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TRIGONOMETRY 1

(TRIGONOMETRI 1)

Kompetensi dasar : Kemampuan menggunakan sifat dan aturan tentang fungsi trigonometri
dalam pemecahan masalah, malakukan manipulasi aljabar dalam
perhitungan teknis yang berkaitan dengan fungsi trigonometri

Do you know that???


Trigonometry is the study of triangles and has been developed over many centuries. The first people to
use angles were the Babylonians. The Greeks were the first to go further in developing trigonometry.
They defined both sine and cosine functions, and further expanded on the Babylonian measurement of
360 degrees for a circle. Hipparchus, a Greek astronomer developed the first sine table, or a table for
solving triangles. He was also the first to develop a table of chords, which is a table that shows the
angles in a circle for a large fixed radius (Joyce, 1996-1997). Some argue that trigonometry is based
on chords, and he is therefore credited with the founding of trigonometry. Ptolemy furthered
Hipparchuss work and derived the sine and cosine rules, also developing a table of chords (History of
Trigonometry, n.d.). During medieval times, the Chinese were able to develop the tangent function.
During this time, Europeans also started developing in trigonometric aspects. They used the study for
navigation and construction of maps. Bartholomew Pitiscus was the first to consider solving plane
trigonometry on the earth instead of using trigonometry for astronomy. He also named the study
trigonometry (ThinkQuest, 2001).

A. Measure of Angle
The measure of angle are degree () and radian ().

A
1

1
rotation
360
B

degree

1 =

180

1 rad =

rad

180

and = 3,14

Example :
1. 45 = 45 x

radian

Relation of degree and radian

rad
180
= 0.7855 rad

2. 135 = 135 x

180 o

3
rad
4

3. 270 = 270 x
=

180 o

3
rad
2

2
2 180
rad =
x
3
3

360
=
3
= 120
10
10
180
rad =
x
5.
3
3

= 600

4.

Exercise 1. 1
1. Change to radian!
a. 100
b. 300
c. 250
d. 450

e.150
f. 60
g. 225
h. 510

2. Change to degree!
a. 3 radian

1
e. 1 radian
2

2
radian
3
c. 3,15 radian
2
d. 2 radian
3

f. 1,2 radian

b.

g. 3 radian
2
h. radian
5

B. Side of Triangle and Trigonometric Ratios


Opposite

Sin =

AC
Opposite
=
Hypotenuse
BC

Cos =

AB
Adjacent
=
Hypotenuse
BC

Tan =

AC
Opposite
=
Adjacent
AB

Sin =

y
r

Cosec =

Cos =

x
r

Sec =

Tan =

y
x

Cotan =

Hypotenuse

Adjacent

From above also can be writed :


C
r
y

r
y

r
x
x
y

Example :
1. If sin =

2
, find : cos , tan , cosec !
3

ans :
3
a=
a=

32 2 2
5

2
a

cos =

tan =

5
3
2

5
3
cosec =
2

C. Using Calculator

Each trigonom etric ratios has a specific value for every angle. Using a calculator we can find the
decimal values for the Sine, Cosine and Tangent ratios for any angle.
To use calculator in your notebook, you can klik start accessories calculator, then in calculator
klik view scientific.
Example :
1. sin 20 =
answer :
push the button sin 20 exe or for other calculator 20 sin
the result is 0,3420
2. cos x = 0,2
answer:
push the button inv or 2ndf cos 0,2 exe or for other calculator 0,2 inv or 2ndf cos
the result is 78,46. So the value of x is 78,46.

Exercise 1.2
1. By using Pythagorean theorem, find the value of x the the value of all trigonometric ratios !
12 m
a.
c.
45 cm

30 cm

15 m
x

2x

b.

d.
5x

3x cm

45 cm

10x
16,5 m

2. Find other trigonometric ratios for , if known :


1
5
d. tan =
a. sin =
3
7

g. cosec =

5
3

b. cos =

2
5

c. cotan =

e. cosec =
3
4

9
8

h. sec = 2

f. sec = 3

i. cos =

3
4

3. If known by one of side and acute angle of right triangle, find the unknown length by using
trigonometric ratios!(to 2 decimal place)
k
c.
a.
18
15 cm
a
m
15 m
30
b.

d.

45 cm 50

110 dm

41

y
c
4. By using calculator, calculate the value of each variable below :
d. cos d = 0,0035
a. Sin a = 0,3
e. tan e = 0,212
b. Cos b = 0,707
f. sin f = 0,8666
c. Tan c = 0,001
5. Find to 2 decimal places, all the unknown angles and sides of :
c. y cm
a.
31

x cm

e.

x cm

19 cm

g. tan x = 2,111
h. sin y = 0,25
i. cos z = 0,8666

14,6 cm
x cm

y cm

8,67 cm

63

68

y cm

b.

d.

x cm

28

27

y cm

f.

x cm

y cm

10 cm

14,2 cm

x cm

43,2 cm

38

y cm

6. Find to one decimal place, all the unknown angles and sides of :
c.

a.
x cm

y cm

5 cm

2,1 cm

3,1 cm

4 cm

b.

x cm

3,7 cm

4,8 cm

d.

6,1 cm

3.4 cm

x cm

7. A rectangle is 9,2 m by 3,8 m. What does its diagonal make with its longer side?
8. The diagonal and the longer side of rectangle make of 43,2. If the longer side is 12,6 cm, find
the length of the shorter side!
9. Find the height of flagpole which casts shadow of 9,32 m when the sun makes an angle of 63
to horizontal !

10. Puncak sebuah pohon terlihat oleh pengamat A dengan sudut elevasi 45 dan pengamat B
dengan sudut elevasi 15. Tinggi kedua pengamat adalah 160 cm dan jarak antar kedua
pengamat 15 m. Hitunglah :
a. Jarak pengamat A dan B ke pohon
b. Tinggi pohon.
11.

The angle of depression from the top of 120 m


high vertival cliff to a boat B is 16.
Find how far the boat is from the base of the cliff!

12.

Find , the pitch of the roof !

From an observer O, the angles of elevation to


the bottom and the top of flagpole are 36 and
38 respectively. Find the hight of the flagpole.
(Hint : find Ab and AC)

13.

D. Trigonometric Ratios of Special Angle


Special angle is angle which assess the its trigonometric ratios is determinable directly without
using list of trigonometric table or calculator. The angle are 0, 30, 45, 60 and 90.
45

Using Pythagorean theorem :

12 + 12 = 2

1
45
1

From the picture above :


opp
sin 45 =
hyp
1
.
2
1
=
2
2

2
2

30 30

2
60

cos 45 =

adj
hyp

1
.
2
1
=
2
2

30

60

60

tan 45 =
2
2

opp
adj
1
1

=1

From the picture above :


opp
sin 30 =
hyp
=

cos 30 =

1
2

adj
hyp

tan 30 =

3
2

1
.
3
1
=
3
3
opp
tan 60 =
adj
=

1
3
2
adj
cos 60 =
hyp
=

sin 60 =

opp
hyp

3
2
1
3
=
2

Angle

Sin

Cos

Tan

30
1
2
1
3
2
1
3
3

45
1
2
2
1
2
2
1

opp
adj

1
2

60
1
3
2
1
2

3
1

3
3

90
1
0

E. Trigonometric Ratios of An Any Quadrant


 1st Quadrant (0 until 90)
y
x
y
sin 1 =
; cos 1 = ; tan 1 =
r
r
x
 2nd Quadrant (90 until 180)
y
x
y
; tan 2 =
sin 2 = ; cos 2 =
x
r
r
rd
 3 Quadrant (180 until 270)
y
x
y
; cos 3 =
; tan 3 =
sin 3 =
r
r
x
th
 4 Quadrant (270 until 360)
y
x
y
; cos 4 = ; tan 4 =
sin 4 =
r
r
x

Trigonometry
Function
Sin
Cos
Tan

Q1
+
+
+

2nd quadrant
Sin (180 ) = sin
Cos (180 ) = cos
Tan (180 ) = tan
3rd quadrant
Sin (180 + ) = sin
Cos (180 + ) = cos
tan (180 + ) = tan

Symbol
Q2 Q3
+

(x , y)
(x , y)

2nd Quadrant

1st Quadrant

1
3

3rd Quadrant

4
4th Quadrant

(x , y)

Q4

or

Sin (90 + ) = cos


Cos (90 + ) = sin
Tan (90 + ) = cotan

or

Sin (270 ) = cos


Cos (270 ) = sin
Tan (270 ) = cotan

(x , y)

4th quadrant
Sin (360 ) = sin
Cos (360 ) = cos
Tan (360 ) = tan
Other formula :
Sin (90 ) = cos
Cos (90 ) = sin
Tan (90 ) = cotan

or

Sin (270 + ) = cos


Sin (270 + ) = sin
Sin (270 + ) = cotan
Sin ( ) = sin
Cos ( ) = cos
Tan ( ) = tan

Exercise 1.3
1. Expressing every angles in acute angle, then find the value!(to 2 decimal place)
a. Sin 127
e. Tan 727
i. Sin 1105
f. Sin 818
j. Cos 1328
b. Cos 225
c. Tan 111
g. Cos 343
k. Sin 2231
h. Tan 1110
l. Cos 1628
d. Sin 254
2. Expressing every angles in positive acute angle!
a. Cos (62)
c. Sin (89)
d. Tan (95)
b. Tan (112)

e. Cos (155)
f. Sin (315)

3. Find the value of trigonometric ratios below : (without using calculator or tables of trig.)
c. Cos (135)
e. Sin (225)
a. Tan (45)
b. Cos (60)
d. Sin (330)
f. Tan (150)
4. Evalute and siplify!(Without using calculator or tables of trig.)
a. sin 45 + cos 135
b. (cos 150 + sin 150)2
c. (tan 45)2 + 4 . (cos 60)2
d. (2 sin 30 + cos 60)2 + (sin 60 2 . cos 30)
e. (tan 30 + cotan 30) sin 30 . cos 30
2. tan 60
f.
1 + tan 2 60
cot 150 sec 240
g.
csc 300
5. Evalute ! (Without using calculator or tables of trig.)
5
7
5
a. tan + cot sec
4
4
6
3

b. cos . cos
sin . sin
4
4
4
4
5
5

c. cos sin . cos + sin


12
12
12
12

5
2
tan tan
3
3
d.
5
2
1 + tan . tan
3
3
12
and 0 < < 90, find the value of :
13
b. tan
a. cos

6. If sin =

7. If tan =
a. cos

5
and 270 < < 360, find the value of :
13
b. sin

8. If sin =

2
and < 0, find the value of :
3

a. cos

b. tan

9. Given tan x = p, determine the value of :


a. 2 . sin x . cos x

b. cos2x sin2x

2
, find the value of :
3
a. tan + cot sec . csc
cos
sin
+
b.
1 tan
1 cot
2
2
c. sec + tan + cos2

10. If sin =

F. Fundamental Trigonometric Identities


From the figure beside :
y
or y = r . sin
Sin =
r
x
Cos = or x = r . cos
r

From Pythagorean theorem :

x 2 + y 2 = r2
(r . cos )2 + (r . sin )2 = r2
r2 . cos2 + r2 . sin2 = r2
cos2 + sin2 = 1

tan =

sin
cos
and cotan =
cos
sin

sec =

1
1
and cosec =
cos
sin

cos2 + sin2 = 1
cos 2 sin 2
1

+
=
2
2
cos cos cos 2
2

sin 1
=

cos cos
1+ tan2 = sec2

1+

And
cos2 + sin2 = 1
cos 2 sin 2
1
+
=

2
2
sin sin sin 2
2

cos
1

+1 =

sin
sin
cotan2 + = cosec2

Example :
1. Proof the trigonometric identities cos2 + cos2 . tan2 = 1 !

Answer :
cos2 + cos2 . tan2 = cos2 (1 + tan2)
= cos2 . sec2
1
= cos2 .
cos 2

=1
1 cos 4
= sin2 !
2. Proof the trigonometric identities
2
1 + cos
Answer :

1 cos 4
1 cos 2
=
1 + cos 2
1 + cos 2
1 + cos 2 1 cos 2
=
1 + cos 2
= 1 cos2
= sin2 

)(

Exercise 1.4
1. Simplify !

(1 + sin ) (1 sin )

a. 1 sin . cos . cot

d.

b. sec sec sin2

e.

1 cos 2
sin . cos

c. cot2A . sin2A . csc2A . tan2A

f.

cos 2 + 2 cos 2
sin . cos

2. Prove the trigonometry identities below !


a. tan . sin + cos = sec
tan + cot
1
=
b.
2
tan cot 2 sin 1
1 + cos A
sin A
=
c.
sin A
1 cos A
2 sin . cos
= tan
d.
1 + cos 2 sin 2
2 tan 2
2 tan 2

=4
e.
sec 1 sec + 1

G. Graph of Sine, Cosine and Tangent


1. Graph of y = sin x
Angle 0 30 45
60
1
1
1
2
3
Sin
0
2
2
2

cos

f. (1 + sin + cos )2 = 2 . (1 + sin ) . (1 + cos )


cos 2 A
g.
= 1 + sin A
1 sin A
1 sin P
cos P
+
= 2 sec P
h.
cos P
1 sin P
i. (2 cos x + 3 sin x ) + (3 cos x 2 sin x ) = 13
2

j.

90

2 tan 2
2 tan 2

=4
sec 1 sec + 1

120
1
3
2

135
1
2
2

150 180
1
0
2

y
1

y = sin x

30

90

180

270

360

2. Graph of y = cos x
Angle 0
30
Cos
1
3
1
2
y

45
1
2
2

60
1
2

90 120
1

0
2

135
1
2

150
1
3

180
1

y = cos x

60

90

180

360

270

3. Graph of y = tan x
Angle 0
30
1
3
Sin
0
3

45
1

60
3

90

120

135

150
1

3
3

180
0

y = tan x

30

90

180

270

360

Exercise 1. 5
Determine the period and amplitude, then sketch graph of trigonometry function below!
6. y = 2 + cos 3x
1. y = 2 sin x
2. y = sin 2x
7. y = tan 2x
8. y = 2 tan x
3. y = 2 + sin x
9. y = |sin x|
4. y = 2 sin 2x
5. y = cos 3x
10. y = |cos x| + 1
H. Trigonometry Equation
To finish trigonometry equation (eg. sin x = 0,5 or cos x = 0,23 or tan 2x = 0,667) is meant to
find all values of x fulfilling the equation.
Example :
Sin x = 0,5, for 0 x 360.
Answer :
Sin x = 0,5 so x at 1st kuadrant and 2nd kuadrant.
st

5
x=
(1 kuadrant) or x = = (2nd kuadrant)
6
6
6
5
so the solution set is , .
6 6

Exercise 1. 6
1. Find the angles which satisfy the following equation!
1
2
a. sin x =
3 , 0 x 360
e. sin x = 0, 0 x 180
2
3
1
2 , 0 x 2
f. tan x + 1,524 = 0, 0 x 360
b. cos x =
2
1
1
, 0 x 2
g. sin x + 1 = , x
c. tan x =
2
3
1
d. cos x + = 0, 360 x 360
h. 2 tan x = 0,27, 0 x 360
2
2. Find the value of x which satisfy the equation below! (0 x 360)
a. 3 sin x = tan x
c. 3 cot x 3 = 0
b. cot x = 2 cos x

d. 2 sin x . cos x =

2
sec x

3. Find the angles which satisfy the following equation for 0 x 360!
3
f. 4 sin2x 3cos x =
a. sin2x sin x = 0
2
2
2
b. 2sin x + 3sin x 2 = 0
g. 3 cos x + sin x = 1
h. 5tan2x sec2x = 11
c. 3 sin x + 1 = 2 csc x
i. 2 sec x = 1 + cos x
d. cos2x 3cosx + 2 = 0
2
j. 3 cos2x + 5 sin2x = 4
e. 2cot x + 8 = 7 csc x