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bulletin

118AE

CROWBAR

Model VCWB

K
N
A
L
B

CROWBAR

Bulletin 118A

Crowbar

CROWBAR

EXCITATER WITH CROWBAR

this level, not having risk for the motor


fields insulation, Crowbar stops coupling the shunt resistor. During the operation of the motor, the surge protection continues active, as described in
Crowbar can be used for surge protecthe previous paragraph.
tion, in any supply system, AC or DC,
or for automatic control of insertion of Crowbar Varix still has the possibility
discharge resistor (shunt resistor) in of adjustment of the direct shoot level
synchronous motors, during the start- (positive), possibility of adjustment of
the shot delay, LED indication of shot,
ing.
shot indication by isolated static conIn case surge protection use, it operates, tact, for signalizing to a CLP or to
in case of occurrence of a tension tran- Trip the system.
sient or spike, short-circuiting the
power supply, totally or over a shunt
resistor, limiting the overvoltage and
protecting the load. In case of DC systems, the crowbar stays short-circuited
until that the Power supply be powered
off.
The Varix Crowbar modules series
CWB is compact, totally enclosed, with
frontal plug in control module, of
easy substitution.

In the case of use as automatic controller of insertion of shunt resistor on


fields of synchronous motors during the
starting, it operates in the following
way: During the starting period, the tension generated in the field would reach
quite high levels, without a shunt resistor in parallel, with frequency equal the
one of the line (Stator). With the acceleration of the motor this tension and
frequency decreases. Crowbar therefore
couples the shunt resistor continually,
while the tension generated in the field
can reach the level of tension pre-adjusted. (230V for example). When the
generated tension doesnt reach more

The VCWB model Crowbar is


idealized for automatic coupling of
discharge resistor (R shunt) in
synchronous motors fields,
presenting advantages in relation to
contactors, as larger safety in the
coupling, not need of external
commands and additional protection
against surges of high tension during
the operation of the machine.
The crowbar can also be used as surge protection in generator fields or
any other system to be protected.
It is available three basic types,
Symmetric, Asymmetric with two
tyristors and Asymmetric with
tyristor for the direct current and
diode for the reverse current.

Nominal current: 20A to 1000A.


Surge Current (10 mS): 10 x nominal current.
Direct shot level: Under request or
230 V or adjustable up to 600 V by
means of an external resistor.
Reverse shot level: Under request
or 230 V for symmetric model or 1V
/ 30 V for asymmetric model.
Delay time: under request or 30 uS,
allowing increase of this delay by
means of an external capacitor up to
5 ms.
Actuation indication output: Dry
type, Normally Open, 0.1A/30 VDC
or 1A/250VAC maximum.
Control module: plug in
Indication of actuation: LED (light
emitting diode).
Shot symmetry: symmetrical or
asymmetrical.
Semiconductors: Tyristor / Tyristor
or Tyristor / Diode (for the direct current / reverse current respectively.
Maximum tension: 600 VAC

T3

CROWBAR

Bulletin 118A

Characteristic
The model VCWB crowbar possesses
the following main characteristics:
Bi-directional, could be symmetric with
identical levels of shot threshold in the two
ways or asymmetric, with different levels
of shot threshold for the two ways (see
data sheet)
For the asymmetric types the threshold
level in the positive direction is usually
pre-adjusted for levels normally used for
motors fields (230V) or under request
and the level in the negative direction is
pre-adjusted to 30 V or under request (see
data sheet).
Tyristors in encapsulated modules, of
high reliability.
Possibility of increasing the level of shot
in the positive direction, with the adding
of an external resistor in the appropriate
terminals.
Possibility of increasing the shot delay
in the positive direction, with the adding
of a capacitor in the appropriate terminals.
Possesses indication of Actuated, with
a LED (Light Emitting Diode), in the command module.
Possesses output of Actuated indication, by a dry contact, that can signalizes
to a CLP, for example.
Optionally can have been a Forcing
imput, to force the shot externally, by a
device or CLP. (model VCWBM)
Can be used for surge protection (transients) in any power supply system AC or
DC, or as automatic controller of insertion of shunt resistor (discharge Resistor)
for fields of synchronous motors during
the starting period, supplying additional
protection against voltage surges (spikes)
during the normal operation period.
It presents the advantage in relation to
contactor for coupling of shunt resistors,
because is totally static, releasing commands, being automatic therefore.

T4

C rowbar m odel VC WB
C o m pl e te w i th: (se e o r de r c o de ) N o m i nal Aver ag e M axi m un C o r r ente C o r r e nte
C ur r e nt C ur r e nt C ur r e nt M xi m a M xi m a
Y - Type ( A - no t S ym m e tr ic al /
(A)
(The r m al ) (1 0 S)
(3 0 S)
(6 0 S)
S - Sym m e tr ic al)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(A)
Z - D i r e c t F i r i ng Vo lt age ( Tr e s ho ld)
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
VC W B
> 1000

/ 20 / y / z
20
/ 25 / y / z
25
/ 30 / y / z
30
/ 40 / y / z
40
/ 50 / y / z
50
/ 75 / y / z
75
/ 100 / y / z
100
/ 125 / y / z
125
/ 150 / y / z
150
/ 200 / y / z
200
/ 250 / y / z
250
/ 300 / y / z
300
/ 400 / y / z
400
/ 500 / y / z
500
/ 650 / y / z
650
/ 750 / y / z
750
/ 1000 / y / z
1000
Am pe r e - C o nsul t

M AX IM U M VO L TAG E = 6 0 0 VAC

Crowbar presents a type of intrinsic safety


as the warranty of coupling the discharge
resistor, since even without the command
module the tyristor fires when the tension
reaches the value of VDRM that is the maximum direct tension of blocking of the
tyristor, of the order of 1000 V. This is equal
to say that in the beginning of the sinusoidal induced wave the tension grows quickly
to 1000 V and soon after it falls to practically zero with the firing of the tyristor,
going up following the curve of the sine
wave depending on the value of the discharge resistor, repeating this cycle until the
end of the starting time of the motor. This
initial spike is of the order of 30 microseconds (or more if adjusted) not implying in
risk for the motors field insulation, which
is in general much larger than 1000 V.
Other factor of safety can be established
in the fact that tyristors, in case of fail always have a short-circuit, never opening.
An opening would be possible only in case
of catastrophic fail, with very high
overcurrent that is not possible in this application type.

12
15
22
30
40
55
100
120
140
188
250
300
345
415
485
555
740

(L AR G E R

65
24
65
30
65
44
87
60
140
80
227
110
318
200
318
240
455
280
455
370
560
500
735
600
735
690
875
830
1480
970
1480
1100
2100
2000

AVAIL AB L E )

36
22
33
45
60
82
150
180
210
280
375
450
510
620
730
830
1100

Type Selection
For coupling of discharge resistor (shunt
resistor) in synchronous Motorss field, can
be used the Asymmetric models or the Symmetrical ones.
In case of using asymmetric models attempts for the fact that the diode or tyristor
of reverse current conduction, will operate
practically as a Free-willing diode during
the normal operation of the machine,
(mainly if the exciters operating with firing
angle of the tyristors in the region of current de-continuity), this way making to pass
a small current, that can be in the order of
10% of the nominal current of the field,
through the discharge resistor, causing heating in it. This doesnt cause any problem
for the operation of the system, unless that
the discharge resistor must support the developed power and to be in an atmosphere
with heat exchange. In case you didnt want
this effect, use a symmetrical type crowbar. Even with this type it can happen this
effect in some applications.

CROWBAR

Bulletin 118A

Adjusts
2K

The series VCWB presents the following


possibilities of adjusts in the control module:

A ctuated
+24V
Ind ication
IN P LC
GND

Level of positive firing (positive threshold):


The value of the positive direction level is
pre-adjusted on factory to 230 V case other
value not requested in the order (see data
sheet). In case one wants to elevate this level
up until 600V maximum, a resistor of appropriate value is placed on the terminals 2
and 3, being the terminal 1 connected in
the other side of the shunt resistor, for example the negative of the exciter of the synchronous motor.

C ROW BA R

S YN C H R O N O U S
M O TO R

FIE LD

6
5
4
3
2
1

S tatic
E xciter
B ridg e
Rx

Cx

O ptio nal
D ischarge
(S hu nt)
R esisto r

Use the following formula to calculate the


value of the resistor Rx to be placed between the terminals 2 and 3.
Rx = 1M29 / (Vn - Vf)
Where Vn is the new tension value and Vf
is the pre-adjusted factory value.

RF

Example: The level pre-adjusted is 230V


and one wants to increase it to 300V, then:
Rx = 1M29 / (300 - 230) = 18k5 ohms (use
5 Watt wire type resistor).
Shot delay: The value of shot delay is preadjusted on factory (See Data Sheet). In
case one wants to increase this time until 5
mS maximum, a capacitor of appropriate
value is placed between the terminals 2 and
3.
Use the following formula to calculate the
value of the capacitor to be placed between
terminals 2 and 3:
Cx = (Tn - Tf) / 5k6
Where Tn is the new time delay and Tf is
the factory pre-adjusted delay.
Example: The delay time is pre-adjusted
to 30 uS and one wants to increase it to
100 uS, then:
Cx = (100 - 30) / 5K6 = 0.012 uF. Use polyester or propylene type capacitor of at least
630 V insulation.
Note: It can be used the resistor and the
capacitor in parallel, to adjust the two
values.

IG

IG

VS

RS

RS CALCULUS
The user should understand the
characteristics, limitations and protections
perfectly before to specify and to apply any
equipment.
Among the most important aspects we
stood out the following ones: currents and
maximum tensions, cares with
electromagnetic noises or ripple in the
signals, that can interfere with the good
operation and mainly to understand the
characteristics of operation of the
equipment perfectly.
The drawing of application on this bulletin
is supplied as example. It is the users
responsibility the correct choice of the type,
dimensioning and real outline of application.
The dimensioning of the shunt resistor, in

the case of starting of synchronous


motors, the maker's of the motor should
supply orientation in a such way that the
tension doesn't surpass 500 V during the
starting time. In general, for a starting with
appropriate torque, tension will be
between 1 and 2 times the nominal tension
of the field and the current on the resistor
will be between 0.5 and 2 times the nominal current of the field.
The choice of the shunt resistor influences
in the departure torque. An increase of the
value of RS provokes an increase of the
starting torque. (The most secure value is
that one that limits the tension to 2 times
the fields voltage maximum or 400 V
maximum)
Example: During the starting time the
field will behave as a Current Transformer
with secondary = IG, dependent of the
project of the machine.
We will take as example IG = IN/2
In this case we would have to obtain VS
= VN,
Considering that VN = RF.IN
RS = VS/IG and RS = VN / IG
RS = VN / (IN/2) Substituting,
RS = ((RF.IN) / (IN/2)
Simplifying,
RS = 2RF
T5

CROWBAR

Bulletin 118A

Instalation
The Crowbar is easy to install and to operate, even so they demand some knowledge in the area, for perfect understanding of the system.
The adjustment of the threshold level and
shot delay for optimum protection and
operation, during the start up, will demand
a previous study of the demands of the
system, to settle down the ideal point.
In case one settles down very low tension
levels or very short delay times, any surge
or transient of low value and short duration can shot the crowbar. In the case synchronous motors field, the values preadjusted on factory are usually appropriate.
In the case of use in synchronous motors
excitation system, the planner of the system establishes the value of the shunt resistor of the field, to maintain the tension
in the appropriate or requested levels.
After the departure of the motor, being
already the exciter system of the motor
operating, therefore applying a DC tension in the field of the motor, in case a
tension transient that reaches level and
duration pre-adjusted, (a atmospheric discharge for example), the crowbar will
shot, placing the shunt resistor in parallel
with the field, increasing the current supplied by the exciter system considerably
(Vexc. / R shunt), not more extinguishing
the tyristor conduction, since the current
is DC, until that the overcurrent protection of the exciter system acts or the fuse
interrupts the circuit. (Some exciter limits the current, so the motor will have
lower field current so the power factor will
become very inductive and the Stator relay must trip). The exciter system must
therefore, to foresee this possibility and
by the monitoration of the output contact
of the Crowbar, turning off the whole system, under feather of damaging the shunt
resistor quickly.
The specification of the crowbar should
take into account this current, as well as
the current during the starting time in that
the current will be circulating through the
crowbar.
In the case of protection of another sysT6

C o n tro l
M o d u le

tem, (not synchronous motor), the shunt


resistor doesnt usually exist, and there will
be a total short-circuit of the source and
the current will reach levels dependent of
the impedance of the source AC or DC, or
levels for limited by Its, and the tension will
drop to 1,5 Vpp. After the shot, depending
on the case, there will be rupture of the fuses
of the system or the overcurrent protection
of the source will act. In both cases the load
will be totally protected.

Startup
In case you use the luminous and electric
signalization of actuated Crowbar, feed the
crowbar with a source in the terminals 5
and 6 (Normally Open) or 6 and 4 (Normally Closed), with the correct polarity (See
outline).
Tie the terminal 1 of the crowbar in the
negative of the load or negative of the
motors field, according to example outline.
In case the electric contact of indication of
actuated Crowbar is used, tie the same, terminals 6 and 5 or 6 and 4, with care, respecting the tension limits and current of it.
(see Data Sheet).
In case of alteration of the limits of shot
threshold and shot delay, place the resistor
and/or capacitor between the terminals 2

and 3 of the Crowbar.


Test the system. If the case of synchronous
motor starting, the indication led will blink
during the starting time, stopping lighting
at the end of the starting, before the application of the field by the exciter. In case the
exciter applies the field very early, before
the crowbar turn off, will happen a
overcurrent on the exciter, being the shunt
resistor, connected definitively and the LED
will be on, until that the protection of the
system acts. This is an abnormal condition
therefore, that should be foreseen and
avoided. During the starting the electric
contact of acted crowbar, will also signalizes, and the system should foresee and to
despise this condition until that the command of field application happens, when this
condition indeed can signal fail or promote
the trip of the system.
In the case of use as protection of loads
AC or DC, (not synchronous motor field),
there wont be usually the shunt resistor,
and the crowbar should not act in any moment from application of the tension, unless it happens a transient of enough value
and time to shot the crowbar. In case its
crowbar has forcing input, test it, having
the care that the source system is prepared
and dimensioned for this condition. Could
have fuses burns on the system, case this
condition foresee exactly this.

CROWBAR

Bulletin 118A

Bench Test

A ssim trico
S im trico

Internal Schematic
+

A1

7/8
14/15

1/2/3
9/10/11

CONTROL MODULE

circuit, the two lamps will be identical since


the beginning. In case there is not shot in
any of the two directions, the tension
difference will always be appreciable and
could be noticed easily, since it can have
conduction of at the most half wave, or until
there not being conduction none.
It can repeat the test, without the control
module, to have certainty that the same is
providing the shots. In this condition,
without the module, it cannot have any
conduction, being the tyristores OK.

DB
C O N E C TO R

In case of doubt on the integrity and operation of the crowbar, the user can make this
simple test of its operation, using a variac
(adjustable transformer), two lamps of 60
to 100 Watts, of appropriate tension and a
multimeter for voltage mensuration, in the
appropriate range AC. (An scopemeter can
also be used, what will give more precision
in the evaluation).
Set up the circuit, in a bench, with a lamp
in parallel with the Variac output just for
comparison, that we will call lamp 1 and a
lamp in series with Crowbar that we will
call lamp 2.
Start increasing the tension slowly, from
zero. While the tension is below the level
of negative shot divided by 1.41 (Square
root of 2), the tension in the lamp 2 should
be close to zero and at the same time the
tension in the lamp 1 arises. In these conditions as the shot tension in the negative direction, for asymmetric Crowbar is in general very low (see Data Sheet), the lamps
wont still be lighting and it will be necessary to measure it with the multimeter.
Continuing to increase the tension of the
variac, the tension of the lamp 2 begins to
increase also, even so it should always be
smaller than the tension of the lamp 1, since
only half wave and nevertheless partly,
should be being driven by the crowbar. The
lamp 2 will have smaller shine.
A little after the level of tension of positive
threshold (positive shot) of Crowbar divided by 1,41 (see Data Sheet), there will
be other sudden increase of tension in the
lamp 2, even so this tension will still be a
little smaller than the tension of the lamp 1.
When the tension is in the maximum level
allowed by the lamps, for example 220VAC,
when the positive shot tension of the crowbar goes to 230VAC for example, therefore the pick tension of the variac reaches
220 x Square root of two (1,41), being
enough to shot the Crowbar, then two lamps
will be lit and the tension in the lamp 2 will
be little smaller. In these conditions
Crowbar will be OK.
In case the internal tyristors presents short

A2

Label
MDULO
CONTROLE
MODELO:
TIPO::

V M C B /A /230V
A S S IM T R IC O

N SRIE:

11342

1
2
3

ATUADO

4
5
6

Mdulo de Controle para Crowbar

CROWBAR

T7

CROWBAR

Bulletin 118A

ANOTHER PRODUCTS

D im e nsio ns C ro w ba r m o de l V C W B
M o del Coooling
VCW B F orced/
N atural

20
25
30
40
50
75
100
125
150
200
250
300
400
500
650
750
1000

W idth H eight
(L) (A)
mm
mm

D ept
(P )
mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

N
105 145 100
10
5
15
N
100 145 120
20
5
15
N
100 145 120
20
5
15
N
150 145 166
20
5
35
N
150 170 250
10
7
37
N
200 170 250
10
7
40
N
150 170 250
10
7
37
N
200 170 250
10
7
40
N
200 170 250
10
7
45
N
250 170 250
10
7
45
N
240 291 260
20
7
42
N
251 280 275
20
20
62
N
377 280 275
20
20
62
N
377 330 275
20
20
62
N
377 430 275
20
20
62
N
377 480 275
20
20
98
N
540 700 300
12
12
130
Dime nsio ns to be c o nfir me d ****** T ype s > 1 0 0 0

V CW B / XXX / Y / ZZZ

2
C

C O N TR O L

28

USERS MANUAL
This bulletin accompanies the users
manual, together with the Data Sheet,
contends the relative data to the specific
type bought, as well as useful information
for the future, as order number, date of
purchase and serial number, besides the
supply conditions and the warranty terms.
This forms the users manual for this
equipment.

T8

2 5 to 10 00 A

B Type

S = Sym m e tr i c al
A = no t Sym m e tr i c al c / Tyr i s to r
D = no t Sym m e tr i c al w / D i o de

AT

N o m i nal
A C ur r e nt

5
5
5
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
9
9
9
9
9
11

ORDER CODE

D im e nsio n V C W B
D

58
58
M5
68
68
M5
68
68
M5
103 103 M5
186 186 M5
186 186 M8
186 186 M8
186 186 M8
190 190 M10
190 190 M10
190 190 M10
194 220 M10
194 220 M10
194 220 M10
214 214 M12
214 214 M12
89
226 M12
Ampe re - c o nsult

Direct
Tr e sho l d

230 V
O utr a (e s pe c i fi c ar )

E X AM P L E S:
VC W B /2 0 0 /A/2 3 0 : 2 0 0 Am pe re C r o wbar, no t
Sym m e tric al with Tyris to r/Tyris to r, D ire c t tre s ho ld
(firing vo ltage ) = 2 3 0 V, R e ve rs e Tre s ho ld 3 0 V.
VC W /1 0 0 /D /2 3 0 : 1 0 0 Am pe re C ro wbar, no t S ym m e tric al with Tyris to r/D io de , D ire c t tres ho ld (firing
vo ltage ) = 2 3 0 V, R e ve rse Tre s ho ld = 1 V.

Static Exciters and AVRs:


Varix possesses a complete line of Statics
Exciters for synchronous motors and
generators, with dozens of servoregulator
models and AVRs including digital models.
Besides components Varix also supplies
complete exciter systems.
High-current Rectifiers:
Controlled, refrigerated by air or water, up
to 100.000 Amperes.
Power Controllers:
1- Phase, 2-Phase and 3-Phases models, to
2000 Amperes, PWM or phase angle
controlled.
Solid State Contactors and Static
Switches:
1- Phase, 2-Phase and 3-Phases models up
to 2000 Amperes, for high frequency cycles.
Soft Starters:
Up to 1200 nominal Ampere, with all the
resources usually available, as Soft Start,
Soft Stop, Energy Saver, Booster, Braking,
Current Limiting and several protections.
Chopper for CC motors:
Applicable in cranes, monoways transport
cars etc.
Chopper for Slip Ring motors:
It substitutes the several banks of
resistances of the rotor and propitiates linear control.
Protection Relays for motors and
generators:
Low cost line, in DIM cases, presenting
great reliability and application easiness.
Transmitters for RTD and
Thermocouples:
Compact and encapsulated, with true type
output of 4 to 20 MA, with two threads,
without need of separate power supply.
Programmable Digital Relay for
Contactors and Circuit Breakers
monitoring:
For high-loads and important applications.

K
N
A
L
B

Varix Electronics Headquarter:


Rua Phellipe Zaidan Maluf 1501 - Distrito Industrial Unileste
Piracicaba - SP - CEP13.422.190 - Phone: (55) (19) 3424.4000 - Fax: (55) (19) 3424.4001
www.varix.com.br
email:
i n f o @ v a r i x . c o m . b r

Varix Electronics USA:


10001 NW 50 Th Street - Bldg. 102-A
Fort
Lauderdale
Florida
33351
Toll Free: 1-800-238 6696 - Phone: (954) 572 5535 - Fax: (954) 572 0331

STATICS EXCITERS FOR GENERATORS.


STATICS EXCITERS FOR SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS.
AVRS - AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATORS.
SOFT STARTERS FOR MOTORS.
POWER CONTROLLERS.
SSCS - SOLID STATE CONTACTORS.
CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS UP TO 150.000 A.
CHOPPERS FOR MOTORS.
PROTECTION RELAYS FOR EXCITATION SYSTEMS.
DIGITAL RELAYS FOR CIRCUIT BREAKERS SUPERVISION.
TRANSMITTERS AND TRANSDUCERS.
SYNCHRONISM CONTROL BOX FOR SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS.
CROWBAR FOR SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS.
CROWBAR FOR TRANSIENT PROTECTION.
SPECIAL EQUIPMENTS.