in. (0.7 %) for
Class AH.
13.3 Tests for acceptance shall be made after final heat
treatment of the forgings.

6. Discard
6.1 Sufficient discard shall be made to secure freedom from
piping and undue segregation.
7. Forging Manufacture
7.1 Manufacturing practice shall be in accordance with
accepted commercial procedures designed to produce forgings
free from harmful surface discontinuities, roughness, excessive
scale, fins, indications of overheating, or other injurious
discontinuities. The manufacturer may be required to certify
that furnaces used for all heating operations for forging and
heat treating are controlled to minimize scaling and decarburization and equipped with suitable controls.

14. Number of Tests


14.1 One tension test shall be made for each heat of steel for
each heat treat charge. For untreated forgings (Class CA) no
tension tests shall be made except when specified in the
purchase order and then one tension test shall be run on each
heat.
14.2 If any test specimen fails because of mechanical
reasons, such as testing equipment failure or improper specimen preparation, it may be discarded and another specimen
taken.
14.3 For the purpose of tests of heat-treated forgings, the
necessary extra forgings shall be provided. When it is impracticable to provide extra forgings for test purposes, test bars may
be made from the billet or bar, provided they are given
approximately the same reduction and heat treatment as the
forgings and also represent the maximum cross section of the
forging.

8. Chemical Requirements
8.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemical
composition listed in Table 1 on alloy steel bars in Specification A 322 or in Table 1 on carbon steel bars in Specification A
576. Other limits may be specified for carbon steels using the
ranges and limits in Table 2 of Specification A 576 or for alloy
steels in Table 4 of A 29/A 29M.
8.2 The limits of elements other than those listed above may
be agreed upon by the manufacturer and purchaser.
9. Dimensional Tolerances
9.1 Tolerances for impression die forgings (Appendix X1)
shall apply.

15. Retests
15.1 If the results of the mechanical tests of any test lot do
not conform to the requirements specified, the manufacturer
may reheat treat such lot, but not more than three additional
times unless authorized by the purchaser, and retests shall be
made in accordance with Section 14.
15.2 If the percentage of elongation of any tension test
specimen is less than that specified in Table 1 and any part of
the fracture is outside of the middle half of the gage length, a
retest shall be allowed.
15.3 If a test specimen fails to meet the specified mechanical property requirements due to a discontinuity other than a
rupture, crack, or flake, a retest shall be allowed.

10. Finish
10.1 The forgings shall be free of injurious discontinuities.
11. Heat Analysis
11.1 An analysis of each heat of steel shall be made by the
manufacturer to determine the percentages of carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon; also the alloying elements agreed on in accordance with Section8. This analysis
shall be made from a test ingot taken during the pouring of the
heat. The chemical composition thus determined shall be
reported to the purchaser or his representative, and the percentages of phosphorus and sulfur, and also the alloying elements
shall conform to the requirements specified and agreed upon in
Section 8.

16. Test Specimen


16.1 Location, size, and number of test specimens shall be
specified by the purchaser. Unless otherwise stated in the
contract or purchase order, test bars may be separately forged
or swaged from the same bars, billets, or blooms used in
manufacture of the forgings. The percentage reduction given
the forged tests bars shall not be greater than the minimum
amount of reduction given the forging itself. The test bars shall
be heat treated with the forgings they represent. The manufacturer may elect to submit an extra forging in lieu of forged test
bars.
16.2 Unless otherwise specified, the axis of the specimen
shall be located at any point midway between the center and
the surface of solid forgings or at any point midway between
the inner and outer surfaces of the wall of hollow forgings, and

12. Product Analysis


12.1 An analysis may be made by the purchaser from a
forging representing each heat. Drillings for analysis may be
taken from the forging or from a full-size prolongation, at any
point midway between the center and surface when solid, or
between the inner and outer surfaces of the wall when bored;
or turnings may be taken from the test specimen. The chemical
composition thus determined shall not vary from the requirements specified in Section 8 by more than the amounts
prescribed for product analysis in Specification A 711.
13. Tensile Properties
13.1 The material shall conform to the requirements for
2

A 521
TABLE 1 Tensile Requirements
Class

Solid Diameter or Thickness,


in. (mm)
Over

AA (Annealed, normalized, or
normalized, and tempered)
AB (Normalized and tempered)
AC (Normalized and tempered)
AD (Normalized, quenched, and
tempered)
AE (Normalized, quenched, and
tempered)
AF (Normalized, quenched, and
tempered)
AG (Normalized, quenched, and
tempered)
AH (Normalized, quenched, and
tempered)

CA (Untreated)
CC (Annealed, normalized, or
normalized, and tempered)
CC1 (Annealed, normalized, or
normalized and tempered)
CE (Annealed, normalized, or
normalized and tempered)

CF (Normalized and tempered)

CF1 (Double normalized and tempered)

CG (Quenched, and tempered or


normalized, quenched and tempered)

...
12 (305)
...
7 (178)
...
7 (178)
...
7 (178)
...
7 (178)
10 (254)
...
4 (102)
7 (178)
...

Not Over
12
20
7
20
7
20
7
10
7
10
20
4
7
10
4

(305)
(508)
(178)
(508)
(178)
(508)
(178)
(254)
(178)
(254)
(508)
(102)
(178)
(254)
(102)

Bored Wall Thickness in. (mm)


Over
...
...
...
4
...
4
...
12
....
3 12
5
...
2
3 12
...

Not Over

(102)
(102)
(89)
(89)
(127)
(51)
(89)

...
...
4
7 12
4
7 12
3 12
5
3 12
5
8
2
3 12
5
2

(102)
(191)
(102)
(191)
(89)
(127)
(89)
(127)
(203)
(51)
(89)
(127)
(51)

(89)
4 (102)
7 (178)
2
(51)
3 12
(89)
5
(127)
7 (178)
10 (254)
3 12
...
4 (102)
...
2
(51)
4 (102)
7 (178)
2
(51)
3 12
(89)
(89)
5
(127)
7 (178)
10 (254)
3 12
(No Physical Requirements except as covered by 13.1.)
...
...
...
...
...
12 (305)
...
...
12 (305)
...
...
...
...
12 (305)
...
...
12 (305)
20 (508)
...
...
...
8 (203)
...
...
8 (203)
12 (305)
...
...
12 (305)
20 (508)
...
...
20 (508)
...
...
...
...
8 (203)
...
...
8 (203)
12 (305)
...
...
12 (305)
20 (508)
...
...
...
8 (203)
...
...
8 (203)
12 (305)
...
...
12 (305)
20 (508)
...
...
...
4 (102)
...
2
(51)
(89)
8 (203)
7 (178)
2
(51)
3 12
(89)
5
(127)
7 (178)
10 (254)
3 12
...
...
5
(127)
10
(254)

shall be parallel to the direction of maximum metal flow.


16.3 The specimens shall be machined to the form and
dimensions shown in Test Methods and Definitions A 370 for
the standard or subsize round tension test specimens.

Tensile
Strength,
min, ksi
(MPa)

Yield Strength,
min, ksi
(MPa)

Elongation
in 2 in. or
50 mm,
min, %

Reduction
of Area,
min, %

80 (550)
80 (550)
80 (550)
80(550)
90 (620)
90 (620)
96 (655)
90 (620)
105 (725)
100 (690)
95 (655)
125 (860)
115 (795)
110 (760)
145 (1000)

50 (345)
50 (345)
55 (380)
55(380)
60 (415)
58 (400)
70 (485)
65 (450)
80 (550)
75 (520)
70 (485)
105 (725)
96 (655)
85 (585)
120 (830)

24
22
26
24
22
21
20
20
20
19
19
16
16
16
15

40
38
52
50
44
42
50
50
50
50
50
50
45
45
45

140 (965)
135 (930)
170 (1175)
165 (1140)
160 (1105)

115 (795)
110 (760)
140 (965)
135 (930)
130 (895)

14
13
13
12
11

40
40
40
35
35

...
(205)
(205)
(230)
(230)
(290)
(290)
(290)
(290)
(275)
(275)
(275)
(305)
(295)
(295)
(380)
(345)
(345)
(330)

...
25
24
23
22
24
22
20
19
22
21
20
25
23
22
20
20
19
19

...
36
36
36
34
40
35
32
30
36
33
31
40
37
35
39
39
37
36

60
60
66
66
75
75
75
75
80
80
80
85
83
83
90
85
85
82

...
(415)
(415)
(455)
(455)
(520)
(520)
(520)
(520)
(550)
(550)
(550)
(585)
(570)
(570)
(620)
(585)
(585)
(565)

30
30
33
33
37
37
37
37
40
40
40
44
43
43
55
50
50
48

without charge, all reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the


material is being furnished in accordance with this specification. All tests (except product analysis) and inspection shall be
made at the place of manufacture prior to shipment, unless
otherwise specified, and shall be conducted so as not to
interfere unnecessarily with the operation of the plant.

17. Cleaning
17.1 The forgings shall be furnished in a scale-free condition. Unless otherwise specified, the manufacturer may clean
by acid pickling, grit blasting, sand blasting, or other abrasive
method.
18. Marking
18.1 Marking of forgings shall be specified by the purchaser.

20. Rejection
20.1 Any rejection based on tests made in accordance with
Section 10 shall be reported to the manufacturer within 60 days
from the receipt of samples by the purchaser.
20.2 Material that shows injurious discontinuities subsequent to its acceptance at the manufacturers plant will be
rejected, and the manufacturer shall be notified.

19. Inspection
19.1 Unless otherwise specified, the inspector representing
the purchaser shall have entry, at all times while work on the
contract of the purchaser is being performed, to those parts of
the manufacturers plant that concern the manufacture of the
material ordered. The manufacturer shall afford the inspector,

21. Certification
21.1 A certification shall be made the basis of acceptance of
the material. This shall consist of a copy of the manufacturers
test report stating that the material has been sampled, tested,
and inspected in accordance with the specified provisions of
the specification. Each certification so furnished shall be signed
3

A 521
by an authorized agent of the supplier or manufacturer.

remove surface discontinuities will be permitted unless otherwise specified by the purchaser.

22. Repair of Forgings


22.1 Forgings shall not be weld repaired. Grinding to

SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS
One or more of the following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified by the
purchaser in the inquiry, contract, and order. Details of these supplementary requirements shall be
specified by purchaser.
S1. Magnetic Particle Test
S1.1 When magnetic particle inspection of forgings is
required, the specific method, the areas to be inspected, and the
standards of acceptability shall be specified by purchaser.

number of tests, and standards for acceptance shall be specified


by the purchaser. Reference shall be made to Test Method E 23.

S2. Grain Flow


S2.1 When a specific pattern of grain flow is required by the
purchaser, a sample forging shall be sectioned as specified. The
section shall be ground and subjected to acid etching, using the
type of acid, temperature and time of etching agreed upon to
reveal flow lines. The section may be preserved using a coating
of mineral oil or clear lacquer.

S5.1 When ultrasonic tests are required, details as to procedure and standards shall be specified by the purchaser.

S5. Ultrasonic Tests

S6. Radiographic Tests


S6.1 When radiographic tests are required, the number of
tests, location, and ASTM standards of acceptance shall be
specified by the purchaser. Reference shall be made to Practice
E 94.

S3. Microscopical Test


S3.1 When microscopical examination is specified, the steel
shall be inspected by utilizing samples cut from the undistorted
portion of tension test specimens. Requirements for number of
microscopical tests, grain size, cleanliness, or microstructure
shall be specified by purchaser.

S7. Brinell Hardness


S7.1 When hardness is required, Brinell hardness tests of
sample forgings from each furnace charge of heat treated
forgings shall be conducted. Number of samples per charge
shall be specified by the purchaser. Reference should be made
to the latest issue of Test Method E 10.

S4. Impact Test


S4.1 When impact tests are required, the type of specimen,

APPENDIXES
(Nonmandatory Information)
X1. FORGINGS PRODUCED ON HAMMERS AND PRESSES

X1.1 Units of Measure


X1.1.1 Where direct tolerances are not provided, use Table
X1.1 in converting to fractional units of measure after making
computations.

dimensions measured parallel to the fundamental parting line


of the dies. Normally, they are combined with tolerances for
die wear.
X1.2.1.1 ToleranceThe length and width tolerance is
60.003 in./in. and applies to all dimensions of length and
width including diameters. This tolerance includes allowance
for shrinkage, die sinking, and die polishing variations.
X1.2.1.2 Units of MeasureLength and width tolerances,
normally combined with tolerances for die wear, are expressed
as fractions of an inch, in units of 132 in. or greater as shown
in Table X1.1. Decimals used in computing tolerances are
totaled, rounded off to two places after the decimal point, then
converted to the next higher fractional unit of measure.

X1.2 Length and Width Tolerances


X1.2.1 Length and width tolerances represent variations in
TABLE X1.1 Units of Measure
Dimensions, ft (m)
Over

Under

...
2 (0.61)
5 (1.52)
10 (3.05)

2 (0.61)
5 (1.52)
10 (3.05)
...

Units of Measure to the


Closest

in.
in.
18 in.
14 in.

1 32
1 16

X1.3 Die Wear Tolerances


X1.3.1 Die wear varies according to the material forged and
4

A 521
X1.4.1.2 Tolerances on extremities of forgings extending
perpendicularly more than 6 in. from the parting line include
the die closure tolerance, and, in addition, a length tolerance of
60.003 in./in. This tolerance is added to that derived from
Table X1.3, but applies only to such extremities.
X1.4.1.3 Units of MeasureDie closure tolerances are
expressed as fractions of an inch in units of 132 in. or greater.
When decimals are used in computing tolerances, they are
rounded off to two places after the decimal point, then
converted to the next higher fractional unit of measure.

the shape of the forging. Consequently, die wear tolerances for


various materials are applied in addition to length and width
tolerances on dimensions pertaining to forged surfaces only.
Die wear tolerances do not apply on center-to-center dimensions.
X1.3.1.1 ToleranceDie wear tolerances for all external
length, width, and diameter dimensions are computed by
multiplying the greatest external length or outside diameter
(measured parallel to the fundamental parting line of the dies)
by the appropriate factor in Table X1.2 and are then combined
with plus values of length and width tolerances. Die wear
tolerances on external dimensions are expressed as plus values
only.
X1.3.1.2 Die wear tolerances for all internal length, width
and diameter dimensions are also computed by multiplying the
greatest external length or outside diameter (measured parallel
to the fundamental parting line of the dies) by the appropriate
factor in Table X1.2, but are then combined with the minus
values of length and width tolerances. Die wear tolerances on
internal dimensions are expressed as minus values only.
X1.3.1.3 Allowances for die wear occurring on dimensions
measured perpendicular to the fundamental parting line of the
dies are included in die closure tolerances.
X1.3.1.4 Die wear tolerances, per surface, on both external
and internal dimensions are one half the computed amount.
X1.3.1.5 Units of MeasureDie wear tolerances combined
with length and width tolerances are expressed as fractions of
an inch in units of 132in. or greater as shown in Table X1.1.
Decimals used in computing tolerances are totaled, rounded off
to two places after the decimal point, then converted to the next
higher fractional unit of measure.

X1.5 Match Tolerances


X1.5.1 Match tolerances relate to displacement of a point in
one die half from the corresponding point in the opposite die
half in any direction parallel to the fundamental parting line of
the dies. Match tolerances are applied separately and independently of all other tolerances. Where possible, measurements
are made at areas of the forging unaffected by wearing of the
dies.
X1.5.1.1 ToleranceMatch tolerances are based on weight
of the forging after trimming and are expressed as fractions of
an inch according to Table X1.4.
X1.5.1.2 Measuring for Match Tolerances In cases where
measurements for determining match tolerances must be made
from surfaces of the forging where uneven wearing of the dies
has caused surplus stock, accuracy depends on making the
proper allowances for these wear-caused surpluses, and eliminating their influence from the computation.
X1.5.1.3 Units of MeasureMatch tolerances are measured
in units of 164 in. or greater.
X1.6 Flash Extension Tolerances
X1.6.1 Flash extension tolerances are based on the weight
of the forging after trimming and relate to the amounts of flash
extension. Flash is measured from the body of the forging to
the trimmed edge of the flash.
X1.6.2 ToleranceFlash extension tolerances are expressed in fractions of an inch according to Table X1.5.

X1.4 Die Closure Tolerances


X1.4.1 Die closure tolerances relate to variations in thickness of forgings as affected by the closing of the dies and die
wear, and pertain to variations in dimensions crossing the
fundamental parting line.
X1.4.1.1 ToleranceDie closure tolerances on forgings
having no portions extending more than 6 in. (152 mm) from
the parting line are based on the projected area of the forging
at the trim linenot including flash, but including all areas to
be subsequently punched out. Except as explained in the
following paragraph, they are applied as plus tolerances only
and are applicable to the thickness of the forging at all sections.
(See Table X1.3.)

X1.7 Straightness Tolerances


X1.7.1 Straightness tolerances relate to deviations of surfaces and centerlines from the specified contour as caused
primarily by manipulation of the piece in post-forging processes and, in addition, by the effects of cooling from the
forging operation, both of which may produce slight and
gradual variations in straightness.
X1.7.2 Since the general shape of the forging determines the
effect of cooling and post-forging manipulation on straightness,
four classes of shape have been selected as guides in choosing
appropriate straightness tolerances. Agreement between purchaser and forging engineer on tolerances and inspection
methods may be desirable where the forging is not easily
classified according to shape and may be subject to a combination of straightness tolerances. Straightness tolerances are
applied independently of, and in addition to, all other tolerances.
X1.7.3 It is contemplated that, at times, straightening operations may be required in order to achieve the tolerances
indicated in the following text. These tolerances are not

TABLE X1.2 Die Wear Tolerances


Materials

Factor (per inch)

Carbon
Low Alloy
400 Series Stainless
300 Series Stainless
Super Alloy
Titanium
Refractory Material
2014 Aluminum
7075 Aluminum
Magnesium
Brass
Copper

0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.012
0.004
0.007
0.006
0.002
0.002

A 521
TABLE X1.3 Die Closure Tolerances

NOTE 1Tabulated figures are plus values only, expressed in inches.


Area at the Trim Line Flash not included, expressed in in.2(cm2)

Materials
10 (65) and under

Over 10 to 30
(65 to 194),
incl

Over 30 to 50
(194 to 323),
incl

116
116
132
332

332
332
132
18

18
18
116
532

Carbon, low alloys


400 series stainless
300 series stainless
Super alloys, titanium
Aluminum, magnesium
Refractory alloys

1 16

1 32

1 16

1 32

Over 50 to 100
(323 to 645),
incl

Over 100 to 500 Over 500 to 1000


(645 to 3225),
(3225 to 6450),
incl
incl

532
316
332
316

3 32

18

3 32

18

316
14
18
14

Over 1000
(6450)

14
516
316
516

5 32
3 16

516
38
14
38

3 16

14

14

5 16

TABLE X1.4 Match Tolerances

NOTE 1 Tabulated figures are amounts of displacement, expressed in inches, of a point in one die-half from the corresponding point in the opposite
die-half in any direction parallel to the parting line of the dies.
Materials

Weights of Forgings After Trimming, lb (kg)


Less than 2
(0.91)

Carbon, low alloys


Stainless steels
Super alloys, titanium
Aluminum, magnesium
Refractory alloys

customarily negotiated with purchaser

Over 2 to 5
(0.91 to
2.3), incl

Over 5 to
25 (2.3 to
11.3), incl

Over 25 to
50 (11.3
to 22.7),
incl

Over 50 to
100 (22.7
to 45.4),
incl

1 64

132
164
116

1 32

364
132
332

3 64

3 64

116
364
18

1 16

1 32

1 16

3 32

Over 100 to Over 200 to Over 500 to


200 (45.4
500 (90.6 1000 (226.5
to 90.6),
to 226.5),
to 453.0),
incl
incl
incl

332
116
532

18
332
316

532
18
14

Over 1000
(453.0)

316
532
516

3 32

18

5 32

18

5 32

3 16

14
316
38
3 16

14

TABLE X1.5 Flash Extension Tolerance

NOTE 1Tabulated figures are ranges of flash extension, expressed in inches.


Weights of Forgings After Trimming,
lb (kg)

10 (4.5) and under


Over 10 to 25 (4.5 to 11.3), incl
Over 25 to 50 (11.3 to 22.7), incl
Over 50 to 100 (22.7 to 45.4), incl
Over 10 to 200 (45.4 to 90.6), incl
Over 200 to 500 (90.6 to 226.5), incl
Over 500 to 1000 (226.5 to 453.0), incl
Over 1000 (453.0)

Materials
Carbon & Low Alloy

Stainless

Super Alloys and


Titanium

Aluminum &
Magnesium

Refractory Alloy

0 to 132
0 to 116
0 to 332
0 to 18
0 to 316
0 to 14
0 to 516
0 to 38

0 to 116
0 to 332
0 to 18
0 to 316
0 to 14
0 to 516
0 to 38
0 to 12

0 to 116
0 to 332
0 to 18
0 to 36
0 to 14
0 to 516
0 to 38
0 to 12

0 to 132
0 to 116
0 to 332
0 to 18
0 to 316
0 to 14
0 to 516
0 to 38

0 to 18
0 to 316
0 to 14
0 to 516
0 to 38
0 to 12
0 to 58
0 to 34

intended to apply to refractory alloys, high-density alloys,


titanium, and some stainless steels. Straightness tolerances for
forgings of such materials are best determined on the basis of
each individual forging design, since the configuration substantially influences the tendency of a forging to deviate from the
specified contour. Straightness tolerances for these special

forgings are commonly agreed upon by buyer and seller in


advance of production.
X1.7.4 Units of MeasureStraightness tolerances are expressed as fractions of an inch in units of 132 in. or greater, as
shown in Table X1.1. Decimals used in computing tolerances
are rounded off to two places after the decimal point, then

TABLE X1.6 Classes of Shapes

NOTE 1For use in selecting appropriate Straightness Tolerances.


Class
A
B
C
D

Shape of Forging

Examples

ElongatedLength dimensions great in relation to width and height


Flat, relatively thin
Flat, relatively thin, with appreciable protrusion at right angles to the
parting line
Massive block-type forgings with neither length, nor width, nor thickness being predominant

long connecting rods, shafts, levers, etc.


disc, plates, etc.
wear plates, crawler track shoes, disc with hub, etc.
hydraulic pump bodies, high pressure steam chests, etc

A 521
X1.8 Surface Tolerances
X1.8.1 Surface tolerances relate to depth of dressouts and
scale pits on the forging, based on purchasers specification or
drawing.
X1.8.1.1 Tolerances and ConditionsLocalized dressouts
or scale pits are commonly allowed on surfaces to be finish
machined unless purchasers specification or drawing states
otherwise. Where purchaser specifies stock for machining,
dressouts or scale pits are commonly permitted to within 116 in.
(1.59 mm) of the finished surface or to within one-half of the
stock allowance, whichever is smaller.
X1.8.1.2 Where surfaces of forgings are intended for use in
as forged condition, dressouts or scale pits are commonly
permitted on these surfaces to a depth equal to 12 of the die
closure tolerance.

converted to the next higher fractional unit of measure.


X1.7.5 Tolerances and Applications (Table X1.6):
X1.7.5.1 Class A Shapes (ElongatedLong in relation to
width and height) Tolerance: 0.003 in./in. of the greatest
dimension.
X1.7.5.2 Class B Shapes (Flat, Relatively Thin)
ToleranceStraightness tolerance for Class B shapes as shown
in Table X1.7 below.
X1.7.5.3 Class C Shapes (Thin, Flat Shapes with Appreciable Protrusion at Right Angles to the Parting Line)
ToleranceStraightness tolerance on the flat disc portion of
Class C shapes is computed first. It is considered separately
from the tolerance on the protruding portion and is determined
in an identical manner as for Class B shapes using Table X1.7.
Straightness tolerance on protuberance is 0.003 in./in. of
length.
X1.7.5.4 Class D Shapes (Massive, Block-type Forgings)
ToleranceSince departures from the specified configuration
are seldom caused by subsequent handling, straightness tolerances are not provided. Where tolerances are desired, agreement between purchaser and forging engineer is normally
reached before production proceeds.

X1.9 Draft Angle Tolerances


X1.9.1 Draft angle tolerances apply to all draft angles, relate
to variation from draft angle specifications, and are commonly
measured as an addition to tolerances for die wear.
X1.9.1.1 ToleranceDraft angle tolerances are +2 and 1
on all draft angles, unless modified by prior agreement between
buyer and seller.
X1.10 Finish Allowances for Machining
X1.10.1 Finish allowance refers to the amount of material
that is to be machined from the forging to obtain the finished
part. Forging dimensions are commonly analyzed independently, with consideration given to all applicable tolerances, in
making certain that a minimum desired clean-up exists after the
forging is completed. (See Table X1.8.)

TABLE X1.7 Straightness Tolerances, Class B Shapes


Area at the Trim Line, expressed in in.2(cm2) Flash not included

Materials

Carbon, low alloy


400 series stainless
300 series stainless
Aluminum, magnesium

10 (65)
and under

Over 10 to 30
(65 to 194),
incl

Over 30 to 50
(194 to 323),
incl

1 32

116
132

1 16

1 32

1 16

332
132

18
116

Over 50 to 100
(323 to 645),
incl

Over 100 to 500


(645 to 3225),
incl

532
332

316
18

3 32

18

3 32

18

5 32
3 16

Over 500 to
1000 (3225 to
6450), incl

14
316

Over 1000
(6450)

516
14

3 16

14

14

5 16

TABLE X1.8 Finish Allowances


Greatest Dimension
Over, in. (mm)

8
16
24
36

...
(203)
(406)
(610)
(914)

But Not Over,


in. (mm)
8
16
24
36

(203)
(406)
(610)
(914)
...

Minimum Finish Stock


per Surface

18
532
316
1 16
3 32

X2. FORGINGS PRODUCED ON FORGING MACHINES (UPSETTERS)

X2.1 Length Tolerances


X2.1.1 Length tolerances relate to variations in dimensions
measured parallel to the axis of the stock and apply to all

intermediate and over-all dimensions of length except flange


thickness dimensions and internal length (gap) dimensions

A 521
TABLE X2.2 Flange Tolerances

between flanges (see X2.2) . Length tolerances include allowances for die wear, shrinkage, die sinking and die polishing
variations.
X2.1.2 ToleranceLength tolerances are plus values only,
expressed in fractions of an inch according to Table X2.1.

NOTE 1Based on diameters of flange (or flanges) formed.


Diameters

X2.2 Flange Tolerances


X2.2.1 Flange tolerances relate to variations in flange thickness measured parallel to the axis of the stock. When more than
one flange is formed, these tolerances also apply to the
dimension (gap) between flanges. Flange tolerances are applied
separately and independently of other tolerances.
X2.2.1.1 ToleranceTolerances for flange thickness and
dimensions (gaps) between flanges are such that the effect is to
add stock on both internal and external dimensions. The
amount of flange tolerance is dependent on the flange diameter
(see Table X2.2).
X2.2.1.2 When two flanges are formed, the tolerance on the
dimension (gap) between them is a minus tolerance only, with
a value identical to the thickness tolerance for the flange
nearest the unforged stem.
X2.2.1.3 Flange tolerances are shown in Table X2.2.

...
3 18 (79)
6 14 (159)
9 516 (236)
12 12 (318)
15 58 (397)
18 34 (476)
21 78 (557)
25 (635)

3 18 (79)
6 14 (159)
9 516 (236)
12 12 (318)
15 58 (397)
18 34 (476)
21 78 (557)
25 (635)
...

7 (178)
...

1 16
3 32

...
...

(1.59)
(2.38)

Determined individually as defined in X2.2.

X2.6 Straightness Tolerances


X2.6.1 Straightness tolerances relate to deviations of the
centerline of the stem and body of the forging from the true
centerline as caused by manipulation of the piece after forging,
and by the effects of cooling from the forging operationboth
of which may produce slight and gradual variations in straightness.
X2.6.1.1 ToleranceStraightness tolerances on the original
bar stock as provided by the material suppliers commonly
apply.

Tolerances
Intermediate
Length,
in. (mm)

...
7 (178)

MinusA

Plus,
in. (mm)

X2.5 Concentricity Tolerances


X2.5.1 Concentricity tolerances apply to contours formed
by the heading tool and relate to variations of the axis of the
contour from the axis of the stock. This tolerance is commonly
applied only to contours of a depth not less than one diameter.
Concentricity tolerances are applied independently of, and in
addition to, match tolerances.
X2.5.1.1 ToleranceConcentricity tolerances are expressed in fractions of an inch as total indicator readings (TIR),
according to Table X2.5.

NOTE 1Tabulated figures are plus values only and apply to overall
and intermediate dimensions of length, except flange thickness and gap
dimensions.

But Not Over,


in. (mm)

But Not Over,


in. (mm)

X2.4 Match Tolerances


X2.4.1 Match tolerances relate to the amount of die displacement in a direction parallel to the parting line of the grip
dies. These tolerances are applied independently of, and in
addition to, all other tolerances.
X2.4.2 ToleranceMatch tolerances are expressed as fractions of an inch in units of 164 in. or greater, according to Table
X2.4. They are based on the weight of the forging exclusive of
the weight of the unforged stem. The weight of the stem is
deducted from the weight of the forging before Table X2.4 is
used.

TABLE X2.1 Length Tolerances

Over,
in. (mm)

Over,
in. (mm)

X2.3.4.1 ToleranceTolerances for all external forged diameters are expressed as plus tolerances only, according to
Table X2.3.
X2.3.4.2 Tolerances for internal diameters of holes formed
by the heading tool are commonly +0 in.; 116 in.

X2.3 Diameter Tolerances


X2.3.1 Diameter tolerances relate to variation in dimensions
measured perpendicularly to the axis of the stock, and are
applied separately for each of a forgings diameters and only to
those diameters formed in the heading tool or dies.
X2.3.2 Diameter tolerances are commonly applied and measured in a plane other than that described by the parting line of
the forging.
X2.3.3 Permissible variations in diameter on unforged stem
portions of the forging are commonly governed by steel mill
tolerances. Tolerance provisions for shear-cut ends and slight
irregularities in diameter on the unforged stem caused by grip
dies are commonly determined by special agreement between
buyer and seller.
X2.3.4 These tolerances apply only to forgings with circular
shapes. Tolerances for non-circular forgings are customarily
determined by special agreement between buyer and seller in
advance of production.

Length Dimensions

Tolerances

Over-All
Length,
in. (mm)

116 (1.58)
(0.79)
332 (2.38)
(1.58)
332 (2.38)
18
(3.18)
18
18
(3.18)
(3.18)
532 (3.97)
532 (3.97)
316 (4.76)
316 (4.76)
732 (5.56)
732 (5.56)
14 (6.35)
14
(6.35)
Commonly determined by special agreement between buyer and seller in advance of production
1 32
1 16

TABLE X2.3 Tolerances on Forged Diameters


Diameters

Tolerances

Over,
in. (mm)

But Not Over,


in. (mm)

...
2 (51)
7 (178)

2 (51)
7 (178)
...

Plus,
in. (mm)

Minus

(0.79)
(1.59)
332 (2.38)

...
...
...

1 32
1 16

A 521
TABLE X2.4 Match Tolerances

NOTE 1Tabulated figures are amounts of die displacement in a direction parallel to the parting line of the grip dies, expressed in inches.
Materials

Weights of Forgings, lb (kg)


10 (4.54)
and under

Over 10 to 25
(4.54 to 11.3),
incl

Over 25 to 50
(11.3 to 22.7),
incl

Over 50 to 100
(22.7 to 45.4),
incl

1 64

132
164
116

1 32

1 32

3 64

364
132
332

116
364
18

332
116
532

Carbon and low alloy


Stainless steels
Super alloys and titanium
Aluminum and magnesium
Refractory alloys

3 64

Depth of Hole
Over,
in. (mm)

But Not Over,


in. (mm)

...
8 (203)
12 (305)

8 (203)
12 (305)
...

Over 200 to 500


(90.6 to 226.5),
incl

18
332
316

1 16

1 16

TABLE X2.5 Concentricity Tolerances on Holes

Over 100 to 200


(45.4 to 90.6),
incl

3 32

532
18
14

3 32

18

18

5 32

X2.9.1.1 Tolerances and ConditionsLocalized dressouts


or scale pits are commonly allowed on surfaces to be finish
machined unless purchasers specification or drawing states
otherwise. Where purchaser specifies stock for machining,
dressouts or scale pits are commonly permitted to within 116 in.
(1.59 mm) of the finished surface or to within one-half of the
stock allowance, whichever is smaller.
X2.9.1.2 Where surfaces of forgings are intended for use in
as forged condition, dressouts or scale pits are commonly
permitted on these surfaces to a depth equal to 12 of the die
closure tolerance.

Total Indicator
Reading
(Tolerance)

TIR
TIR
316 TIR

18

5 32

X2.7 Draft Angle Tolerances


X2.7.1 When draft angles are required on a forging, the size
of the angles is generally dependent on the contour of the
forging and is therefore commonly determined by agreement
between buyer and seller.
X2.7.2 Draft angle tolerances apply to all draft angles and
relate to variation from draft angle specifications.
X2.7.3 ToleranceDraft angle tolerances are +2 and 1
on all draft angles, unless modified by prior agreement between
buyer and seller.

X2.10 Finish Allowances for Machining


X2.10.1 Finish allowance refers to the amount of material
that is to be machined from the forging to obtain the finished
part. Forging dimensions are analyzed independently, with
consideration given to all applicable tolerances, in making
certain that a minimum desired clean-up exists after the forging
is completed.
X2.10.1.1 AllowancesTable X2.6 indicates finish allowances commonly applied.

X2.8 Radii Tolerances


X2.8.1 Radii tolerances relate to variation from purchasers
radii specifications on all fillet radii and on corner radii where
draft is not subsequently removed by trimming or punching.
X2.8.1.1 ToleranceRadii tolerances are plus or minus
one-half the specified radii, except where corner radii are
affected by subsequent removal of draft, in which case the
minus tolerance is commonly modified to allow a square corner
to be formed.

TABLE X2.6 Finish Allowances


Greatest Diameter

X2.9 Surface Tolerances


X2.9.1 Surface tolerances relate to depth of dressouts and
scale pits on the forging, based on purchasers specification or
drawing.

Over,
in. (mm)

But Not Over,


in. (mm)

...
2 (51)
8 (203)

2 (51)
8 (203)
...

Minimum Finish Stock


per Surface,
in. (mm)
(1.58)
(2.38)
18
(3.18)
1 16
3 32

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