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# Name

Physics Lab 2
Dr. Victor
27th July 2016
Experiment: Simple Harmonic
Motion-Hookes Law

Introduction
Simple harmonic motion, in physics is repetitive movement back and forth through an
equilibrium, or central, position, so that the maximum displacement on one side of this position
is equal to the maximum displacement on the other side. The time interval of each
complete vibration is the same, and the force responsible for the motion is always directed
toward the equilibrium position and is directly proportional to the distance from it.
Many physical systems exhibit simple harmonic motion (assuming no energy loss): an
oscillating pendulum, the electrons in a wire carrying alternating current, the vibrating particles
of the medium in a sound wave, and other assemblages involving relatively small oscillations
about a position of stable equilibrium.
A specific example of a simple harmonic oscillator is the vibration of a mass attached to a
vertical spring, the other end of which is fixed in a ceiling. At the maximum displacement x, the
spring is under its greatest tension, which forces the mass upward. At the maximum displacement
+x, the spring reaches its greatest compression, which forces the mass back downward again. At
either position of maximum displacement, the force is greatest and is directed toward
the equilibrium position, the velocity (v) of the mass is zero, its acceleration is at a maximum,
and the mass changes direction. At the equilibrium position, the velocity is at its maximum and
the acceleration (a) has fallen to zero. Simple harmonic motion is characterized by this changing
acceleration that always is directed toward the equilibrium position and is proportional to the
displacement from the equilibrium position. Furthermore, the interval of time for each complete
vibration is constant and does not depend on the size of the maximum displacement. In some
form, therefore, simple harmonic motion is at the heart of timekeeping.

## Figure 1: Simple Harmonic oscillations

The motion is called harmonic because instruments make such vibrations that in turn cause
corresponding sound waves in air. Musical sounds are actually a combination of many simple
harmonic waves corresponding to the many ways in which the vibrating parts of a musical
instrument oscillate in sets of superimposed simple harmonic motions, the frequencies of which
are multiples of a lowest fundamental frequency. In fact, any regularly repetitive motion and any
wave, no matter how complicated its form, can be treated as the sum of a series of simple
harmonic motions or waves, a discovery first published in 1822 by the French mathematician
Baron Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier.

Hookes law, law of elasticity discovered by the English scientist Robert in 1660, which states
that, for relatively small deformations of an object, the displacement or size of the deformation is
directly proportional to the deforming force or load. Under these conditions the object returns to
its original shape and size upon removal of the load. Elastic behavior of solids according to
Hookes law can be explained by the fact that small displacements of their constituent
molecules, atoms, or ions from normal positions is also proportional to the force that causes the
displacement.

## Figure 2: Spring Representing Hookes Law

Hookes law, F = kx, where the applied force F equals a constant
The deforming force may be applied to a solid by stretching, compressing, squeezing, bending,
or twisting. Thus, a metal wire exhibits elastic behavior according to Hookes law because the
small increase in its length when stretched by an applied force doubles each time the force is
doubled. Mathematically, Hookes law states that the applied force F equals a constant k times
the displacement or change in length x, or F = kx. The value of k depends not only on the kind of
elastic material under consideration but also on its dimensions and shape.
At relatively large values of applied force, the deformation of the elastic material is often larger
than expected on the basis of Hookes law, even though the material remains elastic and returns
to its original shape and size after removal of the force. Hookes law describes the elastic
properties of materials only in the range in which the force and displacement are proportional.
(See deformation and flow.) Sometimes Hookes law is formulated as F = kx. In this
expression F no longer means the applied force but rather means the equal and oppositely
directed restoring force that causes elastic materials to return to their original dimensions.

Hookes law may also be expressed in terms of stress and strain. Stress is the force on unit areas
within a material that develops as a result of the externally applied force. Strain is the relative
deformation produced by stress. For relatively small stresses, stress is proportional to strain.

## Data and Results

Part 1. Data and Calculations Table 1 Hookes Law
Is y0 = 0? If not record y0 = 0.0

Mass M(g)
20
40
50
70
100

M (kg)
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.1

Mg (N)
0.196
0.392
0.45
0.686
0.98

y (cm)
0.9
3.7
4.9
7
10.9

Mg (N)
0.196
0.392
0.45
0.686
0.98

y (m)
0.009
0.037
0.049
0.07
0.109

## Table 2: Force and Displacement table in regards to graph

y (m)
0.009
0.037
0.049
0.07
0.109

Force/Displacement
0.12
0.1
0.08

Mg (N)

0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

Displacement y(m)

## Grpah 1: Force vs. Displacement

Slope = (Y2-Y1)/(X2-X1) = (0.98 0.196)/ (0.109 0.009) = 0.784/0.1 = 7.84 N/m
When you equate the slope with k, it generates the value of your spring stiffness constant. The
constant k is related to the equation F=kx, where, k = Force/displacement.
K= 7.84 N/m

M (g)

M (kg)

Change in t1 (s)

change in t2 (s)

change in t3 (s)

T (s)

T^2 (s^s)

50

0.05

0.47

4.4

5.23

3.367

0.1134

20

0.02

3.76

4.09

3.93

3.927

30

0.03

3.94

4.3

3.95

4.063

40

0.04

4.26

4.48

4.6

4.447

0.336
7
0.392
7
0.406
3
0.444
7

0.1542
0.1651
0.1978

T^2/M (kg)
0.06
0.05
0.04

T^2 0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

0.22

Mass (kg)

## Graph 2: T^2 vs. Mass (kg)

Conclusion
In mechanics and physics, simple

harmonic

motion is

type

of periodic

motion

or

oscillation motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement and acts
in the direction opposite to that of displacement. Simple harmonic motion can serve as a
mathematical model for a variety of motions, such as the oscillation of a spring. In addition,
other phenomena can be approximated by simple harmonic motion, including the motion of
a simple pendulum as well as molecular vibration. Simple harmonic motion is typified by the
motion of a mass on a spring when it is subject to the linear elastic restoring force given
by Hooke's Law. The motion is sinusoidal in time and demonstrates a single resonant frequency.
For simple harmonic motion to be an accurate model for a pendulum, the net force on the object
at the end of the pendulum must be proportional to the displacement. This will be a good
approximation when the angle of swing is small. Simple harmonic motion provides a basis for
the characterization of more complicated motions through the techniques of Fourier analysis.

Mathematically, the restoring force F is given by for any simple mechanical harmonic oscillator:
When the system is displaced from its equilibrium position, a restoring force that obeys Hooke's
law tends to restore the system to equilibrium.
Once the mass is displaced from its equilibrium position, it experiences a net restoring force. As
a result, it accelerates and starts going back to the equilibrium position. When the mass moves
closer to the equilibrium position, the restoring force decreases. At the equilibrium position, the
net restoring force vanishes. However, at x = 0, the mass has momentum because of the
acceleration that the restoring force has imparted. Therefore, the mass continues past the
equilibrium position, compressing the spring. A net restoring force then slows it down until
its velocity reaches zero, whereupon it is accelerated back to the equilibrium position again. As
long as the system has no energy loss, the mass continues to oscillate. Thus simple harmonic
motion is a type of periodic motion.