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Inductively Coupled Power Transfer (ICPT) for


Electric Vehicle Charging - A Review
ARTICLE in RENEWABLE AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS MARCH 2015
Impact Factor: 5.9 DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.040

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) for electric vehicle charging


A review
Kafeel Ahmed Kalwar, Muhammad Aamir, Saad Mekhilef n
Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 26 July 2014
Received in revised form
12 January 2015
Accepted 8 March 2015
Available online 30 March 2015

The deciency in the availability of petroleum products has given rise to the incorporation of electric vehicles
(EVs) globally as a substitute for the conventional transportation system. Signicant research has been pursued
over last two decades in the development of efcient EV charging methods. A preliminary review of few
methods developed for wireless charging revealed that ICPT is a promising and convenient method for the
wireless charging of EVs. This paper includes the equivalent circuit analysis and characteristics of the ICPT
system and focuses on the research progress in respect of the designs for the charging coil, leakage inductance
compensation topologies, power level enhancement and misalignment toleration. The improvement in these
factors has been essential for the implementation of EV charging. A brief discussion over design process and
control of ICPT system has been added. Conclusions have been made on the basis of the information extracted
from the literature and some future recommendations are provided.
& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Electric vehicle (EV)
Wireless charging of electric vehicle
Inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT)

Contents
1.
2.
3.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EV's impact on energy and environment and their advantages and drawbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EV battery charging technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
Microwave power transfer (MPT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.
Inductive power transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.
Inductively coupled power transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Operating principle for ICPT system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Equivalent circuit analysis of ICPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Characteristics of ICPT system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.
Impact of coupling coefcient and frequency on the efciency of the ICPT system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.
Impact of quality factor (Q) of coils on the efciency of ICPT system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Development of ICPT system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.
Compensation technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.
Charging distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.
Power level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.
Misalignment toleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Design criteria of ICPT system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. Control algorithms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. Future recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Corresponding author. Tel.: +60 379677611.


E-mail address: saad@um.edu.my (S. Mekhilef).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.040
1364-0321/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

1. Introduction
Petroleum products, including compressed natural gas and
liqueed petroleum gas, have remained the main resources of the
energy demandsupply cycle for transportation [1]. The gradual
increase in energy demand has created a scarcity of these naturally
available resources. Moreover, carbon dioxide emission contributing
global warming and high fuel prices have compelled scientists and
researchers to nd a sustainable alternate solution to these depleting natural energy reserves [24]. Substantial research and development resources are being devoted towards alternate energy
technologies [57].
The incorporation of electric vehicles (EVs) has been considered to
be a suitable replacement for the depleting petroleum resources used
for automotive applications [8,9]. The concept of EV was developed
with the advent of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), which later led to
the introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). But the
PHEV exhibited several disadvantages such as such the need of
connecting cable and plug in charger, galvanic isolation of on-board
electronics, the size and weight of the charger, and more importantly
safety issues concerning their operation in the rain and snow [10]. In
order to incorporate the aforementioned disadvantages in PHEV, pure
EV has been developed [11,12]. Electric vehicles (EV) enable smoke free
transportation, and offer an effective solution to the adverse environmental impacts of the conventional transportation system [13], and are
powered over a large air gap through wireless charging even in bad
weather and harsh environmental conditions without utilizing plugs or
wires [14]. However the EVs are operated by means of electrical energy,
so these are polluting the environment indirectly depending on the
source of energy. They operate with low emissions of greenhouse gases
[15]. Furthermore, they can be used with smart house systems to
supplement the energy storage through bidirectional energy transfer
[16]. Although EV is a possible substitute for depleting energy reserves
and to overcome the environmental issues, the limited mileage and
time needed to recharge, less misalignment toleration and overall cost
involved are still limitations. These issues require special consideration
for the successful implementation of an electrically driven vehicle
system worldwide. The quest for a solution to the aforesaid issues has
led researchers to develop the most useful method of wireless charging
of EVs. Several methods have been pursued to charge both stationary
and moving electric vehicles [17,18]. Static charging of EVs is convenient for the users to utilize at home or ofce parking [19], while
dynamic charging allows powering the moving EVs. Though the static
charging of EVs has the advantage of low cost compared to dynamic
charging, but these require heavy size batteries so to store more charge
[10], while the dynamic charging makes use of several charging coils
paved in the roadbed at a spaced distance which allows more vehicles
to get charged simultaneously [20]. Thus the dynamic charging has the
main advantage of avoiding the need for a high capacity battery and
reduces the battery cost. Inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) has
been most successful in consideration for the wireless charging of EV.
Due to reasonable electrical isolation between transmitting coil and
receiving coil, the ICPT system has ability to operate in grimy conditions. It is highly reliable and requires less maintenance. Extensive
research over the span of time, in different technical aspects, has
improved the performance of ICPT in terms of charging distance,
misalignment toleration, high power and high efciency [21,22].
This paper reviews the methods developed for the wireless
charging of electric vehicles and their deployment as well as the
evolution of ICPT performance. It begins with the impact of electric
vehicles on energy and the environment and a brief comparison of
the different EV charging methods in Sections 2 and 3 respectively.
The operational mechanism of the ICPT method is discussed in
Section 4. The equivalent circuit analysis and characteristics of the
ICPT system are provided in Sections 5 and 6. A discussion on the
research progress of ICPT is presented in Section 7. The discussion on

463

design criteria and control algorithm is presented in Sections 8 and 9


respectively. Few recommendations and a conclusion based on the
information learnt from the literature are provided in Sections 10
and 11.

2. EV's impact on energy and environment and their


advantages and drawbacks
Transportation causes the consumption of 27% world petrolatum energy and 33.7% of greenhouse gas emissions in 2012 [1,8].
To reduce the CO2 emissions, legislation is being introduced in
some countries to limit the emissions from cars and other means.
Substantial use of natural resources has created a scarcity thereof,
and, in future, the world may face the impact of the dependence
on these depleting natural energy resources.
Electricity has proven to be a viable alternative transportation
fuel to replace petroleum products, so the electric vehicle has
paved the path for reducing the dependence on petroleum energy.
The EVs are solely operated by electric power and generates zero
emissions of greenhouse gases. This creates substantial changes to
reduce the air pollution, thus making the populated surroundings
cleaner and gratifying for all livings around. The noise of conventional internal combustion engines is avoided through adoption of
EV and the metropolises becomes noiseless [23].
With the development of wireless charging of EVs, the users do
not need any wires to charge them safely. With automatic
charging, the users simply need to park the EV over the plugless charging pad. Through the development in technology, the
dynamic charging of electric vehicles has been introduced, which
enables the charging of moving vehicles on the roadway. Regular
stops on the roadway offer charging points to avoid disrupting the
timetable of users. The charging system can operate reliably even
in the most adverse weather conditions of snow and rain.
Particularly, the electric vehicles can be connected to the smart
grid of the future. The batteries of EVs have the potential to benet
both consumers and the overall electrical grid [24] and by feeding
electricity back to the grid during peak demand it helps to keep
the overall electricity cost stable. In addition, the charged vehicle
could also potentially serve as an emergency supply for home or
business in case of power outage.
There is risk of safety during accidents in case of human or
animal presence under the car or bus. Thus, there is a major
concern of electromagnetic eld exposure in wireless charging of
electric vehicles. The EMI exposure has to be under limited range
as prescribed safety regulatory authorities during normal as well
as abnormal operation.
The main drawback of EV is requirement of a battery of high
energy density. It corresponds to frequent mileage of electric
vehicle. More the mileage, larger the battery pack will be used.
Lead acid battery is mostly used, which is very expensive.
Escalating demand of EVs will result in the decit of energy
gradually introducing load management issues in grids.
The provoked concern of environment pollution and energy issues
will rapidly ensure the feasibility of EVs for common commercialization by manufacturing light weight high energy density batteries,
technical advancements to overcome misalignment, low efciency
during dynamic behavior of the power transfer system.

3. EV battery charging technologies


Different EV battery charging methods have been developed in
the quest to achieve high efciency, large power transfer and other
attributes. The deployed methods have approached the different

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K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

capabilities in terms of power level, air gap and efciency. These


methods are discussed in this section.

3.1. Microwave power transfer (MPT)


This technology enables the transmission of power and information by using radio waves whose wavelength range falls into
the category of microwaves. The operation of MPT involves
components including a microwave generator, transmitting
antenna and receiving antenna (also termed as rectenna). The
block diagram shows the mechanism of MPT. Initially, the power
supplied from the 50 Hz grid is converted into DC, which is fed
into a microwave generator. There are resonating cavities in the
microwave generator through which the current passes and
produces microwave electromagnetic radiation. The rectenna
receives the microwave energy and converts it back to DC. The
received DC is utilized as per the requirements of the application.
Kyoto University has been working on the implementation of the
MPT for the charging of EV for some years. In 2000, Kyoto University
developed a MPT system for EV charging and achieved an efciency of
76% [25]. A 10 kW rectenna array capable of receiving 3.2 kW/m2 at a
circa distance of 4 m with efciency of 84% has been developed by the
Volvo Technologies Japan and the Nihon Dengyo Kosaku companies
[26]. Although the MPT has the advantage of transferring power over
longer distances, it has the disadvantage of increased cost and antenna
size. In addition, high power transmission using microwaves is not
considered safe for humans as it does not comply with the radio wave
regulation for high power. To overcome the disadvantage of the cost
and antenna size, a new technique Microwave Building was introduced in [27]. In this technique, a waveguide is used, which provides a
path for microwaves and does not allow the diffusion of microwaves.
Therefore, the size of antenna and cost are reduced to a great extent
and the technique is considered safe. However, to date, low power has
been transferred using this technique.

3.2. Inductive power transfer


The charging of plugin electric vehicles has always a safety risk
of the direct contact of metal-to-metal. To avoid this concern, the
designs of electric vehicle charging systems were developed based
on inductive power transfer (IPT) [28]. The IPT works on electromagnetic induction phenomena to transfer power through an air
cored transformer with closely spaced primary and secondary coils
[2,14,29]. The coils seem to be connected physically to each other
but are isolated electrically, as shown in Fig. 1(a). The extended
picture in Fig. 1(b) shows a sealed charging pad. The charger is
inserted into the vehicle like fueling a conventional vehicle. The
schematic diagram of IPT is shown in Fig. 2.
Inductive power transfer has been successfully implemented
for EV battery charging. This method showed promising high
power transfer with a smaller air gap, however, when the air
gap between the primary and secondary coils is increased the
performance decreases drastically due to leakage inductance [29].
3.3. Inductively coupled power transfer
The inductive power transfer offers low efciency when the air
gap is increased between charging coils and also involves wired
chargers, while the designs for full wireless charging systems have
been developed to overcome the deciencies of IPT and make the
charging system convenient for the users. The inductively coupled
power transfer (ICPT) employs capacitors connected to both the
primary and secondary coils to compensate the leakage ux due to
the increased air gap, as shown in Fig. 3. Both the LC circuits work on
resonance phenomena to enable effective energy transfer at resonant
frequency [31].
The inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) method is
known worldwide for its high power transfer in many applications, mainly in electric vehicles [5,31]. It provides a rapid charging
process, and optimized power transmission by frequency variation

Fig. 1. (a) EV charging through inductive power transfer [30], (b) charging pad [30].

High Frequency
Inductive Link

From Utility
Source
Battery

Charging station

Vehicle charging system

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of Inductive Power Transfer.

K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

and control over the loss due to low magnetic coupling. The ICPT
has been used for both stationary and moving electric vehicles
[21]. If the vehicle being charged is stationary, it is said to be
charging of the battery electric vehicle (BEV) or static charging,
while, if the vehicle is moving, some names given to it are dynamic
charging and online electric vehicle (OLEV). In the OLEV set-up,
the primary coil is placed in the pavement at spaced locations,
thereby establishing a charging roadbed that allows power transfer at several spaced locations throughout the roadbed. Although it
involves high capital cost for infrastructure installation, its feature
of frequent charging can elude the need for high capacity batteries.
The online electric vehicle (OLEV) uses relatively low resonant
frequency as the system is installed for the charging of moving
electric vehicles in an open public area. Therefore, it is necessary to
maintain safety regulations prescribed by safety regulation organizations, such as the International Committee on Electromagnetic
Safety (ICES), and the International Commission on Non-ionizing

C1
V1

C2

L1

L2

V2

Fig. 3. ICPT circuit.

Table 1
ICPT applied projects.
Manufacturer/institute

Power rating

Efciency (%)

Air gap (cm)

2007 [32]
2011 [37]
2011 [38]
2011 [39]
2012 [40]
2012 [26]
2013 [41]
2014 [42]

60 W
1 kW
3.3 kW
60 kW
3.3 kW
30 kW
180 kW
300600 kW

40
88
8490
92
90
92
85
83

200
30
10
40
18
14
10
3

465

Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) to avoid the exposure by humans to


the electromagnetic eld (EMF).
Many authors have termed this technology as the inductively
coupled power transfer (ICPT), while Kurs et al. [32], and Karalis
et al. [33] termed this method as the strong magnetic coupled power
transfer. Nevertheless, both of these indicate same characteristics
[13,34]. Takanashi et al. [35] split IPT based on the use of the magnetic
core and operating frequency into the inductively coupled power
transfer (ICPT ) method [31] and the magnetic resonant power transfer
method [32,33]. According to [35], the ICPT works on a frequency of
less than 200 kHz and employs a ferrite core, while the magnetic
resonance power transfer works on a frequency higher than 1 MHz
and does not utilize a ferrite core.
The literature suggests that the ICPT is a comparatively efcient,
optimum and light charging system through which power can be
transferred from one part to another part of the system with no
physical contacts, particularly in the electric vehicle application, even
in extreme weather conditions [13]. Inductive power transfer (ICPT)
has been attracting the interest of manufacturers in the last few years
[36]. Cellular phone charging through ICPT is an application that has
already been commercialized. The common commercialization of this
technology is likely to be unveiled soon and may modernize the
automotive industry.
The achievements in research of ICPT technology are tabulated
in Table 1:
A comparison of charging methods with respect to the parameters including efciency, frequency, cost, power level and
distance is shown in Table 2.
From developed methods of electric vehicle charging, the ICPT
method has enabled the high power transfer.

4. Operating principle for ICPT system


In the ICPT system, unlike the transformers in which the primary
and secondary windings are wound on a magnetic core to avoid the
leakage of inductance, and to produce a good coupling, the windings

Table 2
Comparison of various EV battery charging methods.
Technology

Efciency

Frequency

Power level

Distance

Cost

Microwave power transfer


Inductive power transfer (Uncompensated)
Inductive coupled power transfer

Medium
High
Medium

130 GHz
15100 kHz
20200 kHz

Low/medium
High
High

Long
Very low
Medium

High
High
Medium

Rectifier

Inverter

Cs
Secondary Coil

Battery
Primary Coil
Cp
High Frequency
Inverter
Fig. 4. Components of wireless power transfer for EV charging.

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K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

are not linked through a common magnetic core but separated over a
large air gap. The inductively coupled power transfer for the EV
charging system is depicted in Fig. 4, which consists of a utility supply,
high-frequency inverter, primary and secondary resonant circuits and
EV load [22]. The primary coil in Fig. 4 is a charging pad that is xed in
the ground. The EV is parked above the charging pad and a highfrequency AC voltage is applied to the charging pad. The rate of current
ow creates a time variant magnetic eld around the primary coil.
Subsequently, by Ampere's Law and Faraday's law, being in the vicinity
of a variant magnetic eld, a voltage is induced at the terminals of the
secondary coil, as shown in Fig. 5 [43]. The electrical load of EV is
connected to the secondary coil, which completes the circuit and
enables the power transfer.
As the primary and secondary coils are separated by a large air
gap that results in low mutual inductance and the voltage across
the mutual inductance becomes less [31], which creates a delay
between the current and voltage and thus the reactive power is
produced. To overcome the low power factor due to the reactive
power [44], capacitance is added to both the primary and
secondary coils to achieve the resonance phenomenon. This
strengthens the coupling between the loosely coupled coils. The
schematic diagram of the seriesseries compensated circuit topology is as shown in Fig. 6. This ensures the high power transfer
when both the primary and secondary circuits are operated at the
same resonant frequency [20,31].
The power output of an ICPT system P out can be analyzed by
using two observations in the ICPT system [46]:
Open-circuit test
V OC jMI 1

Short-circuit test
I SC

MI 1
L2

P Su  Q

jM 2 I 1 2
 Q2
L2

jM 2 I 1 2 L2

L2
RL

; Since Q 2

L2

RL

Therefore, the power transferred at the secondary coil can be


calculated using the following equation:
P

2 M 2 I 1 2

RL

where is the angular frequency of the transmitting coil, I 1 is the


current through transmitting coil, M is the mutual inductance
between two coils and RL is the load resistance.

5. Equivalent circuit analysis of ICPT


Although the inductively coupled power system has many
congurations to compensate for the effect of leakage ux, a
seriesseries resonant structure of the ICPT system is selected for
analysis because of its simplicity and moreover it reduces the
parameters that are involved in the optimization of efciency of
the ICPT system. An ICPT system with a series resonant capacitor is
shown in Fig. 7. Lp , Ls are the self-inductances of the primary and
secondary side and M is mutual inductance. C p , C s are the capacitances of the primary and secondary side capacitors. R1 , R2 are
the resistances of the primary and secondary side and RL is the
load resistance. Fig. 8 shows the T-type of equivalent circuit of the
ICPT system circuit shown in Fig. 7.
The coupling coefcient (k), that denes the extent of coupling
of the primary and secondary coil, is given by:
M
k p
Lp Ls

Then power can be calculated as the product of open circuit test


voltage and short circuit test current:
Su jMI 1 

MI 1 jM 2 I 1 2

L2
L2

Cp

I1

R1

I2

Vs

Amperes Law

Lp

I1

Cp

R1

Lp-M

Fig. 5. Basic concept of inductive power transfer [45].

High Frequency
Inverter

Ls

RL

VL

Ls - M

R2

Vs

Rectifier

Fig. 7. Seriesseries (SS) resonant ICPT system.

Faradays
Law

Inductively Coupled
Power Transfer
Mutual
Induction

L 1 Lm

Cs2

L2

Fig. 6. Circuit of inductively coupled power transfer.

Rectifier

Cs

I2
RL

Fig. 8. Equivalent circuit of ICPT system.

Cs1

AC

Cs

R2

Battery

K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

The total impedance of the equivalent circuit for given parameters may be calculated as:
0
1



2 2
1

M
@
A


8
Z SS R1 j Lp 

Cp
R j Ls  1 R
Cs

467

And, thus, the maximum efciency can be obtained as:



2
2 f r M 2
max r



2  p 2
R1 R2 2 f r M 2 R1 R2

18

The current absorbed from the supply is given by:


Vs
Z SS

I1 

Vs

 
1
R1 j Lp  C p

2
 2 M 
R2 j Ls  C 1 RL

10

Now the circuit is operating at a resonant frequency f r and the


LC components cancel out their reactance and I 1 is given by:
I1
R1

V
 s 2 2
2 f r M

11

R2 RL

The input power can be calculated as:


P IN
R1

V 2
 s 2 2
2 f r M

12

R2 RL

Or:
P IN

V s 2 R2 RL

2
R1 R2 R1 RL 2 f r M 2

13

Likewise, the output power can be obtained as below:



2
V s 2 2 f r M 2 RL
P OUT 

2 2
R1 R2 R1 RL 2 f r M 2

P OUT
P IN

6.1. Impact of coupling coefcient and frequency on the efciency


of the ICPT system
The coupling coefcient between the primary and secondary
can be calculated from Eq. (1). If no coupling exists between the
primary and secondary, then M 0; and, thus k 0. The general
transformers with cores and no air gap have the highest coupling
coefcient. The coupled coils have k Z 0:5, they are termed as
tightly coupled and those having k r 0:5 are called loosely coupled.
The value of M and thereby k depends on the physical dimensions
and the number of turns of each coil, their relative position to one
another and the magnetic properties of the core on which they are
wound. There is also a probable decrease in the coupling coefcient due to misalignment between the transmitting and pick-up
coils in both the static and dynamic charging of EVs. Fig. 9 depicts
the variation of coupling coefcient and mutual inductance as a
function of variable distance.
Eq. (16) can be simplied to determine the dependence of the
efciency of the ICPT system on the coupling coefcient. The
relationship between the coupling coefcient (k) and power
100
90

14

k=0.2

80

And the efciency of the system can be represented by the


following equation:

6. Characteristics of ICPT system

15

Or

k=0.4

70
Efficiency ()

I1

k=0.6

60
50
40
30

RL


2
RL R1 R2 RL = 2 f r M
R2

20

16

10

The maximum load resistance for optimized efciency can be


obtained by:
s

2
2 f r M 2
RL 1
17
R1 R2

0
5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

40000

45000

50000

Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 10. Efciency of ICPT system at various coupling coefcient.

4000

0.25

7.00E-05

Mutual Inductance

5.00E-05

0.15

4.00E-05
3.00E-05

0.1

2.00E-05
0.05
1.00E-05

Power Transferred (Watts)

0.2

6.00E-05

Mutual Inductance (Henery)

Coupling Coefficient (k)

3500

Coupling Factor

RL=3

3000

RL=3.5

2500

RL=4

2000
RL=4.5

1500
RL=4.5

1000
500

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.00E+00

Airgap / Distance (Metres)


Fig. 9. The effect of distance upon coupling coefcient (k) and mutual inductance
(M).

0
15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000

Frequency (Hz)
Fig. 11. Maximum power transferred at resonant frequencies.

468

K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

100

Table 3
Loaded quality factors of ICPT coils.
Secondary series
compensated

Secondary parallel
compensated

Q1

Q1

RL L1
M 2

Q1

Q2

Q1

L2
RL

Q1

95

Maximum Efficiency ()

Quality
factor

L1 L2 2
RL M 2
RL
L2

90
80

90
85
80
75

Efficiency ()

70

70

60

25

45

50

65

85

105

kQ

40

Fig. 13. The maximum efciency of ICPT system against kQ [35].

30
20
10

in [48] and presented by Eq. (21):

0
5000

10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000

Q1 4

Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 12. Efciency during bifurcation phenomenon.

transferred can be represented by Eq. (19):


2
2
R k 2 f r L1 L2
 L


2
2
RL R2 R1 RL R1 R2 k 2 f r L1 L2

19

Fig. 10 shows that the efciency varies directly with the


coupling coefcient and frequency. The lower air gaps offer higher
efciency. It is important to select a trade-off between the distance
and efciency for high power transfer, keeping in view the
necessity of application.
The power transferred can be determined by Eq. (1). Fig. 11
shows the maximum power transferred for different load resistances at certain bandwidth of optimum resonant frequencies. At
these frequencies, the LC components cancel out their reactance
on both sides of the circuit. The power transfer drops considerably
at all other frequencies except the range of bandwidth.
6.2. Impact of quality factor (Q) of coils on the efciency of ICPT
system
The quality factor quanties how much the coil is purely
inductive. It signies its ability to produce a large magnetic eld.
Normally, the ICPT system is designed to operate at a xed
frequency; however, sometimes, due to a change in parameters,
i.e. capacitance or load, the air gap causes the change in system
frequency, so the transfer efciency drops. Therefore, the system
does not operate at a zero phase angle frequency.
The native quality factor of primary and secondary coil can be
calculated as:
Q1

L1
R1

Q2

L2
R2

20

The loaded quality of series and parallel compensated ICPT


system are given in Table 3.
A bifurcation phenomenon occurs when a system has more
than one zero phase angle frequency [47]. Fig. 12 shows the
efciency characteristics during bifurcation phenomenon. It can
be seen that there are more than one resonant frequencies where
the efciency becomes high. It has been shown in [47,48] that the
bifurcation phenomenon highly depends on the quality factors of
the coils. The condition for bifurcation in SS topology is derived

4Q 2 3

21

4Q 2 2  1

To avoid the bifurcation phenomenon in the seriesseries (SS)


ICPT system, the quality factor of primary coil should always be
greater than the secondary coil and thus the system will operate
on a single zero angle frequency.
The impact of quality factor on the amount of power transferred and its efciency can be observed from the following
equations [49]:
P jL2 I 1  I 1 

M2
Q
L2 L1 2

P V 1  I1  k  Q 2

22
23

To determine the maximum efciency of the ICPT system, an


equation based on the coupling coefcient and Q factor is developed in [35]:

max

1
2
1 p
k

24

Q 1Q 2

13 shows the results plotted between max and kQ

pFig.
k Q 1 Q 2 . It reveals that the higher the values of the coupling
coefcient and quality factors, the greater the efciency.

7. Development of ICPT system


7.1. Compensation technologies
The increase in air gap between two inductive coils increases
the leakage inductance and magnetizing current, and, accordingly,
the coupling between them weakens. The circuit is operated at a
resonant frequency to compensate the leakage inductance and to
strengthen the coupling between the resonant coils [50]. It has
been analyzed that the primary coil compensation can minimize
the apparent power rating of the power supply of the ICPT system,
while the secondary coil compensation can increase the capability
of the pick-up coil [31]. This is achieved by operating the system at
the zero phase angle frequency, i.e. the angle between the current
and voltage is always kept at zero. The arrangement of the
capacitor connections for compensation on both sides either in
series or parallel makes four topologies seriesseries (SS), series
parallel (SP), parallelseries (PS) and parallelparallel (PP) as
shown in Fig. 14. All these four basic topologies have different
merits and demerits that are presented in Table 4. The selection of

K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

Cp

Cs

Cp

I1

I2

V1

Lp

Ls

469

RL

I2

I1

V1

Lp

RL

Ls
Cs

Series-Series Compensated
ICPT

Series-Parallel Compensated
ICPT

Cs
I1

V1

I1

I2

Lp

RL

Ls

V1

I2

Cp

Lp

Ls

RL

Cs

Cp
M
Parallel-Series Compensated
ICPT

M
Parallel-Parallel Compensated
ICPT

Fig. 14. Compensation topologies (a) SS, (b) SP, (c) PS, (d) PP.
Table 4
Characteristics of compensation topologies.
Topology

Acts as

Independent of changes Power factor at small


in
distance

Power factor at small


distance

Total impedance at resonant


state

Efciency

Seriesseries (SS)

Voltage
source
Current
source
Voltage
source
Current
source

C2

Low

Very high

Low

Very high

C2

Low

High

Low

Medium

C1

High

Medium

High

Medium

C1

Very high

Medium

High

High

Seriesparallel
(SP)
Parallelseries
(PS)
Parallelparallel
(PP)

Series-Parallel
3

Parallel-Series

0.6

I2/I 2r

I2 /I 2r

Parallel-Parallel
0.8

Series-Series

0.4

0.2

0
-100

-90

-50

50

90

100

X% Misalignment
Fig. 15. The behavior of SS, SP topologies in absence of secondary [50].

the topologies depends upon their suitability for specic applications satisfying the respective requirements, as SS and SP topologies can transfer higher power than the rated, but these offer an
uncertain behavior to the supply [50], and the PS and the PP
compensated ICPT systems are safe for the supply in the absence of
secondary winding but these are unable to transfer the rated
power if the coils are somewhat misaligned. The behavior of
SS and SP topologies when the secondary is absent is shown
in Fig. 15; the current rises due decrease in impedance with
increase in misalignment. The I 2 is load current and I 2r is rated
load current. However in PS, PP the current decreases as the total
impedance increases due to misalignment as shown in Fig. 16.

-100

-75

-50

50

75

100

X% Misalignment
Fig. 16. The behavior of PS, PP topologies in absence of secondary [50].

They require additional series inductor to control the inverter


output current owing through primary parallel resonant circuit,
however, the size and cost of converter is increased. In [51], a
series-parallel LCL pick-up design was presented that offered
uninterrupted controlled power and smooth power transitions
during switching states but it reected reactive power back onto
the source [52]. Moreover, the SP topology depends upon the
coupling coefcient and requires a high-value of capacitance for
stronger magnetic coupling [53]. According to [31,54], the SS
topology is considered as the most suitable for EV charging
because the primary and secondary capacitances are unimpeded
from both the magnetic coupling coefcient and the load. It may

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K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

also act as a constant current and voltage source that is desirable


for battery charging.
Besides these four conventional compensation topologies,
other meritorious designs are proposed [21,31,48,55]. In [31] a
design based on a primary compensated circuit was presented that
minimized the effects of frequency shifts to avoid a low coupling
coefcient. In [54], parallelparallelseries (PPS) topology has
been implemented that offered higher efciency than PP topology
for same distance of 50 mm and load of 1 . The power factor of
inverter in PPS topology has higher power factor than PP, however
for smaller misalignment the PP topology has good performance
than PPS. Vila et al. [50] presented the SPS design, which offered
better performance for 2 kW prototype in terms of misalignment
toleration and efciency as compared to the basic compensation
topologies for the load of 1.25 . The selection of PPS and SPS
topologies may done according to application requirement as SPS
would not t where less misalignment is expected but PPS can be
useful. The Sakamato et al. [56] presented an inductive coupler
design that is capable of providing high self-inductance and less
leakage inductance resulting in 8.3 kW of power transferred at an
air gap of 3 mm with more than 97% efciency.

7.2. Charging distance


The large air gap has been the main consideration in the
development of EV charging, as a reasonable ground clearance is
required between the EV chassis and the charging pad xed in the
ground. An air gap of a few hundred millimeters is considered
necessary for EV application [57] and the value of k in the EV
charging ICPT systems has been observed to be between 0.3 and
0.6 [31].
Table 5
ICPT systems using ferrite core.
Ferrite cored ICPT systems

Air cored ICPT systems

Ref
no.

Coupling
coefcient

Ref
no.

Charging
distance (mm)

Coupling
coefcient

0.35
0.25
0.72

[25]
[32]
[60]

200
2000
300

0.16
0.01
0.05

Charging
distance (mm)

[11] 70
[58] 80
[59] 6

In the quest to achieve efcient, optimum and high power


transfer, research has been carried out on various transformers
with a core and without a core (air core). Many designs have been
proposed using an air core [20] and ferrite core [43]. Ferrite cores
have been preferred because of their improved coupling coefcient and lower cost compared to others [14]. Table 5 shows a
comparison between ICPT EV charging systems employing a ferrite
core and an air core. This comparison reveals that the coupling
coefcient in the ICPT systems using a core is higher than in the air
core systems.
Extensive research studies have been conducted and published
over time concerning the optimization of the charging pad by
employing different core shapes. Initially, U cores, E cores and pot
cores were examined but these were incompatible with EV
application due to their greater thickness. The single-sided winding with a circular core shape, as shown in Fig. 17, was considered
and used in the EV charging applications for long spans of time
[31,61]. Mecke and Rathge [57] used circular coils of 400 mm
diameter to transfer 1 kW power with an air gap of 300 mm. They
achieved an overall power transfer system efciency of more than
80% but misalignment was not focused upon. In [62], a 2 kW 700mm-diameter circular power pad with a 200 mm air gap was
proposed. The single-sided circular core offered both a low leakage
electric eld and electromagnetic radiation, which are desirable in
EV charging. Less leakage of an electric eld is preferable due to
the surrounding metallic structures in the EV as the pick-up coil is
embedded in the EV chassis. The circular pads exhibited limited
coupling and offered poor tolerance to horizontal offset. In [62], it
was shown that the pick-up coil should be aligned with the
transmitting coil for the charging of the EV using circular coils,
however, when the misalignment attained an offset of around
740%, the output power fell to zero. Budhia et al. [19] proposed a
meritorious solution to overcome the limitations revealed by the
circular pad. They introduced and optimized a new polarized
coupler called a Double D Quadrature (DDQ), as shown in Fig. 18.

Fig. 18. Double-D quadrature magnetic couple design [13].

Fig. 17. Single-sided circular charging pad [13].

Fig. 19. Rectangular H-shaped core [63].

K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

The DDQ produced a ux path height twice that of a circular pad


together with having a single-sided ux path completely interoperable with the traditional circular pads.
According to [63] and [64], the double-sided windings with
rectangular core shape, as shown in Fig. 19, have also have been
considered for EV charging systems. The double-sided rectangular
H-shaped core type was compact and lightweight but resulted in a
low coupling coefcient due to its leakage ux at the back of the
core, however, this leakage ux could be shielded by the
aluminum sheet.
As there is an escalation in both the static and dynamic charging of
EVs, accordingly, such power pads should be developed that can
handle both [19]. In the design of power pads, the winding width
should be sufcient enough to prevent the decrease in k. To decide
upon the optimum winding width, Takanashi et al. [35] determined
the effect of the winding width (w) and magnetic air gap (g) on the
efciency. It has been analyzed that a larger w/g ratio could observe
maximum efciency at a w/g ratio of 1.4. However, the large size of
the secondary coil cannot t on an EV chassis. Thus, it is required to
keep in view the geometry of the secondary coil while designing for
an EV chassis. According to [62], an increase in coil diameter with
centered ferrite core can increase the self-inductance in a greater
proportion than the mutual inductance that reduced the coupling
coefcient. Generally, the magnetic coupling decays at 1=r 3 , r being
the distance from center loop, thus it seems that the size of magnetic
charging pad can be increased but there are some limitations due to
cost [65].
7.3. Power level
The power level for the ICPT system accommodates several
important aspects including charging time, location, and cost [66].
The suitability of ICPT in different applications, charging time and
the cost signicantly depends upon the selection of the power
level. A high power level is desirable when more vehicles are being
charged from a single charging track. The static charging of EV
prefers power levels of 27 kW with an operational air gap of 100
250 mm.
Different codes and standards suggest different criteria for the
suitability of the power level selected for EV charging. The Society
of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1772 code describes the power
level according to three categories that dene different amounts of
energy transfer requiring different infrastructure. The power level
may also be classied according to on-board (the charger located
inside the EV) and off-board charging [67]. The charging levels
prescribed in SAE J1772 are summarized in Table 6.
Different OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) manufacture production with different specications that do not follow a
single standard worldwide. Recently, the SAE international J2954

471

task force for the wireless power transfer (WPT) of light duty
electric and plug-in electric vehicles [68] has proposed a specic
frequency and power level for the interoperability of EV charging
before commercialization. The proposed frequency that may be
used for charging light electric vehicles is 85 kHz, which lies
within an internationally available 81.3890 kHz frequency band.
The power levels prescribed by this code are presented in Table 7.

7.4. Misalignment toleration


Misalignment is the displacement of the pick-up coil with respect
to the transmitting coil and leads to a decline in both the efciency
and power transfer of the ICPT system. The ICPT system for EV
charging requires maximum alignment between the coils to avoid
inefcient power transfer due to driver mistake while parking the
vehicle in the desired position [62]. The car weight may slightly
change the air gap between the EV chassis and the ground and
thereby coupling, consequently it would affect the power transfer
efciency [64]. The ICPT charging system with perfect alignment will
reduce the leakage ux, and, as a result, it reduces the electromagnetic interference emission from the system; however, an ICPT
system that could offer good tolerance for misalignment to give
maximum freedom to the driver, is desirable [31].
Misalignment may be classied as lateral or longitudinal, in
which the lateral misalignment can occur when coils are horizontally misaligned and longitudinal misalignment can occur when
the coils are irregular with respect to their length [70]. Both types
of misalignment may reduce the mutual inductance, and can cause
the ICPT system to operate on a frequency other than what was
designed with a low coupling coefcient k. When the secondary
coil of a single-sided winding transformer with circular core is
displaced 40% from the transmitter coil, the coupling coefcient
becomes zero, as can be observed from Fig. 20. In [43], a polarized
ux pipe was presented that offered better tolerance to misalignment than the circular pad and met the tolerance requirements for
an EV. In [19], a Double D Quadrature (DDQ) coil design was
presented, which offered far greater tolerance than a circular coil
and was also compatible with circular coils. It may be observed
that when the double-sided windings are misaligned to a certain
position, as shown in Fig. 21, they still have good coupling because
the ux linkage path is extended compared to the circular coils, as
shown in Fig. 20 [64]. The ICPT systems can have a variable
coupling coefcient, thus a perfect frequency control that keeps
the ICPT circuit to remain in the state of resonance or coil
geometry optimization that can offer high efciency with a
reasonable misalignment between coils may be employed, however, the system becomes either complex in terms of frequency
control or costly due to the geometry of the coils [62,71].

Table 6
Power levels dened by code J1772 [69].
Power level type

Charger location

Typical use

Energy supply interface Expected power level Charging time Vehicle technology

Level 1 (Opportunity) On-board 1-phase Charging at home or ofce


Convenience outlet
120 Vac (US)
230 Vac (EU)
Level 2 (Primary)
On-board 1Charging at private or public outlets Dedicated EVSE
or 3- phase
240 Vac (US)
400 Vac (EU)
Level 3 (Fast)
Off board 3-phase analogous to a lling station
Dedicated EVSE
(280 V-600 Vac
or Vdc)

1.4 kW (12 A)
1.9 kW(20 A)

411 h
1136 h

PHEVs (515 kWh)


EVs(1650 kWh)

4 kW (17 A)
8 kW (32 A)
19.2 kW(80 A)

14 h
26 h
23 h

PHEVs(515 kWh)
EVs(1630 kWh)
EVs(350 kWh)

50 kW
100 kW

0.41 h

EVs(2050 kWh)

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K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

Table 7
The Power levels dened by code J2954 [68].
SAE TIR J2954 WPT Power class
Classication
Maximum input WPT power rating

WPT1 house parking


3.7 kW

Secondary Coils (Car)


Position(B)
Position(A)

Primary Coil
(Ground)
Fig. 20. Single-sided winding transformer misalignment [64].

1
Lp C P

fo

Ferrite Cores
Magnetic
Flux

Fig. 21. Double-sided winding transformer misalignment [64].

I1

Cp1

R1

R2

Cs
I2

Cp2

Vs

Lp

Ls

VL

RL

Fig. 22. Circuit of SPS topology [50].

I1

Cp

R1

R2

Cs2
I2

Vs

Lp

1
Ls C s

25

Or

Position
(A)

Primary Transformer
(Ground)

The development of ICPT design is done systematically using


iterative process or experimental analysis. The principal condition
for maximum power in ICPT system is resonant frequency operation. Thus the design of ICPT system primarily corresponds to the
parameters that are necessary for resonant operation. These
parameters are winding inductances (Lp ; Ls ), their respective
capacitances (C p ; C s ) that are connected with them and resonant
frequency ( f o ). Following is resonant condition for inductive
power transfer.

o p p

Secondary Transformer
(Car)
Forward Direction
Position
x
(B)

WPT3 L.D. fast charge


22 kW

8. Design criteria of ICPT system

Magnetic
Flux

Lateral
Direction

WPT2 private/public parking


7.7 kW

Ls Cs1

VL

RL

Fig. 23. Circuit of PPS topology [54].

The ICPT compensation circuits play a signicant role in misalignment toleration. Throngnumchai et al. [54] pointed out that basic
compensation circuit topologies SS, SP, PS and PP are not suitable for
ICPT systems considering the need for low sensitivity to the misalignment requirements of EVs, high power level and larger air gap. A
meritorious study was conducted on the misalignment performance
enhancement of ICPT by selecting a suitable SPS compensation
topology, shown in Fig. 22, that realized the rated power transfer
with the high misalignment of the pick-up coil without any complex
control [62]. In [31], another circuit topology PPS, shown in Fig. 23,
was proposed and validated experimentally, which resulted in
recoverable potency of the circuit to counter the variation in coupling
and thereby permitted power transfer at a reasonably larger air gap.
The circuit topology presented was able to enhance the power factor
of the output of the inverter and that of the transmitter coil to
overcome the low coupling coefcient.

1
1
p p;
Lp C P 2 Ls C s

Since

o 2 f o

26

Considering the overall ICPT system, design process involves


the amount of power to be transferred, load resistance, desired
load voltage. Based upon of the amount of power, the frequency,
inductances, capacitances are selected. The inductance of windings
depends on number of turns and dimensions of coils and may be
varied as per requirement. A meritorious study on design process
has been presented in [21] that provides a ow diagram of ICPT
design process depicted in Fig. 24. This design ow process can be
applied for low to high power level ICPT system. According to this
ow diagram the design process initiates with initial geometry,
number of turns, cross sectional area and current density of coils
and then an iterative process is applied until the fullment of
required power level with permissible maximum frequency, geometry of coil. From Eq. (6), it clear that the resonant operating
frequency is related to the amount of power to be transferred;
higher the power to be transferred, higher will be the operating
frequency. But higher frequencies are limited due to switching
speed of inverter. To ensure high efciency in ICPT system, the
coupling coefcient and quality factors of coils should be high. The
coupling coefcient may be improved by various magnetic shapes
such as combination of ferrite core and litz wire. The coils of high
Q-factor enable protection from electromagnetic interference [72].
Generally ICPT systems are designed for either xed frequency
operation or variable frequency operation. In variable frequency
operation, the ICPT systems are designed in such a way that their
input VA should be greater than secondary VA to avoid point of
bifurcation and power loss [49].
Nowadays new trends in magnetic coupler designs and electronic are being introduced [46,73].

9. Control algorithms
The variation in air gap and alignment causes the change in
load resistance and magnetic coupling between primary and
secondary coil. There can be a deviation in frequency of inverter
and load can vary over a considerable range. Uncertain characteristics can be expected due to all these issues. The output
voltage of secondary coil may vary excessively from designed
value. To avoid undesirable characteristics under various

K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

473

Fig. 24. Flow diagram of ICPT design [21].

Reference
Current

Controller
(DSP/FPGA)

Gate
Drive

High Frequency
Converter

Zero Current
Crossing detection

Filter

ICPT
Coil

Current
Detection

Magnitude
Detection
Fig. 25. Control block diagram of ICPT Coil Supply.

operating conditions and to maintain a normal operation of


power transfer, a proper control is essential. It will prevent from
output voltage uctuation, where a constant supply is important.
The control strategy may be applied to different parts of ICPT;
Individually for primary coil power supply control and secondary
coil power control or synchronised control of primary and
secondary coils. The control of secondary coil is more common
in order to get stabilized voltage.

The circuit of inductively coupled power transformer is shown


in Fig. 6. A high frequency inverter is necessary to operate the
resonant circuit and produce high frequency supply for primary coil.
The operating frequency of inverter switches has to match with the
designed frequency of coils but xed frequency control cannot
manage variation of circuit parameters, and as a result the switches
practice high voltage or current stress, and high energy loss in the
form of heat. Thus variable frequency control has been developed to

474

K.A. Kalwar et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47 (2015) 462475

ensure circuit resonance [74]. Proportionalintegral (PI) controllers


have been implemented to control the input and output current
through DSP, FPGA and other devices [2,18,53,58,75]. Atypical control
block diagram of input current is shown in Fig. 25. Promoting the
concept of bidirectional power transfer for V2G (vehicle-to-grid)
system and V2H (vehicle-to-home), some coordinated controller
including single-ended quasi resonant high frequency inverter, directional tuning control and synchronised PWM with high frequency
communication system have been implemented [7678].

10. Future recommendations


Although EVs have huge potential to switch conventional
transport into modern electric transport, they are not commonly
adopted yet due to various technical and commercial obstacles. A
positive approach to these obstacles is expected in the near future
to replace conventional vehicles with EVs.

 Besides ferrite cores, the research may be extended to a unique




core material and design that provides high magnetic eld


strength and low core losses to allow users to charge freely
regardless of the misalignment issue within permissible limits.
During the optimization process to avoid the copper losses, the
current ratings can be kept at possible low values.
The challenge for future EVs would be the long mileage. The long
mileage by an EV mainly requires a high-energy density battery
that could be charged within a few minutes and last for several
hundred miles. Consideration of the use of graphene material for
batteries and super-capacitors may enhance the mileage issue.
Then a single charging of EV may provide longer mileage.

11. Conclusion
This paper has provided a brief review and comparison of the
different EV charging methods and their deployment. The equivalent circuit analysis and characteristics of the ICPT system were
presented. The progress of the ICPT method for various factors and
benets from them were reviewed. The implementation of ICPT
was found to be contingent upon the leakage ux compensation
topology, charging distance and proper alignment. A trade-off
between distance, charging pad size and efciency is necessary for
EV charging application. Advanced ux leakage compensating
topologies SPS and PPS topologies offer efcient power transfer
over large air gaps and better misalignment toleration as compared to basic conventional topologies. Power levels 1 and 2 are
designed for slow and moderate charging at home and public
parking, respectively, however, power level 3 provides off board
quick charging. Rectangular and DDQ coils offer good coupling and
high misalignment consideration. Design criteria is utmost to
develop the overall ICPT system for low to high power level. To
cope with the dynamic behavior of ICPT system many controllers
have been developed to maintain input and output parameters.
Future recommendations supporting the implementation of this
technology are included.

Acknowledgment
The authors would like to acknowledge the nancial support
from University of Malaya. This research was carried under the
High Impact Research Grant (UM.C/HIR/MOHE/ENG/24) scheme.

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