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Urban Culture

Urban culture implies the design, states of mind of the general population,
traditions, convictions, and general air and feeling of association you get when
you go into the principle city or town region of the city you visit. There are a
wide range of sorts of societies and more often than not by surveying a
territory's way of life you can tell things like the demeanor of the general
population here, the general vibe, mind-set and setting, including how open the
general population are to change and the sorts of progress that they are going
for. These things can influence or display how knowledgeable they are, the
manner by which solid they are and more often than not have a solid
relationship to what they esteem.
Rural Culture:
Rural life implies country life and the villagers hold a solid connection to their
customary qualities. It implies taking after the traditions or methods for acting
that have proceeded in a gathering of individuals or society for quite a while
without evolving. For instance, an existence of an agriculturist.
Impacts :

Health behavior among urban and rural environment


Urban Context:
The social environment :

Urban environments are more likely to see large disparities in socioeconomic


status, higher rates of crime and violence, the presence of marginalized
populations (e.g., sex workers) with high risk behaviors, and a higher prevalence
of psychological stressors that accompany the increased density and diversity of cities.

The physical environment


: In densely populated urban areas, there is often a lack of facilities and outdoor areas
for exercise and recreation. In addition, air quality is often lower in urban
environments which can contribute to chronic diseases such as asthma. In the
developing world, urban dwellers often live in large slums which lack basic sanitation
and utilities such as water and electricity. Lack of basic infrastructure can exacerbate
rates of infectious disease and further perpetuate the cycle of poverty.
Access to health and social service :
Persons of lower socioeconomic status and minority populations are more likely to
live in urban areas and are more likely to lack health insurance Thus, these populations
face barriers to care, receive poorer quality care, and disproportionately use emergency
systems. Other commonly represented populations in cities are undocumented
immigrants and transient populations. The high prevalence of individuals without
health insurance or citizenship creates a greater burden on available systems. This
often leads to vast disparities in health care outcomes as well as a two-tiered health
care system where insured individuals have access to preventive and routine health
care while marginalized populations utilize safety net emergency room care.

RURAL CONTEXT
The Social Environment

In the United States, rural elders have significantly poorer health status than urban
elders. Also, rural residents smoke more, exercise less, have less nutritional diets, and
are more likely to be obese than suburban residents.
Health educators are increasingly aware of the need for culturally sensitive
approaches to modifying unhealthy behavior, but few rural health researchers and
policymakers are asking the relevant cultural question, Why does rural residence
(culture, community, and environment) reinforce negative health behaviors?
In fact, many of the major public health problems faced in rural areas(e.g., obesity,
tobacco use, failure to use seat belts) are not likely to respond to an increased presence
of general practitioners, physician specialists, or physician extenders. Instead, these
challenges call for a social perspective with a focus on prevention and a healthy
lifestyle. Despite negative health behaviors, many aspects of rural social life contribute
to
positive health outcomes. Rural areas frequently have strengths including dense
social networks, social ties of long duration, shared life experiences, high quality of
life, and norms of self-help, and reciprocity. Addressing the needs of rural areas
requires building upon the positive aspects of rural life while addressing the health,
public health, infrastructure, and economic needs of rural areas. Similar issues exist in
the developing world.
A recent World Bank report LasCasas Maternas en Nicaragua reported that 60% of
adolescent pregnant women
are from rural areas. The problem of youth pregnancy stems from the larger issues of
rural versus urban access to education, health services, and
employment. Furthermore, rural areas in Nicaragua have higher levels of
unemployment and poverty, and lower levels of education. The national average
of people without adequate education is 18% while in rural areas that number jumps to
25%

The Physical Environment :


Rural women in the United States, especially less educated women, are more sedentary
than urban women. Rural individuals are less likely to report sidewalks, streetlights,
high crime, access to facilities, and frequently seeing others exercise in their
neighborhood. While poor air quality and crime rates are likely to be less of an issue
in rural areas, insufficiencies in the built environment make it difficult for rural
residents to exercise and maintain healthy habits.

Access to Health And Social Service


Evidence indicates that rural residents have limited access to health care and that rural
areas are underserved by primary care physicians. In the developing and developed
world, many rural individuals must travel substantial distances for primary medical
care, requiring significantly longer travel times to reach care
than their urban counterparts. Furthermore, some rural areas have a higher proportion
of uninsured and individually insured residents than urban areas

Anti social behavior in urban and rural areas


A clear difference can be seen in crime rate of rural and urban areas by analyzing
following tables as:If metropolitan area refers to urban settings And non metropolitan
refers to rural area
Then violent crimes are more in urban than rural areasThe rate of violent crime
known to law enforcement within metropolitan areas is 428.3 per 100,000 persons. The
rate of violent crime per 100,000 persons in cities outside metropolitan areas is399.7,
and for non-metropolitan counties, it is 195.1
(National center for victim of crime, 2010)

The reason can be population density in urban area are high as compared to rural areas
so the negative feelings due to crowding or high population density can result in to
high aggression and violent behavior of people.
While another research shows high crime rate in sub urban areas of the country In
2010, the rate of larceny-theft per 100,000 persons known to law enforcement was
highest in cities outside metropolitan areas at a rate of 2,643.5. Metropolitan areas had
the second highest rate at 2,077.5, followed by non-metropolitan counties at a rate of
944.4 per 100,000 inhabitants
.
(National center for victim of crime, 2010
According to another research reported clear difference regarding anti social behavior
in urban and rural settings in the incidence of crime

While another research shows high crime rate in sub urban areas of the country In
2010, the rate of larceny-theft per 100,000 persons known to law enforcement was

highest in cities outside metropolitan areas at a rate of 2,643.5. Metropolitan areas had
the second highest rate at 2,077.5, followed by non-metropolitan counties at a rate of
944.4 per 100,000 inhabitants
.
(National center for victim of crime, 2010)

Carlstam & Levy, 1971; Fischer, 1976; Zimbardo, 1969)With rural areas definitely
being saver than cities. While this seems obvious, thereasons for greater crime rates in
cities are not wholly understood. Zimbardo(1969) proposed the concept of de
individuation
to explain high crime rates in cities. The inhibition against antisocial behavior such as
fear of getting caught and being humiliated before the community are less effective in
cities than in a small towns. Owing to a large number of people in the city, individuals
may feel more anonymous and thus less concerned about them. Theories of
over manning
could also account for high crime rates in cities. Given that there are many more
people than there are jobs, unemployment is higher in cities, leading the unemployed to
resort to crime to make a living.

With rural areas definitely being saver than cities. While this seems obvious, the
reasons for greater crime rates in cities are not wholly understood. Zimbardo(1969)
proposed the concept of de individuation
to explain high crime rates in cities. The inhibition against antisocial behavior such as
fear of getting caught and being humiliated before the community are less effective in
cities than in a smalltowns. Owing to a large number of people in the city, individuals

may feel more anonymous and thus less concerned about them. Theories of over
manning
could also account for high crime rates in cities. Given that there are many more
people than there are jobs, unemployment is higher in cities, leading the unemployed to
resort to crime to make a living. Social interaction among rural and urban settings
Studies have indicated that urbanities are less afflictive towards strangers than
are people in rural areas.(McCauley, Coleman, & deFusco, 1977, Milgram,
1977 ; Newman &McCauley, 1977)Urbanities tend to avoid eye contact with strangers
and are less likely to reciprocate friendly gestures than are rural dwellers. While
studying prosaically behavior

several researches have reported that urbanities are less likely to help a stranger.
( Gelfand , Hartman, Walder & Page, 197)
However it does not follow that urbanities are inherently less friendly and helpful than
people in rural areas .these differences could be explained simply in terms of the
urbanites paying less attention to other people perhaps as a mean of coping with
excessive stimulation(Moser, 1988)
Rural and urban differences in environmental concern, attitudes and actions.
According to research, this study compares the values, attitudes, and behaviors of aural
sample and an urban sample, measured by means of three scales: the New Ecological
Paradigm Scale, a moral obligation scale specifically designed for this study, and
a scale of pro-environmental behavioral intentions.
The results indicate high levels of environmental concern and low levels of proenvironmental behavior in both samples
. On comparing the two samples it was found that
those living in cities assume a larger number of environmental responsibility values
but show less pro-environmental orientation when the attitude and behavioral

intention scales are used. People living in the rural context present more attitudes of
environmental responsibility and greater consistency on expressing behavioral
intentions compatible with the protection of the environment.
(European journal of psychological assessment, 2010)

Rural and urban differences in environmental concern, attitudes and actions.


According to research, this study compares the values, attitudes, and behaviors
of arural sample and an urban sample, measured by means of three scales: the New
Ecological Paradigm Scale, a moral obligation scale specifically designed for this
study, and a scale of pro-environmental behavioral intentions.
The results indicate high levels of environmental concern and low levels of proenvironmental behavior in both samples
. On comparing the two samples it was found that
those living in cities assume a larger number of environmental responsibility values
but show less pro-environmental orientation when the attitude and behavioral
intention scales are used. People living in the rural context present more attitudes of
environmental responsibility and greater consistency on expressing behavioral
intentions compatible with the protection of the environment.
(European journal of psychological assessment, 2010)
Performance and retention difference between rural and urban students
According to

a longitudinal research on urban and rural students about academic performance and
retention difference have been observed. Urban students have done well on
every performance measure as compared to rural students. This difference is due to
the difference of environmental settings as rural & urban. The consequence for this
difference is that rural students receive less intellectual stimulation from their parents
or peers. They also fear depression and anxiety in adjusting in college environment due
to which their performance disturbs. .(Felder, & Mohar , & Dietz, & ward, 1994

Rural and urban differences in environmental concern, attitudes and actions.


According to research, this study compares the values, attitudes, and behaviors of aural
sample and an urban sample, measured by means of three scales: the New Ecological
Paradigm Scale, a moral obligation scale specifically designed for this study, and
a scale of pro-environmental behavioral intentions.
The results indicate high levels of environmental concern and low levels of proenvironmental behavior in both samples
. On comparing the two samples it was found that
those living in cities assume a larger number of environmental responsibility values
but show less pro-environmental orientation when the attitude and behavioral
intention scales are used. People living in the rural context present more attitudes of
environmental responsibility and greater consistency on expressing behavioral
intentions compatible with the protection of the environment.
(European journal of psychological assessment, 2010)
Performance and retention difference between rural and urban students
According to

a longitudinal research on urban and rural students about academic performance and
retention difference have been observed. Urban students havedone well on
every performance measure as compared to rural students. This difference is due to
the difference of environmental settings as rural & urban. The consequence for this
difference is that rural students receive less intellectual stimulation from their parents
or peers. They also fear depression and anxiety in adjusting in college environment due
to which their performance disturbs. .(Felder, & Mohar , & Dietz, & ward, 1994 )

Rural and urban differences in environmental concern, attitudes and actions.


According to research, this study compares the values, attitudes, and behaviors of a
rural sample and an urban sample, measured by means of three scales: the New
Ecological Paradigm Scale, a moral obligation scale specifically designed for this
study, and a scale of pro-environmental behavioral intentions.
The results indicate high levels of environmental concern and low levels of proenvironmental behavior in both samples
. On comparing the two samples it was found that
those living in cities assume a larger number of environmental responsibility values but
show less pro-environmental orientation when the attitude and behavioral intention
scales are used. People living in the rural context present more attitudes of
environmental responsibility and greater consistency on expressing behavioral
intentions compatible with the protection of the environment.
(European journal of psychological assessment, 2010)
Performance and retention difference between rural and urban students
According to

a longitudinal research on urban and rural students about academic performance and
retention difference have been observed. Urban students have done well on every
performance measure as compared to rural students. This difference is due to the
difference of environmental settings as rural & urban. The consequence for this
difference is that rural students receive less intellectual stimulation from their parents
or peers. They also fear depression and anxiety in adjusting in college environment due
to which their performance disturbs. . (Felder, & Mohar , & Dietz, & ward, 1994 )

According to this research Behavioral problems occur more frequently among


adolescents in deprived areas, but most evidence concerns urbanized areas. The aim
was to assess the impact of area deprivation and urbanization on the occurrence and
development of behavioral problems among adolescents in a mixed urban and rural
area and to examine the contributory factors
.
Results showed that :
As in highly urbanized areas, behavioral problems occur more frequently among
adolescents in deprived mixed rural and urban areas. Urbanization has little effect on
these area differences.