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Nicholas Russo
Connie Douglas
ENG 2116-008
9-November-2016

Cybercrime
Introduction
The world around us is constantly changing; the most frightening aspects are the criminal
acts taking place all around us. Cybercrime is continuously getting more impressive and harder
to defend. Cybercrime is a very serious problem that is plaguing the world. We all wonder, what
is the purpose of committing a cybercrime? Over the years, cybercriminals have developed many
techniques to perform such crimes. These types are, but not limited to Hacking, Phishing, and
Denial of Service attacks. These crimes can cost mass amounts of money to companies and to the
individual person. The most dangerous is how our government has fallen behind in the
legislature to govern this type of crime. As of now, cybercrime is a never ending problem. The
more that technology is in our lives in everything that we do, the more room there is for massive
cybercrime.
Background Knowledge
Cybercrime is a unique type of crime because there is no physical damage to anyone
using guns, knives, or fists. Cybercrime is a crime that is committed in cyberspace; cyberspace is
where all communications of a business and the internet live. Cybercrime became more prevalent
when people were using the cyberspace for all communications, but also for conducting business
transaction and transmitting Personal Identifiable Information(PII) over the internet, leaving a

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huge opportunity for these criminals to exploit (Igor 2). With the newest expansion into the
connection of mobile devices they now have access to anything that these criminals want; such
as, GPS, phone numbers, notes, and even saved passwords (Igor 1).
There are many different types of cybercriminals the first is Toolkits; toolkits are the type
of criminals that are new to the cyber space. They use pre-developed software to commit their
cybercrimes. Another type that are similar to toolkits are cyber punks. Cyber punks commit petty
crimes; such as, spamming and credit card fraud; then you have internals that use the security
measures to cause damage over technical skills. These groups of criminals are classified as Cyber
thieves. The next set of criminal types are more serious and dangerous criminals; these are
professionals and they are called the black hats. Black hats mission is to cause major damage
and are also very experienced in the field of cyberspace.
Cybercrime the new knowledge of cyberspace being a digital place where we conduct
business. Cyberspace is a place where there are no laws or any standards to help protect
companies against cybercrime; along with the amount of business information that is transferred
over the internet, there is also a large amount of personal information being shared. This attracts
cybercriminals to cyberspace where they create some well-known types of attacks in a new
environment (Igor 10).
In modern day, we have developed the basic knowledge of this new type of threat. We
still have so much information that is on the internet and we think that it is safe because of some
protection tools which is a common misconception. Another common misconception that we all
have is that social media is a safe place to tell everyone about your lives. People store
information such as passwords, addresses, name, birthdate. Which gives the world of cybercrime

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more ammunition to attack us. Cyber-attacks happen quickly, can be very costly and happen to a
wide area of systems(Igor 8).
Cybercrime Objectives
Hacking
There are many different methods in how cybercrimes are committed. One of the most
popular types, that is also well known is hacking. Hacking is a big contributor to cybercrime and
is one of the original forms of such crime. Hacking is the exploitation of ones computer without
their knowledge. Hackers are looking for ways to intercept information that is being used in
business transactions by gaining access to accounts that are not their own. The types of attack are
Man-in-the-Middle, Viruses, Worms, Malicious code, and Malware attack (2015 Cost of Cyber
Crime Study: United States 4). Hacking is a very dangerous type of crime and is the most
popular type of attack and that leads to many crimes. This crime is so dangerous due to the fact
that the hackers are so far ahead for the defenders (Waldrop 1). While we are trying to prevent
attacks from happening again the hackers are creating new ways to breach systems. The world of
hacking is vast and there are many avenues of which they can travel; These avenues can stay
small and attack the personal level with things like cyber fraud. Cyber Fraud is a large problem
that plagues many countries. You never know how and when someone gets access to your
information, this is where hacking comes into play. You may say well they have scanners that
read your card in your pockets and thats how hackers get your information, but that is not the
only way. If a hacker can guess the cadence of the card number, then he may have access to you
card in a matter of days. Now that he has your information he can posts it in the dark web. The
dark web is a place that is notorious for host bad things that occur in the criminal world. This is
where hackers may work together to break into your accounts (Philippsohn 1).

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There are no solutions to hacking due to the original response being to react instead of try
to prevent future crimes. Although defenders attempt to slow down the hackers, they are not
usually successful. It seems that hackers are always one step ahead of the good guys because
they are always changing and adapting their hacking methods to stay ahead.
Phishing
Phishing is a type of attack that preys on unknowing individuals to open attachments and
emails that hold viruses. When you think of phishing, you may think of spamming. The major
difference between phishing and spamming is that spam doesnt necessarily hurt your computer
and isnt trying to fool individuals by looking like something that it is not (Hong, 74). Phishing is
an act of falsifying a real entity that causes malicious activity to individuals. the results of this
type of attack is ransomware. Ransomware is information that is stolen and stored; this
information can include passwords, credit cards, user ID`s installation of malware. Ransomware
occurs when your computer is locked up by an attacker and the only way to unlock your
computer is if you pay a certain amount of money (Hong, 75). The methodology of the phishing
attackers is to use words like urgent or they use current events like a natural disaster in the
subject line to attract attention. The scariest thing about phishing is it doesnt matter how many
firewalls, encryption software, certificates, or two-factor authentication mechanisms an
organization has if the person behind the keyboard falls for a phish (Hong, 76). This is a scary
thought due to the fact that people are not perfect and if this person does the wrong thing it can
cause a disaster.
There are solutions to phishing attacks; such as, making them invisible, so that they do
not gain access to a users inbox. In doing so, this can be the first line of defense; with that being
said, this is a hard task due to there not being many studies on phishing. Another way to combat

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this crime is to use Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) (Hong 76). The protection that this
technique provides is that it talks to the Domain Name Server(DNS) to certify that the message is
legitimate. Overall, the best known anti-phishing method is the blacklist; this is a set of URLs
that have been identified as fake and are blocked from being searched (Hong 77). The three lists
are Google, Microsoft, phishing tank each one specializes with different browsers for protection.
Denial of Service Attack(DoS)
Denial of service(DoS) attacks are usually on a larger scale, and are one of the most
costly attacks. meaning that these attacks are initially on the company level than on a personal
level. DoS attack is where a cybercriminal will send millions of requests to a single system
(webserver authentication server, threat management server); with the massive amount of
requests the system receives, this will cause the system to shut down and become unresponsive.
This is the main purpose of this type of attack. What makes this attack so dangerous is the fact
that it can be hard to detect and it can also cause lots of damage. The type of system that this
affects the most is authentication systems. The reason for this is the fact that this is done through
RSA key pairs. This process can be slow; therefore, a mass amount for requests can cause the
server to crash (Li 1).
Solutions to this type of attack are technical and can be very costly. The best solution is to
create a cashing system. What this does is if the system comes into contact with the same
request, it will just disregard it and only look at different request.
Cybercrime Cost
The incident cost to protect data that has been breached in an attack can be astonishing.
The amounts of money that it cost to offer any kind of protection is all done based on risks.
There is a process that goes into determining the risks that a company has when it encounters a

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breach. The formula that is created for this stems from the amount of assets times the percentage
of risk deemed from the attack. The assets that we are talking about are things like credit
accounts, bank accounts, mutual funds, and more. The costliest types of attacks are Denial of
service, malicious insiders, and malicious code. These attacks can be credited for over fifty
percent of the cybercrime cost per company per year (2015 Cost of Cyber Crime Study: United
States 4). It was said that there was company in England that was beached and they lost over
500,000 euros. This equates to 555,247.50 dollars (Harris 36). In a recent study done by
Ponemon Institute American Airlines and IBM Industries were both breach and allowed 100,000
Identification numbers to be breached. It was discovered that it took about forty-six days to
recover from that DoS attack. The average cost from these attacks is 1,988,554 dollars (2015
Cost of Cyber Crime Study: United States 4). Since the discovery of the cyber space a majority
of the companies now have a cyber security department. This department works with all of the
government organizations and the industry standards. This also comes at a cost, the cost to a
company to have a cyber security department that hires analyst to make sure that a company
doesnt get breached. Other techniques that can be used are things like Intrusion detection
systems, intrusion prevention system, and Application scanning technology (2015 Cost of Cyber
Crime Study: United States 4). This is just on the corporate level but there is a form of cost for
individuals to. While it cost companies money it cost the everyday person emotional distress
from chaos and things like cyber fraud. The damage that cybercrimes cause is fraud. Where a
criminal can order things from a site or create accounts for stores with your credit cards. These
crimes can involve withdrawing money from your bank accounts. A persons emotions can go
wild when someone is attacked by a cybercrime. There was a study conducted by Norton
antivirus and it showed the most common felling that a person feels. Those feelings are anger,

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annoyed and cheated. The worst part of this study is that three percent say that it wont happen to
us eighty percent say that the criminal will never get caught. This just shows us how much these
emotions effect our judgement. Cyber criminals love to see how much trouble they can cause to
other individuals (Harris 36).
Conclusion
Cybercrime is a very serious criminal act that is plaguing the world. The exploration of cyber
space will bring out many dangerous types of crimes. There will always be Hacking, Phishing
and Denial of Service attacks in our world. Hacking is the most popular of all the cybercrimes
due to the ease of access and wide verity of attacks. Phishing is a newer type of cyber-attack; this
type of attack relies on the unknowing individual. Denial of service attacks are attacks against
large company systems with the intent to crash large corporate systems. We also see that these
types of attacks can be very costly to a company and also to the everyday person. This can be
either through monetary value and it can also be just lack of trust. This ever growing problem
will always be the evil criminals and for the protectors of the society this will be an ever
changing field.

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