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OPTICAL FIBER

COMMUNICATIONS
SYSTEMS:
TECHNOLOGIES AND TRENDS

CFOT-I-2006-1

The Whole View


FIBER OPTICS
TECHNOLOGY

OTHER
APPLICATIONS

MILITARY

SENSORS

COMMUNICATION

MEDICAL

FIBER OPTICS

FREE SPACE
OPTICS

P2MP

NETWORK

LINK

COMPONENTS

DEVICES

TEST &
MEASUREMENT

TEST &
MEASUREMENT

FIBERS AND
CABLES

TEST &
MEASUREMENT

SUB-SYSTEMS

INSTALLATION
AND
MAINTENANCE

TEST &
MEASUREMENT

CFOT-I-2006-2

Objectives
1. To Understand Light and Fiber Optic
2. To Understand their Applications
3. To Understand Types of Fiber Optics
Communication System (FOCS)
4. To understand Current and Future
Technologies in FOCS

CFOT-I-2006-3

A2. Light: Behavior


Travels in straight line
Reflects off different media
Transmits through media
Chargeless
Does not interact with other light
Can be visible/invisible

CFOT-I-2006-4

A3. LIGHT: Advantages


Economics (cost/bandwidth)
Speed & Distance
Low Power Operations
Non-Visibility
No Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Secure
No Grounding
2-Dimensional
CFOT-I-2006-5

B1. Fiber Optic: Basic

CFOT-I-2006-6

B1. Fiber Optic: Basic (cont.)

CFOT-I-2006-7

B2. Fiber Optic: Advantages


Lighter, thinner but stronger
Supports huge bandwidth, up to
Terabit/s
Very low loss
Flexible
Secure

Non-electrical conductivity
Highly resistant to chemicals
CFOT-I-2006-8

B3. Fiber Optic: Behavior


Strong yet brittle
Passes light through
Guides light path by reflection
Absorbs light
Delays light/ Reduce light speed
Interact with light

CFOT-I-2006-9

C. Total Internal Reflection

CFOT-I-2006-10

D. Types of Fiber Optic


1. Single Mode Fiber
2. Multimode Fiber
3. Graded Index Fiber
4. Specialized Fiber
Use of fibers:
1. As a transmission medium
2. As a component
CFOT-I-2006-11

E. PROBLEMS OF FIBER OPTIC


1. Loss or Attenuation dB/km
2. Chromatic Dispersion, CD ps/(nm-km)
3. Polarization Mode Dispersion, PMD
ps/km
4. Non-Linear Coefficient, n2

CFOT-I-2006-12

F.

Photonics Applications

1. Communications (Fiber based and


Free Space)
2. Military Applications
3. Sensors (eg. gas, chemical, fuel,
distance, pressure, fluid level, gyro)
4. Medical Field (LASIK, endoscope)
5. Industrial Applications
7. Lighting
8. Entertainment
9. Display & Signage
CFOT-I-2006-13

G. Industries in Malaysia
Telekom Malaysia Bhd

Finisar

Tenaga Nasional Berhad

Agilent Technologies

Time Dotcom Berhad

Opcom Cables

Digi Communication

Leader Cables

Maxis Communication

Photon Technologies

Fiberail

Photronix Technologies

Fibercomm

Gunung Fiber Cables

Petro Fiber Network

Osram Technologies
CFOT-I-2006-14

H. Fiber Optics Communication


System (FOCS)
H1. Todays Scenario
H2. Network Hierarchy: LAN, Access, MAN and
WAN
H3. Basic Fiber Optic Communication
H4. Elements of Fiber Optic Communication
Link
H5. Major Multiplexing Techniques: TDM &
WDM &
H6. Optical Code Division Multiplexing (OCDM)
H7. Trend in LAN, Access Network, MAN & WAN
CFOT-I-2006-15

H1. Todays Scenario


A total of 600 million kilometers of
fiber-optic cable has been installed
worldwide which throughout Asia
represented 20% of it [Holton,2003]
[1].
In Malaysia, a total combined of
300,000km of fiber optics has been
installed
An Asia market segment of for
DWDM systems for the year 2000
alone exceeds up to USD 1.3 billion
CFOT-I-2006-16

CFOT-I-2006-17

CFOT-I-2006-18

H2. Network Hierarchy:


LAN, Access, MAN and WAN

LAN

MAN

Network Terminologies
Point to Point (P2P)
Point to Multi-Point (P2MP)
Multi-Point to Multi-Point (MP2MP)

WAN
= Link
= Broadcast
= Mesh
CFOT-I-2006-19

H3. Basic Fiber Optic Communication

Fiber Optic

Service
Provider

User

CFOT-I-2006-20

H4. Elements of Fiber Optic Comm.


Link
Optical Transmitter (E-O)
Optical Receiver (O-E)
Transponder (O-E-O)
Fiber Optics
Optical Amplifier (O-O)
Multiplexer and Demultiplexer
Jointing (Splicing, connectors)
Attenuator
Splitter
CFOT-I-2006-21

Optical Transmitter (E-O)


Coder

Modulator

Light
Source

Fiber

Types of Light Sources (LS):


1. Light Emitting Diode (LED)
2. Lasers
-

Fabry Perot (FP)


DFB
VCSEL
CFOT-I-2006-22

Characterization of Light Source


(LS)
Parameter

LED

LASER

Power (dBm)

Very Low Low

Low Very High

Spectral
Width (nm)

Broad

Narrow
Very Narrow

Wavelength
(nm)

Fixed, Any

Tunable, Any

Phase

Incoherent

Coherent
CFOT-I-2006-23

Optical Receiver (O-E)


Decoder

DeModulator

Photodiode

Fiber

Types of Photodiode (PD):


1. PIN
2. Avalanche PD

CFOT-I-2006-24

Characterization Of Photodiodes
Parameter

PIN-PD

APD

Wavelength

Material based

Material based

Responsivity

Low

High

Speed

Material based

Material based
CFOT-I-2006-25

H5. Multiplexing Techniques


A method for sharing communication
channel
Two Major Types of Multiplexing:
Optical
Electrical

a. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)


Optical
Electrical

b. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)


CFOT-I-2006-26

H5a. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)


Reasonably easy to do as long as
data rates are around a few Gbit/s
Most TDM transmission today is at
2.5Gbit/s, although 10Gbit/s is
available
TDM at 40Gbit/s now implemented
in US and Europe

CFOT-I-2006-27

TDM: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy


(SDH)
139264kbit/s
STM 1
STM-1

X1
AUG

AU-4

VC-4

C-4
X1
TUG 3
X 3 TUG-3

X3

AU-3

TU-3

VC-3

X7
44736kbit/s or
34368kbit/s
C-3

VC-3
X7

6312kbit/s
TUG 2
TUG-2
MAPPING
MULTIPLEXING
ALIGNING

C = CONTAINER
VC = VIRTUAL CONTAINER
TU = TRIBUTARY UNIT
TUG = TRIBUTARY UNIT GROUP
AU = ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT
AUG = ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT GROUP
STM-1 = SYNCHRONOUS TRANSPORT
MODULE (155.52MB/S FRAME)

X1

TU-2

VC-2

2048kbit/s

X3
X4

TU 12
TU-12

C-2

VC 12
VC-12

C-12
1544kbit/s

TU-11

VC 11
VC-11

C-11

CFOT-I-2006-28

SDH Transmission Rate


Bit Rate

PDH Europe
Name

SDH
Container

Transport

40 Gbit/s

STM-256

10 Gbit/s

STM-64

2.5 Gbit/s

STM-16

622 Mbit/s

STM-4

155 Mbit/s

STM-1

140 Mbit/s

E4

VC-4

34 Mbit/s

E3

VC-3

8 Mbit/s

E2

2 Mbit/s

E1

64 kbit/s

E0

VC-12

CFOT-I-2006-29

Limitations of TDM at 10 Gbit/s


High cost of the electronic components
to modulate lasers and MUX/DEMUX
electronic signals
Laser chirp limits laser modulation
capacity (need for external modulation)
Chromatic dispersions effect is 16 times
greater at 10 Gbit/s than at 2.5 Gbit/s
PMD affects signal quality at these rates
Therefore, WDM came ..

CFOT-I-2006-30

H5b. Wavelength Division


Multiplexing (WDM)

CFOT-I-2006-31

WDM Revolution
Parallel set of optical channels sharing
the same transmission medium
Holds great promise
Increase fiber bandwidth without recabling, (numb. of x TDM)
Eg.,

4 x STM-64 (10.0Gbps)
= STM-256 (40Gbps) in one fiber

Future-proof network capacity


Brings all-optical network design
capacity
CFOT-I-2006-32

Elements of WDM Link


Optical Amplification
Transmitter

1
3

OEO

OADM

EDFA

Mux/DeMux

OEO

Pump

Pump

Demultiplexing
(Filtering)

OEO

Add and Drop


Transponder and Multiplexing

Receiver

CFOT-I-2006-33

New Components Requirement in


WDM
Transmitter with small Linewidth
Wavelength Multiplexer and deMultiplexer
Optical Amplifier (SOA, EDFA, Raman)
Optical Add Drop Multiplexer (OADM)
Others

CFOT-I-2006-34

Transmitter Module: Distributed


Feedback Laser (DFB) source

Narrow spectral width


High output power
High stability

n
CFOT-I-2006-35

Multiplexing and Demultiplexing:


Narrow Band Filtering technology

MUX-DEMUX
DEMUX

Bragg gratings
Bulk optics
CFOT-I-2006-36

Optical Amplifier (mostly used


EDFA)

MUX-DEMUX
DEMUX

EDFA

Erbium doped fiber amplifiers


Amplifying from 1530 to 1560 nm
CFOT-I-2006-37

WDM Components (others)

850/1310

15xx

Transponder

l ll
1 23

Circulator
Bragg
gratings
AWG

Optical Add Drop Multiplexer (OADM)

CFOT-I-2006-38

ITU Wavelength Grid


(100 and 50GHz Spacing

CFOT-I-2006-39

WDM introduced the


necessity for testing a third
parameter ...
Wavelength

From a TDM bidimensional system to a WDM


tridimensional system
CFOT-I-2006-40

TDM: a bidimensional system


Power

Laser output power


Fiber attenuation
Component loss
Polarization loss

Laser modulation
Eye diagram
Phase modulation
SBS (Brillouin)

Time
Chromatic dispersion
PMD

CFOT-I-2006-41

WDM: a new dimension


Power

Laser output power


Fiber attenuation
Component loss
Polarization loss

Laser modulation
Eye diagrams
Phase modulation
SBS (Brillouin)

Four wave mixing (FWM)


Cross phase modulation (XPM)
Stimulated Raman scattering

EDFA ASE
EDFA Gain
MUX XT
PDCW

Time
Chromatic dispersion
PMD

Wavelength
DFB stability
EDFA range
MUX bandwidth

DFB laser chirp

CFOT-I-2006-42

H6. Optical Code Division Multiplexing


Technique

CFOT-I-2006-43

H7a. Trend in LAN


Migration from copper-based network
to fiber-based network or wireless
network
Fiber for
Speed

Twisted pair

Wireless for
Mobility

CFOT-I-2006-44

H7b. Trend in Access Network


Migration from copper-based network to
fiber-based network (FTTx)

CFOT-I-2006-45

Benefits of FTTH
Higher Bandwidth
Service Flexibility
Extension of Coverage
FTTH is reliable, scalable, and secure
Provides services including voice, high-speed
data, analog or digital CATV, DBS, and video
on demand
Passive optical network, from the central
office (CO) to the end user
Minimizes the network maintenance cost and
requirements

CFOT-I-2006-46

OLT at CO

CFOT-I-2006-47

ONU at Home (House)

CFOT-I-2006-48

H7c. Trend in MAN


SDH
STM-64

PDH

SDH

WDM

STM-1, 4 &

8, 16, 32,

16

64 channel

CWDM

CFOT-I-2006-49

Coarse Wave Division


Multiplexing (CWDM)
Metro CWDM Wavelength Grid as specified by ITU-T G.694.2

CFOT-I-2006-50

H7d. Trend in WAN


SDH
SDH

PDH

STM-64

STM-4 &
16

WDM
8, 16, 32,
64 channel

CFOT-I-2006-51

I. Conclusion

Future
network

Fiber
count

Bit rates
(TDM)

Nb of
carriers
(WDM)

CFOT-I-2006-52

CFOT-I-2006-53

Thank You

CFOT-I-2006-54