3 8006 10054 38
A. D.
YO UNG,
By
1V1.A. and H . B.
S QUI RE,
M.A.
By
A. D.
Y OUNG ,
M .A.
PR OD UCT IO N
PART I
Simple, A pproximate Formulae for General A pplicatioll.
Su mmary . It is shown that for an elongated body of revolutio n of any shape in a closed rectangular tun nel of an y
cross section bet ween square and d up lex , t he blockage correction is given approxima tely by
.
~u
  = 0 ,68 
u,
hi b'
where V is t he volume of t he body, b is t he length of the longer side a nd !J is t he lengt h of th e short er side of t he
t unnel cross section . For a wing o f any sect ion spanning t he tunnel
.1u
u, =
A
0 62 hi
V
0 62 !JIb '
where b is th e length of t he side o f t he t un nel parallel to t he ....ing spa n, 11 is t he length o f th e ot her side, a nd A is t he
a rea of t he section of the wing, and V is th e volume of t he ....ing. These form ulae are accura te to wit hin abo ut
5 per cent.
To co~ver bot h cases, and t herefore t he int erm ediate c.1.SC of a complete aircraft model of :;pan less than or equ al t o
the ....idt h of t he tu nnel , we may write
~u
V
= 0 ,65 hlb'
,
o,
provided t hat the wing is parallel to th e longer side of the t unn el. This form ula is est imated to be accura te to wit hin
10 per cent. which will be sufficient for most cases.
These formulae do not includ e wake blockage effects.
RA E. Tec hnical Note No. Aero 1286 (Misc.), received 6th J anuary, 1944.
t R.A.E. Technical Note x e . Aero 1258 (H S .T.), received 20t h October, 1943.
Llu
U =
o
where
Uo
(5 )3"'
(I)
A C
Llu is
T
In
Lock! evaluated the factor A for a comprehensive range of fineness ratios for spheroids
and R anki ne ovoids ; in P art II. t he factor has similarly been det ermined for strea mline shapes
wit h pointed t ails. In every case A has been fou nd to be a nearly linear fu nct ion of the fineness
ratio , which suggest s that t he blockage correction can be written as proportional to the volume
of the body, an d the factor of proport ionalit y is then independ ent of fineness ratio . " A proof of
t his is given in p ar a . 2 and it is shown t hat t he fact or of proportionali ty is also independent of
the sha pe of t he bod y. A general for mula is derived which gives to a close order of approx imation t he blockage correct ion for an elong ated body of revolution of any shape in a closed tunnel
of any rect an gular sect ion rangin g from square t o d uplex .
Similarly, for symmetr ical wing sect ions spanning t he t un nel th e bloc kage correct ion takes
the form
(.1.)'
where
and
!:i.u = A
Uo
T
h '
T is again a function of the shape of the cross sect ion of t he tunnel,
A is now a fun ct ion of t he shape of the wing sect ion ,
t is the ma ximum t hick ness of t he section,
h is t he length of t he tunnel side norm al to t he wing span.
(2)
Lock! has evaluated t he value of A for the followin g types of sections :(a) E llipses
In every case A was found to be a nearly linear function of t he fineness ra tio, which again
suggests that t he b lockage correct ion can be simply written as proport ional to the volume of t he
body and independen t of the fineness ratio. The results for the above three types of sect ions
have been examined with this in view, an d , as in t hr ee dimensions, th e factor of proportionality
has been found to be nearly independe nt of sha pe of section. Furt her , by arranging the d erived
formulae for two and t hree dimensions t o involve t he dimension s of the tu nne l cross section in
t he same manner , the two formulae are found to be in fair agreement. A single mean formula
is t herefore sugges ted giving the blockage correction in bo th two and three dimension s for all
sha pes of cross section of the tunnel ranging from square to duplex; the accu racy of t his formula
is believed to be within 10 per cent. This formula can be applied to evaluate th e block age
co rrection for complete models in a wind t unnel.
~ n Uo t z
(r o'),
(3)
'0
where z is measured along th e axis of the body from its midpoint , and
is the ra dius of cross
section of th e bod y. In Par t II it is fur ther shown that the error involved in deriving the
equivalent doublet from t his formula for th e source distribution is negligible since it is less t han ,
and of opposite sign to, the overall error in volved in Lock's met hod for obtaining the blockage
correction by replacing the images wit h equiv alent doublets,
If the bod y length is 21, then the equivalent doublet is
Q~
=
l'
I (z) zd z =
_J
l'
 I
[_1'02]  u, {l'02dZ
:t U f)
(4)
Uo V ,
volume of the body . The factor A is de fined by
= 
where V
J.QJ _
An t'
Uo 
(5)
A= t"
n I t follows t hat
D.U _
0
 , 1\
o .
(5)'/2
C
Tyn
t:
C' I' ~
..
=  2 C 3 J2
t:
= 103,
(6)
0 809
h'b
 t:
we here define b as the length of the longer side of the cross section.
tunnels is t herefore
(7)
For the extreme cases of square and duplex tun nels it will be seen, that t his relation is
accurate to within abou t 5 per cent " but since most tun nels ha ve shapes lym~ somewhere between
;quare and duplex the accuracy of this relation will in general be considerably closer than
:; per cen t .
to "
Uo 
0  77 v~
h2 b
(8)
~ 0 68 h' b 
T his simple relation therefore gives the blockage correction for an elonga ted body of revolution
of any shape in a rectangu lar tunnel of any cross section between square and duplex to an
accuracy t hat is within 5 per cent.
3. Derivation of General F ormula fo r the B lockage Correctio n i t! T wo Dimm siolls.By an
arg ument, precisely similar to that given above, and based on t he a pproximate source distribu tion
given by thin ae rofoil theory, it m ay be sho wn that the equivalent doublet is proportional onlv
t o the area of cross section of the wi ng section." T he constant of propo rtionality thus derived
however , is not as accurat e in this case as for t hr ee d imensions, and it is better to derive it
empirically.
toUu
o 
TA( T;)'
.
 0S22AG)'.
for a rec tangular t unnel of height h. Hence, if A is t he a rea of cross sec tion of t he aerofoil,
to u /
Un
A _
au /
Un
K , say
h2
V
h2 b
From Lock 's results for A for ellipt ical sections, genera lised J oukowski sections, and simp le
Joukowski sections, the value of K has been calcula ted for values of clt of 5 0 and 10 0. The
results are given in t he following tab le :cIt = 5 0
Type of section
Ellipse
Generalised j oukowski
Simple J ouko w'ski . .
cit
10 0
O63S
0 5i5
0 585
0649
0 590
0 628
Thus it can be easily shown that the source d ist rib ut ion is given approximately by
 I (z)
2U o
dy o
d;'
where z is measured along t he chord line from t he lead ing edge, an d Yo is t he ordinate of t he section.
eq uivalent doub let is
Q ~f'
where A is t he area of t he section.
"
l (z) z d z =  UlI A
Hence. till
5
It will be seen , therefore, t hat for cIt = 5 0 t he values of K for the variou s sections are all close
to 0 ,61, whilst for cIt = 100 the values of K are all close to 0 59. A mean formula for the
blockage correct ion in two dimensions is, therefore,
au
_
U o
O.6? ~
 h' b
(11)
where V = A b is the volum e of t he wing ; and the prob able accuracy of t his for mu la is a bout
5 per cent .
4. General Formula for T wo and T hree Dimensions. Com paring equations (8) and (I I )
10 per cent. we can write
(12)
o cover both the two an d t hreed imensional cases. It may be noted that where this formula
likely to be most inaccurat e. as in two d imensions for , 'cry t hin sections (cIt large ), the correction
vill in any case be small.
This formu la has t he advantage t hat it can reasona bly be applied to derive the blockage
.orrectio n for a complete aircra ft model, p rovid ed the wing span is parallel to the lon ger side
if the tun nel.
It is , of course, understood t hat these correct ions do no t include the wake blockage corrections
vhich are additive to the corrections di scussed in this note.
PART II
N ote on the Blockage Correction for Streamline Bodies
of
R evolution
Su mmary. An a pproximate met hod for obt aining the source distribution of a body of revolution is used to deri ve
t he equ ivalen t doub let whose field is t he sam e as t ha t of t he body at lar ge distances from it. The blockage correc t ion
factor A was then obtained by Lock 's met hod of replacing the image system for the body in a tunnel by a syste m
of equivalent doublets. It is found t hat for streamline shapes with pointed tai ls
.d = 0 148
where Lit is the fineness rati o.
A discussion of the accurd.cy of t he method is given.
+ 0 523
Lit,
correction for a bod y of revolution in a t unnel of rectangu lar section. The me thod was based
on th e fact th a t th e field of a body at distances large compared with it s dimensions is t he sa me
as that of a doublet. Hence, it is argued , the effect at the body of the image system of t he body
in t he tunn el can be closely approximated to if each image is ass umed to be a doublet. Lock
applied t his process to Rankine ovoids and spheroids , and calculated a blockage correction
factor A. Th is factor is a funct ion only of the meridian shape of t he body ; for bod ies of similar
shape it is a function only of fineness ratio. It occurs in the blockage correction fact or as
follows :(I)
2. Metlwd of Calculation and Results.Let the z axis be along t he axis of symmetry. Then
any syst em of sources an d sinks f ez) distributed along t he ax is between t he points z = I
can be expressed in the form
00
[ (2) = 2.,
A.P. (1'1),
(2)
where
I II
= zJI,
and P~(fi l) is the Legendre polynomial of order n of the fi rst kind . * T hese polynomials satisfy
the relat ion
r,
p .. (Il l)'
r; (Pt) dpt =
0, if
= ')
~n
l'
'# m,
.,
4. 1 if n =
nt.
If I (z) is the equivalent source distribution for a body, t hen the doublet at t he origin whose
field is the same as that of t he body at large d istances fro m it is given by
d",.
Q = _ ~ ~ [' A ,.
(3)
The relation between' the blockage correct ion factor A and the strength of each doublet Q
)f t he image system giving rise to t he blockage when t he body is in a tunnel is shown in
~e f. 1 t o be
(4)
we ca n
;It,; ( ~ t
(5)
obtain a close a pproximation to the eq uivalen t sinksource d istr ibut ion of a body
Iy assuming t hat eac h element of t he dist ribution is responsible for t he loca l distortion of the
low caused by the body. This assump tion implies that the disturbance velocities introduced
'y the body are small compared 'with t he mainstream velocity. The assumption is therefore
nalogous to t hat un derly ing t hin aerofoil t heory, but is foun d to give reasonably acc urate
esults for bodies of thickness ran ging up t o 30 per cent. If v is the compo nen t of velocit y in t he
adial direction at the surface of t he body, then wit h t his assumption we may write
v
Uo =
dyo
dz '
I (z)dz = 2n: yo vdz,
nd
there
Yo
I (2)
fence
* For
~ u,
;2
(.ro' )
8
I t readily follov..s from eq uation (2) and t he ort hogonal properties of Legendre polyn omials that
Al
IU n
3 V
4:1: [3
4V
A~
n t'
(6)
The value of. A has been calculated from eq uat ion (6) for a number of st reamline shapes with
pointed tails. T hese shapes cover a ra nge of t hickness from abo ut 13 per cen t. to abou t 30 per
ccnt., a nd the maximum t hickness position s vary fro m about 30 per cent. to about 50 per cent.
of the body length from t he nose. The values of A are shown plotted aga inst fineness ratio
(Lit, where L = 21) in F ig. 1, The crosses , circles and squares apply t o b odies wit h t he maximum
thickn ess at 50 p er cent. , 40 per cen t. and 30 per cent. of the lengt h b ehind the nose. The
results are also given in Ta ble 1. It will b e seen that , for t he r ange of Lit cove red, all t he points
fall very closely abo ut t he st raigh t line drawn through them , and acce pti ng this line the value
of A for th ese bod ies can be written
A
0 148
+ 0 523 L i t
(7)
It a ppears that this value of A is abo ut Il78 of the value given by Lock for t he spheroid of t he
sa me fineness ratio.
TABLE 1.
T able of values of blockage correction fa ctor f or various streamline bodies
of revolution with pointed tails.
l.lt
fineness
rat io
P ositi on o f
ma ximum
t hickn ess
(a pprox.)
 ~    '  
A,
2A,
ra; _.
3 76
394
0 51.
 0 ,06026
0 51.
4 15
5 ' 56
OS !.
O S!.
 0 ,05315
 0 ,04604
S8H
Q'S L
G25
0 51.
4 17
4 421;
0 ' 41.
474
6 80[,
7 14
,..;g
4 os,
0 ' 41.
Q 4L
0 1 [.
0 4 !.
0'4 1.
0 31.
LUu
 0 ,02738
 0 02403
 0 ,02068
_.
2 14
2 16
2 ' 19
3 13
3 2M
3 37
 0 04799
 O On 54
2 '3 1
 0 03545
2 515
2 W
 0 0 1795
3 77
 0 0 16 10
0 0 1424
 0 0525
3 ' 9'~
I. 13
235
3. Discussion of A ccuracy . There are three possible sources of error in the above me thod 01
deriving A for streamline shapes, th ey are :(1) T he method of deriving t he equivalent sinksource distribu tion provides a close but
not exact estimate of the val ue of AIIIU g , and hence of A.
(2) The field d ue to t he images nearest t he body will d iffer somewhat from t hat d ue to the
equival ent do ublet s.
(3) The sou rce d istribution correspo nding to a bod y in a tunnel will d iffer slightly fro m t hat
for the bod y in free air.
'";"This approximate formula could have been derived (asin Part I ) without exprcs~i~g t he sinksou~ce distri~utior
in t he gene ral form given in equati on (2). The latt er is needed. howeve r . in exam tmn g the errors inv olved In flu
approxi mat ion (see 3 a nd the Appe ndix).
9
To examine the probable magn it ude of the error due to the approximations used to derive
A I /l U o, the corresponding values of A for spheroi ds were determ ined and are shown in Fig. 1
by t he dotted line. Comparing this line with that de rived by Lock using t he exact source
distribut ion it "ill be seen that t he met hod of this note underest imates A by about 0 ,2, or about
5 per cent. As a furt her indication of the magnitude of this error, the source distribut ion
calculated by a more rigorous method by Kap lan" for t he body with the maximum thickness
at 30 per cent. of its length behind t he nose was used to determine A for this body. The result ing
value was found to be 2 48 as compared with t he va lue of 2 35 given by the ap proximate source
distribution. The di fferen ce for this case is t herefore about t he same as th at fou nd for spheroids .
\Vhen we come to examine the error un der item (2) above, however, it is found that t he induced
velocity at th e body du e to the images nearest it is less than t hat est imated by assu ming them
to be doublets. The difference is, of course, a function of t he relative size of body and tunnel.
As an ind ication of what this difference may am ou nt t o, the induced velocity at th e body with
the maximum thickn ess at O3L due to its image system in a squa re closed tun nel of height
equa l to the body length was calculated. The met hod adopted was fairly rigorous. The source
distribut ion calculated by Kaplan! was used , and the indu ced velocity du e to the images with in a
square of sides of length twelve times that of the tu nn el was calculated acc urately, t he images
outside tha t squa re were treated as doublets. The details of the calculation are given in t he
Appendix. The resulting val ue of A was found to be 2 ,06, as compared with 2 35 given by t he
approximate method using the approximate source dist ribut ion . an d 2 48 using t he approximate
method and the more exact source dist ribu tion . It is realised th at t his example illustrates
rather an extreme case of a large body in a tu nn el; it is probable, in fact , that t he variat ion in
induced velocity with position alon g the body would be as great as the variat ion in the indu ced
velocity given b y the various methods considered. Nevertheless, the example demonstrates
that the error involved under item (2) above is opposite in sign and can easily be of the same
magnitude as that involved under it em (1). I t is therefore suggested that th e value given for A
by t he mean line in Fig. 1 is accurate eno ugh for most purposes , except where the body dimensions
are large compared wit h th e tunnel d imensions, in wh ich case any method such as Leek's! for
deriving the blockage correct ion t ends t o become ~n accurat e .
The error invol ved u nder item (3) is genera lly ignored as being ext remely sma ll, an d t he
following argu ment justifies this conclusion . It has been noted t ha t th e equivalent source
distr ibu tion of a bod y of revolu tion is given with fair accuracy b y
I (z) ~ n
o,
t z (Yo' ),
where Yo is the local radius of cross sect ion of t he body. For the bod y in a tunnel, the local
velocity is increased from Uo to U o
Llit, say . It follows t hat the equivalent source distribution
for the body is increased in the ratio
U.
t;"
Uo
and hence Al an d A arc increased in th is rat io. This suggests that a process of successive
approximation could be adopted to allow for t his change in the source d~stribution . Th.us,
having dete rmined A from Fig. I, a first approximation for li. uJU0 can be obtained from equat ion
(1) ; the value of A is then increased in t he ratio
t; "
I+U '
an d then a second approxima tion for ti. uJUo can be derived , and so on . It will be ob vious that
th e difference bet ween successive approximations will be extremely small in ge.neral, an d cases
for which this correct ion can be at all appreciable are suc h that t he correct ion \V111 be completely
swamped by errors under it ems (1) an d (2).
(?2 1?~)
10
APPENDIX
Details of Rigorous Process fo r Checking Approximate Formula
~1 ~
and
z/I,
(8)
where;' an d It are the prolate ellip tic coordinates derived from the system of confocal ellipses
and hyperbolas in any meridian plane having the points z = I as tocii. Thus
z ~/), ~,
(9)
..
'where r is the distance fro m the ax is. T hus). = const. and It = const. define a confocal ellipse
an d hyperbola, respectively . P " and Qn are Legendre polynomials of the first and second kind,
respectively.
In the plane z = 0, we ha ve
I' ~ 0, r = I (),' ~ 1)' /',
a
or
;. = [ ; : + I
.
Ti
( !O)
The indu ced velocity at any point in this plane du e to the source distribution is given by
~
~ _. ~
/}. '"'f
A Q
(11)
Suppose the body correspond ing to the source dist ribution I (z) centrally placed in a closed
tunnel of height h and wid th b. Then there will be an infinite system of images representing the
tunnel constra in t consisting of ex actly similar source distributions situated at t he poin ts
x = pb,y
qh,
where x and y ar e measured fro m the origin parallel to the sides of the tunnel; p and q are integer
numbers taking all the values from + 00 t o  00 , the combina tio n p = 0, q = 0 being excluded.
The distance the body is from an image is t herefore
r=
[p2 b2 +
q2 h2 ] 1/2,
and hence relat ive to the image the position of the centre of the body is given by
~ ~ 0 , ),,, 
(12)
It follows that the induced velocity at t he body due to the system of images is given by
t:
~ .~ [ ~ /17
Q.
(13)
11
the combination p = q = 0 being excluded. It is found that in the expansion for the source
distribution only the first five terms need be considered, and since at p = 0
CP , ~  1.5
cP, = 1. 0
op
'
OJl
CP, = oP , ~ O
CP , = 1.875
'
ep
'
eJl
op
u,
P+ tO f l
+ 1875
IU o
j'N
A,
Q'(I. ,,)
IU 0
Apt
IU o
J.
Af f
(14)
Q,(I. )
A '
..t
Q,(I.) =
I.
log [I.
I J _ ..!.
1. 1
I.
L~, + 5~ ' +
Q,
)_1"I" (" ...."
(A
I.
'
+ .. . +
631' + 331.'
~)!....+, +
+ (2n +
= 351. ' +
. . .
+ 15) I
[ I.
. .
.J.
(15)
')
""l
2(n  I)
(2n + 1)(2n 3) I...... + . .
og I.  I
_ ~
151.
8
8
4 (n  2) (n  I)
I
6931.' + 4291.' + . . . + (2n + I) (2n
3) (2n + 5) 1. ...
(16)
+' + . .
It is a fairly simple matter by means of the above expressions to evaluate the functions
(17)
QJ ~ ).
Q,?) and Q,~I.) for values of A ranging from the smallest required to . say. I. = 10. and the values
For values of
A.
 1.  = 313
(1~
'
.:!L
ui. :
A3
ur,:
As
TU o
were already known'. The process adopted was to calculate by means of equation (13) the
contribution to tlu/ Uo given by the images within and on a rectangle of sides 12b and 12h having
its centre at the body . Outside the rectangle the contribution of the images is
Llu = _
Uo
(72 172)
IU o
1_
3Af>f3
12
.and . since ;. is very large,
(P'b'
and hence
6.u
Al
where combinations
[3
= 
4 A l l3
3" lUo
I~ ~
GO
GO
(19)
ex;,
Z Z  Z Z
0
II
[p'b'
I!
1 J~ ~
... biz c

dx dy
1 V b' + h'
biz 6~
..
(20)
H ence the contri bu tion of the remaining images to the induced velocity is given by
_
4 _ A~
I'V b'"' h'
l
3 ui,
6b'h'
More genera lly . the contribu tion of t he images ou tside a rectangle of sides 2nh and 2nh centred
on the origin is given by this m et hod as
~
Al
3 . IUo
I' v'E':;:T.'
nb 2h 2
For the example considered , b was t aken as equa l to h, and I = Izj2, and hence this con tribution
became for It = 6
REFERENCES
N o.
A uthor
Lock
"
Kaplan
Title. etc.
The Interference of a Wind Tu nnel on a Sy mmet rica l Bod y. R. & ~1. 1275.
October. 1929.
The Linear Perturbat ion Theory of Compressible Fl ow, with Applications t o
Wind Tunnel Int erference. R. & ;\1. No. 1909 (July, 1943).
Modern Analysis, 4t h Edn., pp. ~J02~i6 . Cambridge Unive rsity Press.
Pote nti al Fl ow a bout E longated Bodies of Revolution. N .A.r. A. T .R . No. 516.
1935.
. .
13
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r>
"
_'
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0
."" ,o~
Lee ",',
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",'
~ ~y.
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<01'''~'''''''
t? ""
V
I~
~,,# '" ' <fr"~'
,~
<...<>
,,,",
,...~
VJ.d'
.<f'''~':.''Q
V' .
.:
.
V
o~
iP~..)
'"
/
,1/
",
0/,
..
..
"
0" L
0 ... ...
Hw
G.3n/l