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Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht

Good Lighting for Museums,

Galleries and Exhibitions 18

Visual experiences 1

The action of light 2

Exhibits in the limelight 6

Showcase lighting 8

Revolving exhibitions 10

Foyers, corridors, staircases 12

Audiovisual media 14

Lecture room 15

Library 16

Study room 17

Cafeteria, museum shop 18

Workplace lighting:
office, workshop, storage
facilities 19

Outdoor exhibits 20

Night scenes 21

Daylight 22

Lighting management 24

Vision, recognition, perception 26

Light protection 30

Maintenance 33

Lamps 34
Luminaires 38

Standards and literature 42

Acknowledgements 43

Imprint 44

Information from EXHIBITS ON WALLS

Gutes Licht 45

Cover photograph: Lighting creates visual

experiences in any exhibition. Modulating
and accentuating the visual landscape, it ENTRANCE AREA
enhances the impact of a presentation.
Lighting is vital for spatial impression and
enjoyment of art.
Visual experiences

Around 100 million people a

year visit Germany’s museums
to view, experience, admire
and enjoy their exhibits. There
are more than 6,000 such in-
stitutions in total, with a wide
variety of collections, a broad
spectrum of specialisations
and presentation concepts that
LECTURE ROOM range from hands-on displays
for an interactive experience to
quiet retreats for silent contem-
plation. What they all have in
common, however, is that they
seek to inspire the visitor.

Whether the focus is art or sci-

ence, technology or history, the
presentation needs to be ap-
STUDY ROOM pealing, interesting and varied.
And that is where lighting
plays an important role: it cre-
ates visual experiences in any
LIBRARY exhibition, it helps modulate
and accentuate the visual
landscape, it enhances the im-
pact of the items on display.
The visual ambience must not
MUSEUM SHOP cause fatigue. On the contrary,
it should stimulate – but not
confuse. In large buildings, dif-
ferentiated room design is also
CAFETERIA a requirement.
Lighting is vital for spatial im-
pression and enjoyment of art.
Different light colours and
beam spreads, different de-
OFFICE signs and arrangements of
luminaires and lamps create
different lighting situations –
light spaces – designed to
meet the relevant needs of the
WORKSHOP exhibition.

Special attention needs to be

paid to conservation require-
ments. Light protection plays
an important role in any exhi-
bition room.
STORAGE ROOMS There is more to a museum
than just what it displays; it is
also a place of research,
where collections are stored,
• ART preserved and managed. Only
Fig. 1: The graphic above shows in the right lighting can muse-
a virtual museum: most of the um staff work effectively. Light-
• TECHNOLOGY space is occupied by the exhibi- ing also draws attention to trip-
• HISTORY tion area (blue), followed by the ping hazards and reduces the
general public areas (red) and risk of accidents. So although
the rooms which serve as work the lighting designer has a
• HISTORICAL premises (orange). The outdoor great deal of freedom in exhi-
FIGURES area (green) is surrounded by bition rooms, functional lighting
the building. must always be provided.

The action of light

Route lighting
In some exhibition rooms,
visitors are free to move
around in any direction. In
many others, however, be-
cause of the nature of the ex-
hibition or for organisational
reasons, they need to be ‘di-
rected’. Luminaires which
highlight routes without inter-
fering with the display areas
on either side are a practical
solution for this task. Also
practical – and stylish as well
– is (additional) floor-level
orientation lighting, e.g. with
LED lighting strip.

Photo 1: Ambience and the way

we experience a room are
shaped by light and shadows
and the way they are mixed.

Photo 2: Diffuse lighting is

predominantly used for general
room lighting.

Photo 3: Illuminating objects –

exhibits are set off to dramatic
effect by directional lighting
The design and configura- Room lighting exhibits does not provide rection from which the light
tion of exhibition room Lighting for exhibition bright enough room comes cannot be clearly
lighting depends on many rooms in museums is lighting except in a few – determined: the light flow-
planning parameters. Fore- made up of diffuse and di- mostly small and bright – ing into the room and over
most among these is the rectional light. The relative interiors. the objects is not direction-
architecture of the building amounts and resulting mix al. Where it comes from
with which the lighting is of the two types of light de- Exhibit lighting very many directions, i.e.
required to harmonise. Oth- termines the harshness of Exhibit lighting uses hard- where the radiant surface
er factors are room propor- the shadows cast by pic- edged directional light to is large, the lighting pro-
tions, interior design, colour ture frames and the three- accentuate individual items duces little or no shadow-
scheme, available daylight dimensional impact of on display. As a general ing.
and, last but not least, the sculptures and spatial ob- rule, it needs to be supple-
nature of the exhibition. The jects. The diffuse and di- mented by softer room Directional lighting
way the ambience is rectional light mix also de- lighting. Exhibit lighting Directional lighting is gen-
shaped by light and shad- fines the overall impression based on spots alone is erated mostly by punctual
ow is a matter of funda- made by the room. advisable only where a par- light sources – i.e. lamps
mental importance. ticularly dramatic effect is that are small in relation to
A closely related matter required. the lighting distance – or
here is the distinction be- spots of similar design. The
Light protection tween room and exhibit Otherwise, a stimulating light falls directly onto the
Daylight and artificial lighting. The diffuse lighting spatial experience is ob- object illuminated, striking
light contain rays which is almost all generated by tained with a mix of diffuse it, or parts of it, at an angle
may fade, dry out, the room lighting, which (room) and directional (ex- defined by the geometry of
discolour or deform determines the distribution hibit) lighting. the lighting arrangement.
exhibits. Conservation of brightness and sets light- Where the surface of the
measures can protect ing accents in the horizon- Diffuse lighting object is uneven, clearly
against this but only if tal plane. Diffuse lighting illuminates defined shadows occur.
they are properly applied room zones or objects These enhance the visual
and observed. For more Room lighting alone is from a surface that radiates impact of three-dimension-
about light protection, rarely enough to meet all light in all directions. At the al surfaces but can also be
see page 30. an exhibition’s needs. site of illumination, i.e. in a source of visual interfer-
Conversely, the directional the room zone or at the ence if they are too domi-
lighting used to illuminate object illuminated, the di- nant or too large.

Fig. 2: Directional lighting for the
wall, diffuse lighting for the room

Fig. 3: Supplementary directional

lighting for objects in the room

Fig. 4: Indirect and direct

components produce diffuse and
directional lighting respectively

Fig. 5: Solely directional light

Diffuse/directional ular direction and is thus with tubular fluorescent al light, correct positioning
lighting partially directional. The di- lamps mounted horizontally of the light source produc-
In many applications, light rection from which the light or parallel to the upper ing the directional light or
cannot be clearly defined comes can be seen on the edge of the wall produce appropriate positioning of
as wholly diffuse or wholly objects illuminated. Howev- hard-edged shadows be- the illuminated objects in
directional. This is the case er, the shadowing that oc- neath horizontal picture relation to one another.
where the surface radiating curs on exhibits is less frames, whereas the shad-
the light is neither large nor clearly defined than if the ows cast by the vertical part
punctual – e.g. a spot with light were entirely direction- of the frame are barely dis-
a diffuser disc. Depending al. The modelling is ren- cernible.
on the diameter of the disc dered more subtle by the
and on the lighting dis- brightening effect of the dif- Avoiding cast shadows
tance, shadows are nar- fuse lighting component. Directional light produces
rower or wider, harsher or form shadows. Where it
softer. Diffuse/directional lighting also results in cast shad-
can also be produced, for ows on neighbouring ob-
Diffuse/directional lighting example, by linear lamps in jects, the hard contours and
also occurs where a sur- appropriately designed lu- obscure origin of such
face is illuminated or back- minaires. Here, shadowing shadows are disturbing.
lit to produce diffuse light- depends on the position of Cast shadows are avoided
ing and part of the light is the luminaire in relation to by ensuring an appropriate
made to radiate in a partic- the picture: wallwashers mix of diffuse and direction-

The action of light

The most important lighting

systems used in exhibition
rooms are:

 luminous ceilings with

opal glass enclosure (dif-
fuse light) or satinised and
textured glass (diffuse/
 indirect luminaires (dif-
 cove luminaires (diffuse),
 wallwashers (directional
or diffuse/directional),
 spot lamps.

Luminous ceilings
The idea of luminous ceil-
ings stems from a desire to
imitate daylight. Luminous
ceilings deliver light which is
particularly suitable for
painting galleries – predom-
inantly diffuse with an opal
enclosure, partly directional
with enclosures of sa-
tinised/textured glass. The
heat that is generated in any
luminous ceiling needs to
be dissipated or extracted.

The light sources of choice

are tubular fluorescent
lamps arranged according
to the structural grid of the
luminous ceiling. For good
uniformity, they should be
spaced no further apart
than the distance to the
ceiling enclosure. The size
of the luminous ceiling,
its subdivision and the tran-
sitions between ceiling and
walls need to suit the pro-
portions of the room and
the nature of the objects
4 Luminous ceilings imitating
Photo 4: Luminous ceilings are natural daylight need to
particularly suitable for painting deliver a high level of lumi-
galleries. The cove lighting nance: 500 to 1,000 cd/m2,
provides additional brightness. ranging up to 2,000 cd/m2
for very high-ceilinged
rooms. Luminous ceilings
are especially suitable for
interiors with 6 metre ceil-
ings or higher. Where room
heights are lower, their light
can dazzle because they
occupy a large part of the
field of vision. Where the
lighting is dimmed for con-
Photo 5: Indirect lighting has servation reasons or to re-
an impact similar to that of a duce glare, the luminous
luminous ceiling. ceiling loses its daylight

quality and looks grey and buildings are models with kick reflector protruding Spot lamps
oppressive. All luminous housings which themselves from the ceiling) or mount- Reflectors in reflector lamps
ceilings – including day- form the coving. ed close to the ceiling, they (used in luminaires with no
lighting installations – need should illuminate the walls reflector) or spots direct
to be designed by a spe- The main direction of light as uniformly as possible. most of the light emitted by
cialist. with cove lighting is closer This task is performed by punctual light sources in a
to the horizontal than with a reflectors with asymmetrical defined beam direction.
Indirect luminaires luminous ceiling and corre- optics. It is important to en- Spots and downlights with
An impact similar to that of sponds roughly to that of sure good shielding in the spot characteristics can be
a luminous ceiling is perimeter luminaires direction of the observer. El- fully or partially integrated
achieved with indirect light mounted in continuous ements on the luminaire for into a ceiling (or wall) as
bounced off the ceiling and rows. The light is largely mounting accessories – recessed ceiling spots. Sur-
upper wall surfaces into the shadow-free. Linear lamps such as filters or anti-glare face-mounted ceiling spots
room. This diffuse, uniform – generally tubular fluores- flaps – are useful. and downlights as well as
light is predominantly used cent lamps – are the most spots for power track have
in rooms where no daylight widely used light source. Favoured light sources for visible housings. Elements
enters. It is produced by wallwashers include linear on the luminaire for mount-
suspended luminaires radi- Excessive luminance at the lamps: fluorescent lamps, ing accessories – such as
ating light upwards. ceiling and on the upper compact fluorescent lamps filters or anti-glare flaps –
part of walls causes glare in elongated designs, linear are useful.
In exhibition rooms, for ex- and interferes with spatial high-voltage halogen
ample, luminaires for sus- experience. This can occur lamps. The diffuse/direc- Punctual light sources in-
pended power track sys- in coves where no steps tional lighting delivered by clude high-voltage halogen
tems are an option: they are taken to provide optical the continuous row lamps and low-voltage
are inserted in the track control – for example be- arrangements that are pos- halogen lamps with and
from above while spots for cause the existing cove of- sible with these light without reflector, incandes-
directional lighting are ac- fers no space for prisms or sources produces relatively cent lamps with or without
commodated in the lower reflectors. Where simple deep shadows, especially chrome cap as well as met-
channel. non-overlapping battens along the horizontal edges al halide lamps.
are installed, disturbing of picture frames.
Cove luminaires light-dark transitions are
The diffuse light of lumi- also visible around the lam- The directional light deliv- Photo 6: Wallwashers distribute
naires installed in the curv- pholders. ered by individual lumi- their light asymmetrically.
ing transition between wall naires with non-linear
and ceiling – the cove or Wallwashers lamps, on the other hand, Photo 7: The directional light of
coving – is another indirect Wallwashers are used as in- gives rise to additional spot lamps raises the
lighting solution. The cove dividual luminaires or in shadows along the horizon- brightness for exhibits – here
luminaires most frequently continuous rows. Installed tal edges of a picture with an appropriate beam angle
used in modern museum flush with the ceiling (or with frame. for paintings.

6 7

Exhibits in the limelight

Medium-scale, large and

very large exhibits and the
light that falls on them are
seen to full effect only from
a distance. This must be
borne in mind when the ex-
hibits are positioned.

Viewing without
To ensure that all exhibits are
shown to their best advan-
tage, neither the room nor
the exhibit lighting should in-
terfere with the visual task:

 There should be no
evocative shadows or pat-
terns of light on walls or ceil-
ing. Such visual interference
definitely needs to be ruled 8
out for exhibition walls. in directional light. What Basically speaking, the im- Photo 8: Higher power lamps or
 Reflections and undesir- happens when changes are pact of any change on multiple spots are used for illu-
able shadows on pictures made in direction of light these relatively small ex- minating large-scale objects.
and objects should be and beam angle? What do hibits is the same for large-
avoided. With direct lighting, objects look like with and scale pictures and objects.
the way to guard against without bright surroundings? The only difference is that Text panels
this is to position luminaires What difference can lumi- they need more light: high- Printed information about
so that the distance from naire accessories make? er power lamps or greater an exhibit is useful only if it
the exhibit is around a third Answers are found in the numbers of spots need to is legible – which is always
of the height of the wall. photographs on page 7, be used for illuminating the case with adequately
 No cast shadows should where a portrait and a non- large objects. A very large large black type on a white
fall on neighbouring ex- figurative painting are pre- object, such as a car or a background. Where differ-
hibits. sented as examples of two- plane, can also be illumi- ent lettering is required, it
 A greater distance be- dimensional pictures and a nated from several points. should be tested for legibili-
tween wallwashers and wall fragment of an ancient This makes for striking vi- ty in advance. And always
makes for better uniformity sculpture and a red vase for sual impact from various remember: legibility is im-
but presents a risk of direct three-dimensional objects. viewing angles. paired by reflections.
glare. The compromise be-
tween uniform illumination 30°
30° optical axis x
and visual comfort: the an- x
gle between luminaire and 4.00
60° floodlight angle (y = 2.35)
wall down to the lower limit
of the presentation area C
30° spotlight opening angle 3,30
should be between 25 and (y = 1.65)
30 degrees (see Fig. 6 + 7) B y
100° critical obser- 2,70
Edges of picture vation zone for
(y = 1.05)
Reflectance in the room Line of vertical illumi-
The colour, pattern and re- 30°
view- nation
flectance of ceiling, walls 70° Line of viewing x = y · tan 30°
and floor affect the visual Room x = Distance
height spot/wall
observation distance

observation distance

impact of the exhibits and A

2.7 m 0.60 m
1.65 m

the atmosphere of the room. 3.3 m 0.95 m

1.65 m

4.0 m 1.35 m
How bright or dark walls


and ceiling can be kept –

i.e. how high their re- 1m Visitor area
flectance should be – de- 1.6 m
pends crucially on the de-
sign intention. It is not pos-
sible to make a general rec- Fig. 6 + 7: Calculation of the optimal positioning of a luminaire for pictures on a wall – room height,
ommendation. observation zone, size of picture and optimal viewing angle (fig. on left) are the parameters defining
the optimal position of a wall-lighting luminaire. The upper edge of the picture determines the spotlight
What kind of light has opening angle (B: 30°, C: 60°) with a constant angle of inclination of 30°. Angles less than 30° can
what impact? result in reflections at the upper edge of the picture (critical observation zone). The mathematical
An “exhibit in the limelight” formula for calculating the distance “x” between spotlight and wall for illuminating a picture with the
is (almost) always an exhibit height “y” is: x = y tan 30° (fig. on right).

9 10 11 12
Spot with 15° beam angle and Spot with 15° beam angle and Contour spot with no ambient Diffuse ambient luminescence
ambient luminescence diffuse ambient luminescence luminescence

13 14 15 16
Spot with 15° beam angle and Spot with 45° beam angle and Wallwasher with symmetrical Wallwasher with asymmetrical
soft focus lens oval lens light distribution fitted with R7s light distribution fitted with R7s
halogen lamps (230 V) halogen lamps (230 V)

17 18 19 20
Spot with 15° beam angle, Spot with 15° beam angle, light- Spot with 15° beam angle, light- Side lighting from right
lighting from front, top, middle ing from front, top, left ing from front, bottom, left

21 22 23 24
Lighting from front Lighting from back Lighting from right Lighting from above

Showcase lighting

25 26
Showcases are miniature occurs when they are illu- appropriate for coloured or Photo 25: Under the top-down
exhibition rooms and the minated by punctual light transparent materials such showcase lighting, the suits of
exhibits they contain need sources. Under diffuse as glass windows. armour gleam in fascinating
to be illuminated accord- lighting, the receptacles detail
ingly – with diffuse or direc- appear matt and lifeless. Integrated lighting
tional light. In some cases, Small, shallow display cabi- Photo 26: LEDs for light protec-
illuminating and accentuat- For transparent or translu- nets (glass-topped desks) tion – luminous diodes emit
ing light may also be mixed cent objects such as glass and high or box-shaped neither ultraviolet light nor heat.
in glass display cabinets. exhibits, the key to height- showcases mostly have an
ening visual impact lies integrated lighting system.
The right light for the task more in modelling than in This has advantages: level of the showcase light-
The type of lighting re- gleam. The structure of  Fewer or no reflections ing or even lower. Orienta-
quired depends essentially surfaces – cut, etched or occur on the cabinet glass. tion lighting which relies
on the characteristics of the painted – also plays an im-  It is easier to avoid direct entirely on stray light from
exhibits – on three-dimen- portant role here. Depend- glare for the observer due showcases and not on a
sional form, structure, sur- ing on the exhibit, the to bright unshielded light dedicated orientation light-
face gloss and transparen- correct solution may be dif- sources. ing system should not be
cy or colour. fuse or directional lighting  It is easier to engineer too low.
(through-lighting) or a special lighting effects for a
Most metal objects – gold combination of the two. dramatic presentation.
or silver receptacles, for With directional lighting, Light protection
example – acquire a fasci- visual impact is determined In small display cabinets, Light protection (see page
nating beauty when they by the angle of light inci- exhibits are normally illumi- 30) is also an important
gleam. And that gleam dence. Diffuse lighting is nated from the side. In high consideration for showcase
showcases, lighting from lighting – not least because
the cabinet roof is an op- lamps in showcases are
Fig. 8 + 9 tion. Alternatively, objects often closer to exhibits than
Directional can be bathed in light from in exhibition rooms. It must
lighting (left) below from the base of the also be borne in mind that
accentuates cabinet. the enclosed space of a
exhibits, showcase has its own
planar lighting In addition to the lighting microclimate.
(right) makes integrated in the showcase,
for uniform separate ambient lighting is For the lighting, there are
illumination. generally essential. De- alternatives to the lamps
pending on the atmosphere used in the past: LEDs, for
required and the illumi- example, which deliver a
nance permitted for conser- beam that contains no IV or
vation, the room lighting IR radiation, and fibre-optic
should be just below the lighting systems, which

27 28
have a very low UV/IR protection against reflected bright internal lighting thus Photo 27: The manuscripts in
content. Incidentally, be- glare is provided by non- present a lower risk. the showcase walls are
cause of their size, both of reflecting glass. uniformly illuminated from top
these solutions are also Reflections can also be to bottom.
suitable for illuminating very Reflections on horizontal caused by windows
small display cabinets. glass surfaces occur less (daylight). Appropriate Photo 28: Reflection-free
frequently if the glass is tilt- positioning of showcases external lighting illuminates and
For fluorescent lamps, ed towards the observer. or daylight screening – highlights the books in the
compact fluorescent lamps How visible they are de- e.g. with vertical blinds – cabinets.
and high-voltage and low- pends on the degree of prevents this kind of re-
voltage halogen lamps, the contrast with the surround- flected glare. Photo 29: Where luminaires
same safeguards are re- ings, i.e. the darkness of are arranged to suit showcases,
quired in showcases as in the showcase. Light- ceiling lighting is largely
large exhibition rooms. coloured showcases with reflection-free.

External lighting
Room and object lighting
outside showcases is gen-
erally provided by ceiling
lights. This type of lighting
is particularly suitable for
all-glass cabinets and
shallow glass-topped desk
showcases for viewing from
above. Daylight and object-
oriented room lighting
generally need to be sup-
plemented by accentuating
exhibit lighting. Where
luminaires are arranged to
suit showcases, there is
little risk of reflected glare.

Limiting reflections
Limiting reflected glare is
an important consideration
whatever kind of lighting is
installed for showcases
with horizontal and vertical
glass surfaces. Effective

Revolving exhibitions

Exhibits which are not on swivellable, rotatable spots necessary by experimenting Mobile spots
permanent display or which can be snap-mounted at and repositioning exhibits. Where mobile partitions are
go on tour are presented in any point. Part of the power This invariable calls for the used for presentations,
rooms for revolving exhibi- track installed should be use of ladders and steps. mobile spots fastened to
tions. Each new show is an mounted along the walls to For inaccessible locations, the partitions by clamps or
added attraction and draws permit gallery-style wall remote control spots are screw mountings are an
new visitors to see the per- lighting. In the rest of the the right answer. alternative to spotlights on
manent exhibition. room, rectangular or square power track. So that power
arrangements of power Taking account of cables to spots do not
To cater for a regular track make for greater flexi- daylight present a tripping hazard,
change-over of exhibits, bility than an arrangement Where revolving exhibitions rooms for revolving exhibi-
lighting systems need to be in just one direction. are staged in daylit rooms, tions should be provided
adaptable. So very flexible daylight incidence and the with power points in the
lighting is required. It An alternative to power position of showcases in floor.
should be noted, however, track are stationary gimbal- relation to windows (see
that absolute flexibility – mounted spots. These can page 9) must also be taken
enabling the lighting to be also be set at any angle into account. To maximize
as finely tuned for every and servomotors can be the scope for catering to
temporary presentation as used for re-angling and exhibition requirements, it
for a permanent exhibition focusing. Gimbal spotlights is best to ensure that daylit
– is an unattainable goal. are not quite as flexible as rooms can be fully dark-
spots on power track but ened. More information
Flexible lighting they permit a ceiling that about daylight is found on
The general – diffuse – makes a much more pages 22/23. Facilities for
lighting takes little account tranquil design statement darkening rooms can also
of the positioning of ex- than one with power track. be useful for light protec-
hibits. The flexibility of the tion; for information about
system depends on the Realigning luminaires the light protection require-
directional lighting. Particu- The luminaires of a flexible ments of exhibits – which
larly suitable solutions here lighting system need to be naturally also need to be Photo 30: The light of the
are furnished by power realigned for each new met in revolving exhibitions gimbal-mounted spots is focus-
track systems, in which revolving exhibition – if – see pages 30–33. able.


Photo 32: Power track integrated Photo 31: Power track is
in the ceiling makes it possible integrated in the ceiling grid
for spots to be positioned in construction to accommodate
flexible arrangements. the spotlights for the exhibit
Photo 33: High illuminance
where required – each Photo 34: The spotlights need
luminaire features four gimbal- to be repositioned for every
mounted spots. new revolving exhibition.


33 34

Foyers, corridors, staircases

The entrance area is the Harmonious lighting on ceiling and walls makes either be the same or re-
calling card of the estab- To meet these require- the visual impact less duced very gradually in
lishment. It shapes visitors’ ments, the lighting needs severe. Direct or direct/in- stages. DIN EN 12464-1
first impressions, its design to incorporate a mixture of direct luminaires with stipulates a minimum of
can overcome fear of direct and indirect light – efficient fluorescent or 100 lux illuminance for
crossing the threshold. A delivered by a combination compact fluorescent lamps circulating areas such as
harmonious lighting atmos- of lighting systems de- are the most widely used corridors.
phere sets the scene for a signed to cater for every light sources for the gener-
friendly reception. Foyers lighting task: the uniform al lighting; wall luminaires A route guidance system
also serve a functional pur- general lighting provides for indirect lighting form provides an effective addi-
pose: they lead into the in- security and facilitates ori- part of the accent lighting. tional orientation aid for
terior of the building. entation, accentuating light visitors. To ensure reliable
In the entrance zone, peo- guidance, it should include
ple step out of bright day- bright information panels or
light into a darker building back-lit signs with a clear
or out of night-time dark- message.
ness into a brightly lit interi-
or. To enable their eyes to Safe light
adjust to the change in The risk of tripping on
brightness level, adaptation steps and stairs is reduced
zones are recommended. by good lighting. The illu-
During the day, the immedi- minance should be at least
ate entrance area needs to 150 lux (DIN EN 12464-1).
be particularly brightly lit; As it is generally more
at night, the illuminance dangerous to fall down
inside the building should stairs than to trip on the
decrease towards the exit. way up, it is particularly
important that the lighting
The calling card role of a should ensure that treads
foyer makes it an interest- are clearly discernible from
ing place for special archi- above. In addition, light
tectural features – features falling from the upper land-
which lighting and lighting ing makes for short soft-
characteristics should edged shadows. The
underline. For high ceilings, treads can thus be clearly
for example, high-intensity distinguished; each one is
spots with high-pressure readily identifiable.
discharge lamps are re-
commended. As pendant Floor-level orientation
luminaires with direct/indi- lighting provides added
rect light distribution, they security. Wall lights at the
emphasize the height of side of the stairs casting
the room. Moulded plaster direct light onto treads are
ceilings, columns or a solution here. LED tech-
galleries can be very effec- nology offers a new alter-
tively stressed by accentu- native, e.g. with luminous
ating light. diodes set into risers. LEDs
are also used for illuminat-
Guiding light ing banisters.
Corridors, staircases and
lifts connect the entrance
area with the deeper
recesses of the building.
If they are significantly
darker than the foyer, they
can be off-putting. To avoid
this tunnel effect, the illumi-
nance realised should

Photo 35: Distributor role –

foyer and corridors provide both
a physical and optical link with
the deeper recesses of the

Photos 36 and 37: The entrance
area shapes first impressions.
Harmonious lighting makes for
a friendly reception.

Photos 39 and 40:

Corridor lighting provides
guidance for visitors and makes
their route safe. Minimum
illuminance: 100 lux.

37 39

Photo 38: Light in banisters –
LEDs make it possible.

Audiovisual media

An exhibition may include be easy to identify. The illu- Photo 41: Audiovisual media
video installations or pre- minance of the additional can form part of an exhibition.
sentations on large screens lighting provided for the Catering for them calls for
or monitors of various purpose and its radiance in lighting incorporating no highly
sizes. It may also include the direction of the screen directional light, delivering
audio exhibits, i.e. record- (reflected glare) and the illuminance tailored to
ings of voices, sounds or operator (direct glare) must presentations and providing
music. nevertheless be limited so adequate light for the use of
that they do not interfere controls.
Reflected glare is with visitors’ perception of
annoying the presentation. 42
The lighting needs to cater Photo 43: Feeling, hearing, Photo 42: In a separate
for the use of audiovisual Computer room seeing – all the senses are computer room, the rules of
media. Because reflected Where computers and involved in experiencing the office lighting apply.
glare on screens is very monitor screens are not in- exhibition.
annoying, highly directional tegrated in the exhibition
lighting should not be in- but installed in a separate
stalled in the vicinity of computer workstation room,
monitors. High luminance it is advisable to light that
from neighbouring exhibi- room as if it were an office
tion areas has the same (see page 19). If the time
dazzling effect; stray light visitors spend in the room
from such sources should is kept short – for example
also be limited. by putting a limit on the
maximum length of stay –
For audiovisual presenta- the lighting concept of the
tions, lighting should nor- exhibition can also be
mally not be too bright – adopted here even if it
neither for visual perception means a lower lighting
nor for the perception of level. Having said that, the
sounds on which visitors risk of direct and reflected
need to concentrate. Where glare must always be ruled
presentations are interac- out.
tive, however, it is important
that controls such as but-
tons and their labels should

Lecture room

Virtually every type of event

takes place in a lecture
room; certain guided tours
also start and end here. The
room should therefore be
furnished and equipped as
a multifunctional facility –
with lighting installations de-
signed to create the lighting
conditions needed for all
the relevant occasions, thus
enhancing concentration,
raising receptivity and facili-
tating communication.

Lighting tailored for the

How flexible the lighting
needs to be depends on
the different lighting situa-
tions presented by events.
The first requirement is that
luminaires should be
grouped on separate
switching circuits because
the individual lighting situa-
tions – e.g. “reception”,
“lecture” or “presentation” –
call for different system set-
tings. One luminaire group 44
may be left switched off, What is always useful – in sources, indirect lighting Photo 44: “Film presentation”
for example, while a sec- some cases also for lectur- components emphasizing and “lecture” are the two
ond is activated and a third ers – is the opportunity to the architecture of the room lighting situations most
is dimmed. control the lighting from a and planar or directional il- frequently found.
remote device. lumination of pictures and
The task of lighting control is wall areas produce an
performed via a simple con- Accent lighting essential agreeable effect. For the
trol unit or – in larger rooms Apart from having a func- lighting situation
– by a lighting management tional role, lighting is also “reception”, general and
system. With lighting man- an element of interior de- accent lighting should be Photo 45: Lecture room lighting
agement, programmed light- sign. Accent lighting, for ex- closely coordinated and is multifunctional lighting
ing scenes can be adapted ample, is essential in a programmed to be activat- designed to create tailored
to individual conditions with- prestigious lecture room. ed together. lighting conditions for different
out altering the program- Numerous punctual light situations.
ming. Cross-fade times can
be set as required on a
scale from one second to
several minutes. Most light-
ing management systems
also offer the option of incor-
porating window darkening
and sunshade settings into

One lighting control system

recommended for lecture
rooms is the DALI® system
(Digital Addressable Light-
ing Interface) with its stan-
dardised digital interface.
Its key advantages are that
it has few components,
requires little wiring and is
easy to operate.
Information is available at


Library lighting has several

functions: it helps us get
our bearings, helps us find
the literature we require,
facilitates reading and cre-
ates a peaceful to subtly
stimulating atmosphere.
The basis for planning is
DIN EN 12464-1. As a
general rule, the more
demanding the visual task,
the higher the lighting re-
quirement. The illuminance
required for circulating
areas, for example, is 100
lux, for shelving systems
200 lux. Reading areas,
however, call for 500 lux.

Fast orientation
The general lighting – with
additional route marking
and identification of exits –
needs to permit fast orien-
tation and provide guid- 46
ance around the rows of Reading desks require Photo 46: Helping visitors get
shelves. Direct/indirect brighter lighting. Where their bearings, facilitating
lighting produces an desk luminaires are used to reading, creating a peaceful to
agreeably bright ceiling supplement the general subtly stimulating atmosphere –
and prevents the so-called lighting, visitors can raise these are the tasks addressed
“cave effect” that can easily the lighting level to suit by library lighting.
occur in parts of a library. their personal requirements.
Where direct lighting com-
ponents are kept small,
annoying reflections
(reflected glare) on glossy
paper are also reduced.

Suspended luminaires for

tubular fluorescent lamps
are the most widely used
here, along with luminaires
for metal halide lamps in
high-ceilinged rooms.

Vertical lighting
Bookshelves and bookcas-
es should be well illuminat-
ed over their entire area.
Vertical components need
to reach to the lowest shelf
to enable titles on book
spines to be read with
ease from a reasonable
distance. Wallwashers with
asymmetrical beams are
particularly suitable for this
lighting task. Lamps with a
good colour rendering
index (Ra ⱖ 80) ensure
that books can be easily 47
identified by the colour and Photos 47 and 48: Wallwashers with asymmetrical
design of the spine, which beams illuminate shelves – from the ceiling (47)
are often used as search or as integrated shelf luminaires (48).

Study room

Some museums have

study rooms, which offer
more peace and quiet than
reading desks in a library.
Here, students and others
with special interests can
consult not only books but
also exhibition and archive

Exacting visual tasks

Even if a study room is not
equipped with computers,
the lighting should cater for
monitors because nearly
anyone researching a sub-
ject today has a laptop at
hand. Working at a com-
puter, reading and writing
are demanding visual
tasks, for which DIN EN
12464-1 sets out a minimum
of 500 lux illuminance. Be-
cause glare impairs visual
performance and causes 49
visual discomfort, care
needs to be taken – as in
an office or at any other
VDU workplace – to ensure
that neither direct nor
reflected glare occurs.

Solutions suitable for the

direct lighting include pen-
dant luminaires – mounted
singly or in continuous
rows – with high-grade
reflectors and louvers and
downlights with similar
optical control elements.
Alternatively, direct/indirect
light can be provided by
pendant luminaires or
stand-alone luminaires
specifically designed for
office use. 50
Photo 49: Daylight or artificial
Adjustable lighting level light enters the study room as
A particularly high degree indirect light from the light
of comfort is offered by wells. Downlights along the
lighting systems in which sides of the room provide
stand-alone luminaires can supplementary lighting.
be dimmed or supplemen-
tary desk-top reading lights Photo 50: The luminaires for
switched on to tailor the fluorescent lamps are mounted
task lighting level to indi- on power track to radiate light
vidual requirements. With upwards or downwards.
fluorescent lamps or com- They provide indirect and direct
pact fluorescent lamps lighting.
operated by (dimmable)
electronic ballasts (EBs),
study room lighting can
also be particularly eco- Photo 51: These desks are used
nomical. mainly by students. 500 lux
illuminance is provided for
reading and writing tasks.

Cafeteria, museum shop

Cafeterias and museum In terms of brightness, ser-

shops are attractive places, vice areas in a cafeteria
especially at the end of a can keep a low profile –
museum visit. The culinary with one exception: the
offerings are welcome and food counter and any other
many people buy the areas where food and drink
merchandise on sale as are displayed or on sale
souvenirs or gifts. need to be more brightly lit
than the rest of the room.
Cafeteria lighting DIN EN 12464-1 stipulates
For cafeterias, differentiated 200 - 300 lux illuminance
lighting with various room- here. This helps guests
structuring systems is rec- get their bearings and facil-
ommended: e.g. pendant itates the visual task of
luminaires for tables, wall choosing food.
luminaires and downlights
for a moderately higher Sales lighting
lighting level, downlights Capturing the attention of
and spots for accent light- today’s visually spoilt
ing. Depending on the size consumer calls for cleverly
52 and design of the cafeteria, designed sales presenta-
Photo 52: The general lighting a single lighting system tions. The spectrum of
casts a discreet diffuse light. may be enough. customised solutions is as
wide as the range of
The range of design op- modern lamps, luminaires
tions for catering establish- and spots. For a museum
ment lighting is almost shop, the design challenge
endless. Limits are reached is to achieve optimal har-
only where visual perfor- mony between the struc-
mance and visual comfort ture and furnishings of the
are significantly impaired, room and lighting systems
Photo 53: The scene is which means that glare designed to suit the mer-
dominated by the rows of small must always be avoided. chandise on sale.
punctual light sources. Harsh shadows are also
bad because they interfere A distinction needs to be
Photo 54: Accentuating light with facial recognition. made between general
with graduated brightness lighting – “viewing light” –
levels creates a stimulating and accent lighting –
sales(room) atmosphere. “display light” – for shelves,
53 walls or special offer pre-
sentations on the sales
floor. The rule of thumb for
the right mix is: the more
upmarket the range, the
more stylish the lighting
and the greater the impor-
tance attached to differ-
entiated accent lighting.

The overall impression

made by graduated bright-
ness levels determines
how stimulating customers
find the sales(room)
atmosphere. However, cau-
tion is required: excessive
differences in brightness
place too much strain on
the eyes of shoppers and
staff. Detailed information
is provided in FGL booklet
6 (see page 45) on
salesroom and shop win-
dow lighting. The relevant
standard is DIN EN

Workplace lighting

Workplace lighting is need- the illuminance in museum Photo 55: In offices, light must
ed for rooms which are workshops, including cause neither direct glare nor
not open to the public and training workshops, should reflected glare on screens.
where the lighting caters be 500 lux. The finer and
solely for the visual tasks more critical the visual
performed by the people task, the more light is
who work there. These needed. For this, supple- Photo 56: The finer and more
rooms are essentially mentary workplace lumi- critical the visual task, the more
offices, e.g. administration naires can be used to raise light is required.
areas, workshops and the illuminance at the
storage facilities such as workpiece. A suitable solu- Photos 57 and 58: Storage
warehouses, depots and tion for the general lighting facilities require a minimum of
archives. is task lighting with lumi- 100 lux to be standard-
naires for fluorescent compliant; higher illuminance
Office lighting lamps arranged parallel levels are better.
The first requirement for vi- to windows, preferably with 55
sual performance and visual light falling on the work-
comfort is an adequate level bench from the side.
of lighting. For compliance
with DIN EN 12464-1, illumi- Generally speaking, it is
nance in the task area must advisable in workshops to
be no lower than 300 lux. install luminaires with a
The standard makes a higher degree of protec-
distinction between room- tion. A luminaire protected
related, task area and work to IP 43, for example, is
surface lighting (more infor- protected against the
mation in FGL booklet 4, ingress of solid particles
see page 45). ⬎ 1 mm and against
spraywater, while an IP 54
The most popular office luminaire is dustproof and
lighting solution is based protected against splash-
on pendant luminaires or water.
standard-alone luminaires
for direct/indirect lighting, Storage room lighting
which most people find The kind of work done in
agreeable. The alternative store rooms, depots or
– direct general lighting archives requires less light
with recessed or surface- than craft activities. Never-
mounted ceiling luminaires theless, relatively high
or pendant luminaires with illuminance is important for
specular louvers – is ap- handling small items in
preciated especially for its storage and for all work
uniformity. involving reading tasks
(labelling items for storage,
One of the most important completing forms). If the 56
quality criteria, particularly reading and searching task
for VDU workplaces in an is focused on shelves – i.e.
office, is direct and reflect- a vertical plane – as much
ed glare limitation by as 300 lux vertical illumi-
appropriate positioning of nance may be required.
luminaires, desks and
monitors. Where accent Higher illuminance than the
lighting is provided by wall 100 lux stipulated in DIN
luminaires or showcase or EN 12464-1 facilitates
picture lights, care must be reliable visual perception,
taken to ensure that dis- heightens concentration,
turbing reflected glare is helps to avoid mistakes
avoided. and guards against acci-
dents. Luminaires for fluo-
Workshop lighting rescent lamps are the most
For compliance with DIN suitable option for rooms of
EN 12464-1, what applies normal height; luminaires
to offices – see above – with high-pressure discharge
basically applies also to lamps are the solution
workshops. Regardless of recommended for interiors
the type of work performed, with higher ceilings.
57 58

Outdoor exhibits

Photo 59: The interplay of light

and shadow casts sculptures in
a dramatic light

spots. Highly focused

beams are by far the first
favourite; with illumination
from below and some
other configurations, the
beam spread can be

Avoid glare
If the idea is to illuminate
the whole object, lights
need to be set at a greater
distance than for highlight-
ing details. When position-
ing spots and floods, it is
important to make sure
that observers will not be
dazzled, at least in the
59 principal viewing direction.
Whether sculptures or in- ance they do not have in
Open air museum stallations, some works of daylight: the artificial light- To achieve the same light-
Open air museums are art are intended to be ing creates new structures, ing impact with different
a showcase for historical exhibited outdoors while reinventing the object in a objects, the general rule is:
buildings and complex- others may become candi- game of light and shadow. the darker the object and
es, either in their original dates for outdoor display brighter the surroundings,
state or reconstructed. because of their size. For the more light is needed.
They close when it is the majority of such ob- The best way to determine Ultimately, however, even
dark, so artificial lighting jects, an inner courtyard or the perfect location for a illuminance is a matter of
is generally installed small patch of garden is mobile spotlight or flood is taste and design intention.
only inside the buildings normally enough. to conduct trials – with
– if possible without light from below, from be-
spoiling the impression Interplay of light and low and from the side,
of a time before the ad- shadow from the side, from above,
vent of electricity. Where Outdoor illumination at from above and from the Photo 60: Light from below –
an open air museum dusk or at night basically side, or even bounced off the stationary recessed ground
stays open after dark, has the same effect as illu- another surface. Every floods are installed in groups.
path lighting is also mination with directional solution has a charm of its
required. light in an exhibition room own. For lighting from Photo 61: Facade painting –
(see pages 2, 6). But it also below, recessed ground floodlighting creates a splash of
gives exhibits an appear- floods are the alternative to colour at night.

60 61

Night scenes

Buildings bathed in light Photos 62 and 63: Light turns

impact at night because of facades into eye-catchers,
their architecture. Where enhances the building and
facade lighting makes this gives it a unique quality.
visible, decorative night
images are created. Illumi-
nated advertising signs The illuminance required is
and frontal floodlighting determined by the colour
also help shape a museum and thus reflectance of the
building’s night-time illuminated building (build-
appearance. ing luminance) and by the
ambient brightness: the
Facade lighting darker the building and
Light can make any build- brighter the surroundings,
ing an eye-catcher. the more light is needed.
Combined with fascinating Precise planning avoids
architecture, well-planned light emission into the sur-
facade lighting imbues a rounding area.
building with a unique
quality – and enhances the Alternatives to classical
area around it at the same illumination are presented
time. by fibre-optic lighting sys-
tems and LEDs, with which
Illuminating the entire facades or parts of facades
building has a long-range can be bathed in dynamic
impact; harnessing light changing coloured light.
to emphasize only architec- Another possibility is
tural details heightens its facade design based on
presence for passers-by. activated (and controlled) 62
Where the principal view- interior lighting.
ing direction and the direc-
tion of illumination are not Other forms of
identical, light-dark con- illumination
trasts create a three-dimen- Facade lighting is normally
sional effect: an angle of a discrete design element.
around 60 degrees to the However, illuminated sig-
viewing direction is right for nage – e.g. the name of the
plain or fairly plain facades; museum in luminous letters
for more detailed or ornate – needs to be planned
facades, the angle can be to suit it. To achieve the de-
smaller. sired effect, any additional
signal lighting, such as
Ensuring floodlights are not floodlighting for flags or
installed too close to the banners, needs to be coor-
building avoids excessively dinated with the facade
deep shadows. Beams lighting.
should not cross or shad-
ows will be too light. In other outdoor areas, at- 63
tractive scenes are also
Floods with a long-range created by illuminating
impact should be posi- trees or other vegetation.
tioned high and mounted The rules to be followed
as inconspicuously as here are the same as for
possible. High-pressure outdoor feature lighting
sodium vapour lamps un- (see page 20). If the facade
derline the character of is also illuminated, lights
warm colours and materi- should only be trained on
als; for cooler-looking plants well away from the
surfaces, metal halide building.
lamps are a suitable solu-
tion. Illumination is also
possible with wall lumi- Photo 64: The LED semicircle
naires integrated in the on the facade of the Buhlsche
facade and recessed Mühle event centre in Ettlingen
ground floods positioned symbolises the millwheels that
directly in front of it. turned here in the past.


Interior lighting with daylight

is an architectural chal-
lenge that absolutely must
be addressed and resolved
at the early design stage of
a new building. Conditions
for harnessing daylight
can rarely be created later
and system modification is
difficult. Daylight planning
is a matter for experienced

Daylight museum
Public museums built in the
first half of the 19th century
had to rely on daylight.
From early times, architects
incorporated skylights to
harness it: in 1789, the side
windows of the Salon
Carée at the Louvre in Paris
were bricked up to enable
all the wall to be used for 65
exhibits. Because no windows are sometimes occur on pic- Photo 65: The camera looks
present, more wall space is tures on the wall. behind the luminous ceiling of
For a long time, despite available for paintings. an exhibition room where
the availability of artificial There is also no problem Direct sunlight must always daylight and artificial light are
lighting, every new museum with reflections on exhibi- be “locked out”. But light mixed as required.
was built as a daylit facility. tion walls due to incident protection is not alone in
But that changed in the daylight from the side. presenting high require-
1950s and ’60s when it ments: what all modern actually the right tool for
was realised how much With large skylights, unwel- skylight solutions have in making maximum use of
damage daylight can do, come interference may common is that they are daylight. On the other
especially to paint and occur and needs to be expensive to design and hand, there are many ways
other organic materials. For tackled by positioning the construct for daylight direc- today to direct daylight and
some time after that, all skylights appropriately and tion, control and filtering. “lock out” direct sunlight
new museums were built providing for precise opti- The use of skylights to har- even in rooms with lateral
with rooms without win- cal control. There is a risk, ness daylight is confined to windows. Having said that,
dows. for example, of light being the upper storeys of a these non-transparent
systems do not fulfil the
Today, our knowledge of requirement met by day-
lighting engineering cou- Daylight has considerable damage potential light museum windows in
pled with modern control Both daylight and artificial light contain rays which may making diurnal and sea-
and regulation technology cause exhibits to fade, dry out or become discoloured sonal change – as well as
makes it possible for or deformed if exposed to the light for long periods. the vicissitudes of the
daylight to be precisely di- But daylight is certainly the more dangerous. This is weather – a visual experi-
rected and dosed. So once confirmed in the art history publication “Über das Licht ence.
again daylight plays a in der Malerei” (Wolfgang Schöne, Berlin 1993), which,
major role in museum con- when considering light sources, focuses almost exclu- Windows reduce the
struction and design. sively on daylight. Few pages are devoted to artificial amount of wall space for
lighting. exhibits. Undirected and
Skylights Information on light protection is found in this booklet unfiltered incident daylight
Skylights are classic day- on pages 30 ff. can give rise to reflections
lighting elements for picture on exhibition walls.
galleries. They provide uni-
form, diffuse lighting. Be- unevenly distributed over building or calls for single- Daylight and artificial
cause the light is admitted the walls. In rooms with storey design. Skylights are light
over a large area, the shad- dark furnishings, in particu- no substitute for the visual If daylight and artificial light
ows produced are soft. lar, the vertical illuminance contact with the outside are mixed, their rays
The incident daylight that at eye level is often too world provided by windows. should be fully blended be-
passes through a skylight low. The contrast between fore they fall on an exhibit.
reaches nearly every part of wall and ceiling brightness Windows This also means that the
the room, including free- can cause glare. And even Outsized windows are not spatial distribution of the
standing display cabinets, with light incidence from necessarily a suitable alter- two types of light needs to
sculptures and partitions. above, reflections can native to skylights and not be coordinated. The rea-

66 67
sons: the lamps used for two types of light do not Photos 66 + 67: The luminous ceiling of the 800 m² “Salle des
artificial lighting radiate interfere with one another – Etats” of the Louvre in Paris has an area of 300 square metres. It
light of particular colours, unless the twilight is delib- directs the incident daylight that passes through a glass roof into
while the spectral composi- erately used to create a the exhibition room. Supplementary artificial lighting is activated
tion of daylight changes all particular atmosphere in when the monitoring system reports there is no longer enough
the time. In addition, the the room. daylight. 360 luminaires, each fitted with two 80 W fluorescent
two have different angles of lamps, are installed, some with wide-angle and some with narrow-
incidence and different angle reflectors. Illuminance is 250 lux on the floor of the museum,
beam angles. This gives 100 lux at the walls. Photo 67 shows the inside of the ceiling
rise to conflict; the appear- construction.
ance of exhibits is distorted
if the two light forms are
not fully blended. The only
alternative to blending is
“segregation”. This means Photo 68: The daylight entering
keeping the daylit zone through the skylights falls main-
and the zone illuminated ly on the exhibits on the upper
by artificial light far enough floor; the corridor needs
apart to ensure that the supplementary lighting.
Daylight incidence from above Daylight incidence from the side
through a luminous ceiling (prin- through a window (principle in
ciple in cross-section of room) cross-section of room)

With light from above, more falls With light from the side, the further
on horizontal surfaces in the it has to travel from the window
middle of the room than on wall, the lower the illuminance on
surfaces at the edge and always both horizontal surfaces …
(angle) more than …

… on vertical surfaces in the … and vertical ones, although ver-

same place, on walls more than tical surfaces are better illuminated
on free-standing partitions. because of the more favourable
angle of incidence.
Abb. 10-15

Lighting management

At its most sophisticated, Lighting management in

lighting management museums
means automation of light- There are numerous ways
ing systems. Lighting man- in which lighting manage-
agement encompasses all ment can be used in a
systems which go beyond museum:
mere “on/off” control – sys-
tems which control and  Lighting management
regulate lighting by re- systems can activate and
sponding to variance from deactivate or dim the
setpoint values. artificial lighting in response
to changes in available
Degrees of automation daylight.
Lighting management sys-  They can be used to
tem components, which provide daylight-dependent
can be used alone or in control for sun-screens and
combination with others for anti-glare shielding on
different degrees of au- skylights or windows.
tomation, include:  Lighting management
systems facilitate lighting
 retrievable pre-pro- productions: stage lighting
grammed lighting scenes or dynamic effects can
 motion detectors primed easily be programmed.
to activate lighting in  Lighting management
response to movement can be used to set different
(presence-dependent illuminance levels in differ-
lighting control) ent zones: individual lumi-
 daylight-dependent naires are simply dimmed.
lighting level regulation by This is useful for casting an
dimming and/or exhibition in a dramatic
 partial deactivation in re- light or as a light protection
sponse to signals from measure for individual
– light sensors in the exhibits.
room or  Lighting management
– exterior light sensors. facilitates simple multifunc-
tional use of individual
The control and regulation interiors.
components of a lighting  Lighting management
management system are enables installed lumi-
integrated in luminaires naires to be assigned to
and operator interfaces. dedicated exhibition lumi-
They may be programmed naires without de-installing
to govern individual lumi- the existing luminaires
naires, individual rooms or and without the need for
groups of rooms or they re-wiring.
can be wired into the build-  A lighting management
ing management system system can monitor lumi-
(BMS). naires and report their
functional status or failure.
Lighting management sys-  Lighting management
tems can be realised with systems can log the oper-
the standardised digital in- ating status of the lighting
terface DALI (Digital Ad- installation and thus record
dressable Lighting Inter- the radiant exposure of the
face). This also permits in- exhibits for the light pass
tegration in building man- (see page 32).
agement systems such as  Emergency lighting can
BUS systems. Information: easily be integrated into a lighting management sys-
 A lighting installation
controlled by a lighting
management system con-
sumes less energy than a
non-managed installation.



Photos 69 and 70: A lighting Photos 71 and 72: The lighting in this exhibition and event hall
management system enables permits a variety of room uses. The lighting situations shown here –
the separately switched controlled by a lighting management system – are “bright
luminaires and luminaire groups daylight-white lighting” (71), which is normally used during the day ,
to be easily controlled. The 3D and “less bright warm-white lighting” (72), intended mainly for
presentation in photo 69 shows evenings.
the lighting situation “fully
activated”, photo 70 shows the
“spot lighting” situation.

Photo 73: Digitally controlled

daylight ceiling – the steplessly
variable artificial lighting is
added as required.
70 73

Seeing, identifying, perceiving

Fig. 16 74
Over 80 percent of all the determined first and fore- Luminance distribution Photo 74: The diffuse light
information we receive is most by the sensitivity of Luminance (symbol: L) is provided by the luminous
picked up by our eyes. the exhibits. For endan- the brightness of a lumi- ceiling is combined here with
Anyone who studies the gered artworks, for exam- nous or illuminated surface directional spotlighting.
conditions needed for see- ple, the illuminance should as perceived by the human
ing well, i.e. anyone who be as low as possible (light eye and is measured in
knows the basic visual protection, see page 30). candelas per unit area
requirements, understands (cd/m ). Luminance distrib-
more easily how light The second criterion is de- ution in the visual field has
makes visual performance sign intention. And in third a crucial bearing on visual
possible and what can place – exceptionally – is performance because it
interfere with that perform- the question of how much defines the state of adapta-
ance. More detailed infor- light is needed to enable tion of the eye. The higher
mation about the basics of the visual task to be per- the luminance, the better
lighting is contained in formed. Applying all three the visual acuity, contrast
booklet 1 “Lighting with arti- criteria produces a consen- sensitivity and performance
ficial light” (see page 45). sus on the illuminance level of ocular functions.
required, although it needs
Illuminance to be realised that the level For visual tasks at a desk,
Illuminance (symbol: E) must not be too low. concentration is promoted
has a major bearing on the by brighter areas in the
speed, reliability and ease The average illuminance centre of the visual field.
with which we perceive normally provided in exhi- In the context of an exhibi-
and perform a visual task. bition rooms ranges from tion, this means that ex-
Measured in lux (lx), it indi- 150 to 250 lux, depending hibits should always have
cates the amount of lumi- on whether the lighting a higher luminance than
nous flux from a light caters for wall-mounted ex- their surroundings. One
source that falls on a given hibits or exhibits throughout way to achieve this is with
surface: where an area of the room, with higher verti- graduated brightness
1 square metre is uniformly cal components or more levels.
illuminated by 1 lumen horizontal ones. Sometimes
of luminous flux, the illumi- it needs to be darker for Visual comfort is impaired
nance is 1 lux. Example: conservation reasons; where luminance is too low
the flame of an ordinary brighter lighting is often or differences in luminance
candle generates approx only required to offset day- are too slight (disagreeable
1 lux at a distance of light incidence. lighting atmosphere),
1 metre. where differences in lumi-
Where lots of diffuse and nance are too marked
Illuminance is measured on not much directional light- (eyes become fatigued be-
horizontal and vertical sur- ing is used, the exhibition cause of the constant need
faces. Uniform distribution room is illuminated more to re-adapt) and where
of brightness facilitates the uniformly. Light directed points of luminance are too
visual task. exclusively onto exhibits high (glare).
results in a largely uneven
In exhibition rooms, the pattern of illuminance in
level of illuminance is often the room.

Adaptation to differ-
ences in brightness is
performed in the hu-
man eye by receptors
on the retina and
changes in the size of
the pupil. Adaptation
from dark to light takes
only seconds; full
adaptation to darkness
takes minutes.

The state of adaptation

affects visual perfor-
mance at any moment:
the more light is avail-
able, the faster efficient
visual performance can
be restored. Visual im-
pairment occurs where
the eye cannot adapt
to differences in bright-
ness fast enough.

No lamp, no light: the
term ,lamp’ refers to an
engineered artificial
light source such as an
incandescent lamp, flu-
orescent lamp, etc..

The term “luminaire”
refers to the entire
electric light fitting, in-
cluding all the compo-
nents needed to mount
and operate the lamp.
Luminaires protect
lamps, distribute their
light and prevent them
causing glare.

Photo 75: The room is relatively

dark, the higher illuminance
at the artworks makes the visual
task possible. Low illuminance
is sometimes necessary in
this context to protect exhibits
from light.

Photo 76: The diffuse light

from a luminous ceiling works
only if it is bright. The
illuminance here is close to
250 lux.

Seeing, identifying, perceiving

Direct glare, hibition rooms is described and colour rendering prop-

reflected glare in this booklet on pages erties of the lamps used.
Direct glare is caused by 2 ff. These two qualities are
luminaires, general-diffuse explained on page 35.
lamps or other excessively Visual performance and
luminous surfaces – includ- visual comfort are also
ing windows. Reflected affected by the light colour
glare is caused by reflec-
tions on shiny surfaces.

Glare can interfere with

visual performance to such
an extent that reliable per-
ception and identification
become impossible. Physi-
ological glare is a measur-
able loss of visual functions
such as visual acuity.
Psychological glare causes
discomfort and loss of con-
centration. Glare cannot
be eliminated altogether
but it can be significantly
reduced. There are recog-
nised methods for assess-
ing both types of glare.

In exhibition rooms, reflect-

ed glare can be used to a
limited extent as a design
tool – for example where
shiny exhibits with brilliantly
reflective surfaces are
bathed in dramatic direc-
tional light to maximise
their impact.

Direction of light and 77

Shapes and surfaces in the
room need to be clearly
(visual performance) and
comfortably (visual com-
fort) identifiable. This calls
for balanced, soft-edged
shadowing. Shadow forma-
tion depends on the direc-
tion of light, which is itself
determined by the distribu-
tion and arrangement of lu-
minaires in the room. Use
of light and shadow in ex-

Photos 77–79: Museum lighting

has to meet special standards.
At 150 to 250 lux, it does not
need to be very bright – but
every effort should be made to
ensure it does not cause glare
because both direct and reflect-
ed glare interfere unacceptably
with the visual task.

Luminous intensity
Luminous intensity
(symbol: I) is the
amount of luminous
flux a reflector lamp or
luminaire radiates. It is
measured in candelas
(cd). Plotting the lumi-
nous intensity values at
the different emission
angles on a graph pro-
duces an intensity dis-
tribution curve (IDC).

Reflectance indicates
the percentage of lumi-
nous flux reflected by a
surface. The reflect-
ance of light-coloured
surfaces is high, that of
dark surfaces low. This
means that the darker
the room furnishings,
the more light is need-
ed to create the same

Visual task
Visual tasks are de-
fined by light/dark and
colour contrasts as well
as by the size of de-
tails. The more difficult
the visual task, the
higher the lighting level
needs to be to permit
the visual performance

Visual performance
Visual performance is
determined by the vi-
sual acuity of the eye
and its sensitivity to dif-
ferences in brightness
and darkness as well
as by speed of percep-


Light protection

Fading, yellowing, darken-

ing, discolouring, twisting,
bending, splintering, tear-
ing, swelling, shrivelling,
shrinking, dissolving – it
sounds like a dire list of
consequences. In actual
fact, exhibits displayed in
daylight or under artificial
lighting are not normally
exposed to more than one
of these hazards.

Optical radiation
Even so, the hazard poten-
tial should not be underes-
timated. It exists because
some materials cannot
tolerate optical radiation,
which includes short-wave 80 81
ultraviolet (UV) radiation
(100–380 nm = nanome- Photochemical  Spectral radiation distri- Effective irradiation
tres ), light in the visible reactions bution of the light source is ascertained mathemati-
range (wavelengths of Organic materials in partic- (daylight or lamps) cally from the values for
380–780 nm) and long- ular are susceptible to Light of a particular wave- optical radiation (spectral
wave infrared (IR) radiation photochemical change. length has a particular distribution), irradiation and
(780 nm to 1 millimetre). Inorganic material is much spectral colour. White light relative sensitivity of the
It triggers photochemical or less often affected. In is made up of a large num- object.
thermodynamic (physical) museums, the greatest fear ber of spectral colours of
processes. Daylight, with is of changes in colour, different intensity. This The following character-
its high UV content and the i.e. fading, yellowing or spectral radiation distribu- istics and conditions also
thermal radiation of the darkening of paper, fabrics, tion is characteristic of each play a role in photochemi-
sun, is always critical. wood or the colour pig- lamp type as well as day- cal processes:
ments, binders or varnish- light. Incandescent lamps,  spectral absorption char-
Lighting technologists and es used in watercolour and for example, produce a acteristics of the material
other scientists have stud- oil painting. light dominated by the reds and its specific disposition
ied these phenomena. As of the long-wave spectral for secondary reactions,
well as empirical evidence Photochemical change is a region; daylight, on the oth-  ambient and object
and tips on light protection slow process. But light er hand, is dominated by temperature,
for conservation, that re- damage is cumulative and the short-wave blues.  moisture content of the
search has furnished a set irreversible: no material  Relative spectral object and its surroundings,
of formulas that make the ever forgets radiation or the sensitivity  pollutants or dust
harmful effects calculable length and intensity of ex- indicates the dependence deposited on the object,
but no more comprehensi- posure to it. of an object’s light sensitivi-  characteristics of the
ble for the non-engineer. ty on the wavelengths of colouring agents and pig-
So formulas, mathematical The most important para- the reference radiation. ments used.
relationships and computa- meters contributing to pho-  Effective threshold
tions will not be looked at tochemical processes are: irradiation Damage potential
here. is the measure of the ab- The damaging irradiance
 Irradiance solute sensitivity of an ob- and the illuminance at the
The important thing to of the object. Irradiance is ject. Change starts to occur exhibit stand in a fixed
know is that the damage is indicated by the symbol Ee in light-sensitive materials ratio to one another. That
done not by the radiation and is measured in W/m on first exposure to radia- ratio indicates the damage
that strikes the object but  Irradiation time tion - at first invisibly, then potential. It is the crucial
by the rays it absorbs. UV is the length of time an ob- with visible signs. The quantity used to describe
radiation and short-wave ject is exposed to irradia- threshold at which visible the damage that can be
light are generally more tion. Irradiation (He) is the damage starts to be done done in a lighting situation
harmful than long-wave product of irradiance and is the yardstick used for as- where particular light
light and IR radiation. the length of exposure to it. sessing light sensitivity. sources and filters are
Which means radiation in The higher the irradiance trained on particular ex-
the visible spectrum – i.e. and longer the exposure, The threshold irradiation hibits and materials.
light – can do damage. the greater the potential time (i.e. the time till the
risk. threshold is reached) is
shown for individual materi-
als under daylight or the
light of different lamps.

Photos 80 and 81: The two
samples were taken from the Light protection in 1905
same bolt of fabric. The piece in To protect exhibits from the impact of light, a zoo-
photo 80 was stored out of the logical museum took the “radical step of opening
light and thus screened from its exhibition rooms on two days a week for 2
ultraviolet rays. The piece in hours. During that time the interiors are flooded with
photo 81 was exposed during light; at all other times, however, curtains admitting
the day to sunlight and thus no light whatsoever are drawn across the windows,
also UV radiation. producing the total blackness found in a photo
grapher’s dark room.”

An ethnological exhibition went even further: “…

particularly light-sensitive objects like the extremely
Photo 82: Testing colour precious coats of feathers […] are protected by
fastness. An experimental set- keeping them in containers furnished with curtains
up by lighting technologists at which visitors can draw back to view the exhibits
Berlin’s Technical University: the inside.”
irradiated samples 1 and 3 are
textiles, the rest watercolours.

Pre-exposure to light short-wave region – espe- other wavelengths are Daylight

Studies show that pre- cially UV radiation – needs filtered out, the spectral Light protection also
exposure to light can also to be reduced or ruled out transmittance shifts so far means limiting daylight
play a role in the selection altogether. that the colour rendering illuminance. For sensitive
of lighting for an exhibit. index sharply deteriorates. exhibits, UV radiation and
Even small doses of an There are a number of An alternative to light exit short-wave light also need
effective irradiation damage effective ways to do this: filters is showcase glass or to be filtered out. Assess-
objects which have never  Choosing a suitable light picture glass that filters out ment of the conservation-
been exhibited or pre- source: very sensitive mate- UV light. Using it in addition relevant characteristics of
exposed to light, whereas it rials should be illuminated to other light protection daylight is normally based
takes much higher doses with light that has less measures, however, does on the average sky condi-
to cause the same damage damage potential. not make for better conser- tion with a colour tempera-
to older, pre-exposed  Filtering out harmful vation conditions. ture of 6,500 K and its
material that has already radiation: if other lamps are specific spectral radiation
undergone change. to be used or radiation Limited irradiation time distribution. Referencing
excluded altogether, short- Where possible, exhibits this standard light type
Many molecular degrada- wave radiation can be and exhibition rooms (D65) also makes it possi-
tion processes gradually blocked by filters. should only be illuminated ble to establish degrees
slow down and finally even for a short time. Outside of damage potential.
come to a halt. In these Halogen lamps for line and opening hours, darkness is
cases, it is possible to take low voltage are available best. For cleaning opera- Thermodynamic
account of the pre-expo- with integrated UV blockers tions or for setting-up, processes
sure time and reduce the but this is not enough to dismantling and repair Thermodynamic processes
light protection measures meet conservation require- work, separate, non-dam- are almost entirely confined
accordingly. Pre-exposure ments. The only tools of aging lighting is recom- to organic materials: wood,
to light is best established if choice here are special mended; presentation textile fibres, parchment
all irradiation times (and filters. lighting, at least, should not and leather are common
types) are documented. To  Limiting exposure: in be switched on for such examples. The thermal
establish pre-exposure by darkness, the risk of photo- operations and the general load on the exhibit occurs
comparison measurements, chemical change is reduc- lighting should be as a result of light and IR
parts of the object must ed to zero. dimmed. radiation being absorbed
be unexposed. and mostly gives rise to
Filtering to 420 nm In many cases, presence drying processes. These
Measures guarding Glass filters, absorption sensors are a useful tool reduce tensile strength,
against photochemical filters, dichroitic filters, plas- for limiting irradiation dur- elasticity and volume –
change tic lenses or foils – the ing opening hours. Timely inducing mechanical
Where photochemical range is wide, appropriate dimming makes for visually stresses which cause first
processes need to be pre- filters are available for agreeable dark/light transi- the surface, then often the
vented from occurring in every application. They can tions. Care should be taken entire object to become
the first place, or at least be used to cut off short- to ensure a long-enough deformed.
slowed down, light protec- wave radiation up to delay before programmed
tion means reducing the ef- 380 nm. Where filters also deactivation. The physical changes in-
fective irradiation. In partic- eliminate light in the short- duced by heat radiation are
ular, exposure to highly wave region the cut-off more serious when photo-
damaging radiation in the wavelength is 420 nm. If chemical processes occur

Light protection

at the same time. These are that emit light with a low
accelerated by the heat IR content. Where low-
and interact with thermody- voltage halogen lamps are Relative spectral sensitivity
namic processes. Physical used, cool-beam reflector
change is also accelerated lamps are the right choice. Group Material samples in %
by fluctuations in tempera- No IR radiation is con- sensitive oil paints on canvas 100
ture and humidity – e.g. tained in the beams of
due to the activation and fibre-optic lighting systems textile samples 300
deactivation of lamps. or LEDs. sensitive watercolour paints on
 Using IR filters to cut off hand-made paper 485
Unlike the molecular harmful radiation
change that takes place in  Limiting exposure
The relative spectral sensitivity of the materials shown here
photochemical processes,  Dissipating the heat.
is based on the impact on oil paintings (reference value:
which can come to a halt, Even with lamps that pro-
100 percent). So watercolours, at 485 percent, are nearly five
the thermal load on an duce a luminous flux with a
times more at risk than an oil painting. The illuminance on
object during irradiation is low heat content, lumi-
the object is 200 lux – a compromise between the brightness
always harmful. naires and their immediate
needed for the visual task and the conditions required for
surroundings can heat up.
conservation; the illuminance on very sensitive objects should
The thermodynamic impact This is possible in a dis-
not exceed 50 lux.
of radiation is determined play cabinet, for example.
by the thermal load on the To ensure this secondary
object and the spectral IR radiation does no
irradiance, the radiation damage, it needs to be
absorbed playing a partic- dissipated. If necessary, Relative damage potential of light sources
ularly key role. For the fans can be installed to
thermal load on an exhibi- increase air circulation. edge filter
 The IR radiation of day- Light source without window glass
tion room, the key deter- filter edge at ␭ (nm)
minant is the product of the light is just as damaging as 380 400 420 simple double
luminous efficacy of the that of lamps. So direct
lamps and the coefficient sunlight always needs to be in %
of utilisation of the lighting “locked out”. Daylight 235 155 130 110 205 190
General serv- 85 75 70 65 80 75
Protective measures ice tungsten
against thermodynamic filament lamp
processes LV halogen 100 80 75 70 90 90
The protective measures lamp
taken against heat loading
correspond to those High 220 175 145 110 210 210
against photochemical pressure
metal halide
processes. The most effec-
tive are:
Fluorescent 100 85 80 70 95 90
 Choosing appropriate lamp,
light sources: for heat- neutral white
sensitive materials, the only Fluorescent 90 75 70 60 85 85
suitable lamps are ones lamp,
warm white
LED, 80 80 80 75 80 80
Light pass cold white
The only way to build
up an accurate picture The relative damage potential of daylight and the lamps listed
of the exposure history here is based on the impact of unfiltered light from low-voltage
of an object is to halogen lamps (reference value: 100 percent). An object
record exposures in a exposed to the light of a metal halide lamp with a 380 nm edge
light pass. Data that filter for 1,000 hours at 200 lux illuminance, for example,
needs to be noted sustains nearly twice as much damage (180 %) as a similar
includes details of pe- object exposed to an unfiltered low-voltage halogen lamp.
riods on display as
well as the type of light Conversely, this means: for the same degree of damage, the
source used, the object can be illuminated by the unfiltered light of a low-voltage
illuminance and the halogen lamp for nearly twice as long or nearly twice as
irradiation time. intensely as by the filtered light of a metal halide lamp.


As lamps, luminaires and Photo 83: All lighting

room surfaces age and be- installations require regular
come soiled, illuminance maintenance because, as time
decreases. So every light- goes by, ageing and soiling
ing installation requires cause illuminance to decline.
regular maintenance. The
values set out in European
lighting standards such as
DIN EN 12464-1 – e.g. for angling and adjusting light
illuminance – are main- sources and the extent to
tained values, i.e. values which accessories (filters,
below which the relevant lenses, etc.) are used.
lighting quantity must not  User-friendly luminaires,
fall at any time. easy to mount and with a
controlled surface tempera-
Installed values should ture, minimise the addition-
be higher al maintenance required.
To ensure the required  After cleaning or when
lighting level over an ap- exhibits are replaced, lumi-
propriate period of time naires need to be re-set
and to enable the lighting at the correct angles.
system to be operated  Wherever possible, lumi-
longer without additional naires should not be
maintenance work, in- obstructed, not even by
stalled values need to be structures on the floor, be-
higher. How much higher is cause inaccessibility makes
determined by applying a maintenance operations a
maintenance factor. great deal more difficult 83
 When a luminaire needs
Maintenance factors de- to be replaced, the fitting Cost-effective lighting
pend on operating condi- used to replace it should, if Lighting accounts for a relatively small amount of total
tions as well as on the type possible, be from the same energy consumption. Nevertheless, every economy helps.
of lamps, electrical gear luminaire family. Energy-efficient lighting for the cost-conscious means
and luminaires used. They  When individual lamps  long-life lamps with high luminous efficacy
need to be defined and fail, they need to be re- (lumens/Watt rating),
recorded by designers placed immediately. Here,  efficient electrical gear such as electronic ballasts (EBs)
(and operators) and form care should be taken to for fluorescent lamps,
the basis of maintenance ensure that the new lamps  efficient luminaires with good optical characteristics and
schedules. Installed values have the same light colour  luminous intensity distribution curves tailored for the
are calculated as follows: as the other lamps in the application.
installed value = main- relevant luminaire group.
tained value / maintenance From time to time, it may The kind of light should also be right for the task. It would
factor. make sense to replace be wrong, for example, not to use directional light just
whole groups of lamps because most of the lamps suitable for it have a lower
together. luminous efficacy rating than fluorescent lamps. Informa-
More maintenance for  Electrical gear that ex- tion on how and where economies can be made is
exhibition rooms tends lamp life reduces contained in FGL booklet 12 “Lighting quality with elec-
The standards do not stipu- maintenance requirements. tronics” (see page 45).
late a particular mainte- So where fluorescent and
nance factor for exhibition compact fluorescent lamps
rooms. This needs to be are fitted, electronic ballasts
established individually and (EBs) should be used. Emergency lighting
used as the basis for the For most rooms in museums, mains-independent
maintenance schedule. On emergency lighting is required by law to enable visi-
the whole, maintenance in tors and staff to vacate the building safely in the event
exhibition rooms is a some- of a power failure. To permit this, security lighting is
what more complex task needed for escape routes and escape route signs.
than elsewhere because it
involves more than just Rules governing the installation, operation and main-
regular cleaning: tenance of emergency lighting are set out in DIN
EN 1838 and DIN 4844 (lighting requirements) and
 Maintenance is compli- in DIN VDE 0108 (electrical requirements). Detailed
cated by the number of information on the subject is contained in FGL book-
different types of luminaire let 10 “Notbeleuchtung, Sicherheitsbeleuchtung”
used, the different lamps (currently available in German only, see page 45).
fitted, the possibilities for


1, 2

3, 4, 5 6 6





11 12 13 17
cy 4) m,

ww = warm white
x 4) m
ica m


colour temperature
flu 16
eff 16


below 3,300 K
us Ø

p 4)
us , Ø




ino p,

ino mp


nw = neutral white



n pa
lum d la
lum la

n lon


colour temperature
h nd


sig am

sig e


3,300 to 5,300 K
hig -ba

hig ba

de uxe”

de e l




dw = daylight white








colour temperature


over 5,300 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Lamp type Induction
Features Tubular fluorescent lamps Compact fluorescent lamps lamps
Power rating from 18 18 14 24 24 5 16 18 18 60 70 556)
classes (Watt) to 58 58 35 80 54 70 38 805) 55 120 150 1656)
Luminous flux (Lumen) from 1.350 870 1.100 1.650 1.300 250 1.050 1.200 750 4.000 6.500 3.650
luminous intensity (Candela) to 5.200 4.600 3.300 6.150 3.550 5.200 2.800 6.000 3.650 9.000 12.000 12.000
Luminous efficacy from 751) 612) 79 (933)) 69 (843)) 58 (673)) 50 61 67 42 67 756) 666)
(Lumen/Watt) to 891) 792) 93 (1043)) 88 (993)) 76 (793)) 82 78 87 66 75 796) 736)
Light colour ww,nw, dw ww,nw, dw ww,nw, dw ww,nw, dw ww,nw, dw ww,nw, dw ww,nw, dw ww,nw, dw ww,nw, dw ww, nw ww, nw ww, nw
Colour rendering index Ra
(in some cases as range) 85 ⬎ 90 85 85 ⬎ 90 80–85 80–85 80–85 90 80–85 80–85 80–85
G23, G24 2G10
Base G13 G13 G5 G5 G5 2G7 GR8 2G11 2G11 2G8-1 special special
GX24 GR10q

The table below shows the most important lamp
types and their technical specifications, which are
expressed in ranges. More precise values for
individual lamps and other specifications, such
as lamp life, can be found in manufacturers’

Power rating class indicates how much power is

consumed by the lamp in Watts (W). The opera-
tion of discharge lamps (lamps 1 – 5) requires
ballasts, which consume additional electricity. This
power loss in ballasts is not taken into account in
the table (exceptions: lamps 11 and 12).

7 10 Luminous flux in lumens (lm) is the rate at

which light is emitted by a lamp in all directions.
For reflector lamps, luminous intensity (see
10 page 29) in candela (cd) is shown instead of
luminous flux. The efficiency with which a lamp
(without reflector) generates light from electricity
is indicated by its luminous efficacy in lumens/
Watt. The higher the lm/W ratio, the more light
8, 9 a lamp produces from the energy it consumes.

Lamps have different light colours, depending

on their colour temperature (in kelvins K): warm
white (ww), neutral white (nw) or daylight white
(dw). The colour rendering properties of a lamp
21 21 21 22 are defined by the general colour rendering
21 index Ra. The highest value possible is 100. The
18 18
lower a lamp’s Ra value, the poorer its colour
rendering properties.
23 The base provides the mechanical connection
19 19 with the luminaire and supplies power to the
lamp. Basically, there are two kinds of lamp
20 base: screw bases, e.g. all E bases, and plug-in
23, 24
ng m
ati m
t IR

co 111
olo ds



ati m
hn nd

hn en
ram e a logy



co bea
cte ly

ut r, Ø
tec e


tec th


or hig
ic one




. I R ol-

tho cto
ic t bo




tor co

tor co

tor co
ng ith
r-c se,


wi fle

ram at


ati w


lec or

lec or

lec or

th/ re
lou ba


( ce base


co se

( ce bas

ref alu

ref lu

ref alu

wi lu

co in






















13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1) Where lamps are EB-

Metal halide HP operated, luminous
Halogen lamps (230 V) Low-voltage halogen lamps (12 V) efficacy increases to
lamps sodium
81–100 lm/W.
20 70 35 25 40 20 25 60 5 10 10 20 35 2) Where lamps are EB-
250 250 100 230 100 75 75 2.000 100 50 50 50 100 operated, luminous
efficacy increases to
1.600 5.100 1.300 260 850 160 260 840 60 250 300 450 1.400 66–88 lm/W.
25.000 25.000 5.000 4.350 8.500 3.000 1.100 44.000 2.200 1.400 13.000 16.000 48.000 zu 1 + 2)

80 73 39 10 _ _ 10 14 12 _ _ _ _ Power consumption
decreases from 18 W to
100 100 52 19 15 22 27 16 W, from 36 W to 32 W
ww, nw ww, nw ww ww ww ww ww ww ww ww ww ww ww and from 58 W to 50 W.
3) High value realisable

80–85 75–95 80–85 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 only at 35° C ambient
4) EB operation only
G12, G22 G4
Fc2 E14 E14 GU10 G4 G4 5) 40 W, 55 W and 80 W
GU6,5/G8,5 PG12-1 G9 R7s GY6,35 GU5,3 G53
RX7s E27 E27 GZ10 GY6,35 GU5,3 only with EB
PGJ5 G8,5 6) System (lamp + EB)


1, 2

3, 4, 5 6 6
7 10

8, 9

21 21 21 22
18 18
16 16
13 19 19

15 23, 24
11 12 13 17 25

Tubular three-band fluo- Tubular fluorescent lamps wear, such as incandes- Photo 84: These are the most
rescent lamps with 26 mm require an elongated lumi- cent filaments or elec- important types of lamp for
(1) or 16 mm (3, 4) diame- naire, compact fluores- trodes, induction lamps museum, gallery and exhibition
ter have a very long ser- cent lamps are also suit- (11, 12) have an extremely lighting. Their technical specifi-
vice life and generally high able for smaller rectangular long service life (up to cations are summarised in the
luminous efficacy. Operat- or round luminaires. The 60,000 operating hours) table on pages 34/35.
ed by electronic ballasts smaller designs (6) include and thus require less fre-
(EBs), they are even more 4-tube lamps and square quent replacement. They
energy-efficient; 16 mm ⭋ models (7), elongated are therefore a particularly
lamps are designed for EB lamps (8, 9) and the newly attractive option for high- neutral white light colours.
operation only. Hot-start developed lamps with high ceilinged rooms and Nearly all metal halide
EBs increase the life of luminous flux (10). ceilings which are not easi- lamps have UV absorbing
these lamps. ly accessible, such as bulbs.
Compact fluorescent lamps those above escalators.
Three-band fluorescent have the same positive Light is generated in these High-pressure sodium
lamps are available in all characteristics as tubular high-output fluorescent vapour lamps (15) emit a
light colours. Colour ren- three-band fluorescent lamps by electromagnetic particularly warm white
dering is good (Ra index lamps: (very) long life, high induction and gas dis- light with no UV content
85): lamps with the suffix luminous efficacy, colour charge. and have a very high lumi-
“de luxe” (2, 5) have very rendering properties that nous efficacy rating. The
good colour rendering range from good to very Metal halide lamps (13, only HP sodium lamps
properties (Ra index ⬎ 90), good (“de luxe” models) 14) are powerful, cost- suitable for interior lighting
special daylight white mod- and a full choice of light efficient light sources com- are “highly colour-correct-
els achieve an Ra index of colours. Lamps for energy- bining a very compact de- ed” models with a colour
98. However, the luminous efficient EB operation have sign for optimal optical rendering index of Ra
efficacy of “de luxe” lamps a 4-pin base; nearly all control with high luminous 80–85, which have a lower
is somewhat lower. With can be operated by dim- efficacy, very good colour luminous efficacy than
appropriate EBs, fluo- mable EBs. rendering and a long ser- other HP sodium lamps.
rescent lamps can be vice life. Models with bases
dimmed. Because they have no at one or both ends are
components subject to available in warm white or

Photo 85: In light-emitting
diodes (LEDs), the production
of light takes place in a
semiconductor crystal which is
electrically excited to emit
light (electroluminescence). A
housing protects the semi-
conductor from environmental
There are single LEDs and –
as shown here – LED modules.
The basic element of a module
is a conductor plate, which
carries the semiconductor crys-
tals or single LEDs and all the
other components, including
those for controlling the LEDs.

Halogen lamps (16–25) Volt systems – which re- Light-emitting diodes LEDs started out as status
are characterised by an quire conventional or elec- (LEDs), shown in photo and signal indicators in
agreeably fresh, warm tronic transformers. 230 85, have not been used for electrical equipment and
white light with exceptional Volt lamps are fully dimma- lighting for long. Very small automobiles. Then, with the
brilliance. They have lumi- ble; dimming low-voltage light sources, they gener- development of new
nous efficacy ratings which lamps calls for special ate light very efficiently. coloured LEDs, they quick-
are substantially higher dimmer/transformer combi- They also have an ex- ly found applications in
than those of general ser- nations. tremely long life (up to special effect and display
vice tungsten filament 50,000 operating hours). In lighting and also became
lamps and a longer service A special infrared bulb LEDs (light-emitting an established solution for
life. Their luminous flux coating can reduce the diodes), the production of orientation lighting. Now,
also remains constant energy consumption of a light takes place in a semi- used in desk and standard
throughout – a fact due to halogen lamp by as much conductor crystal which is luminaires, white LEDs
the halogen cycle. In this, as 45 percent. Used in 230 electrically excited to emit are addressing their first
tungsten atoms evaporate Volt lamps (20) with a light (electroluminescence). “viewing light” applications.
from the filament and com- base at both ends und in A housing protects the
bine with halogen atoms; low-voltage lamps (21, 24, semiconductor from envi- The brightness of LED light
the gaseous compound 25), the coating reflects ronmental conditions. LEDs can be adjusted: varying
then returns to the hot fila- much of the radiant heat are available as individual the operating current
ment, re-depositing tung- dissipated by the incandes- diodes and as LED mod- causes the radiant lumi-
sten atoms and releasing cent filament back onto ules. nous flux to fluctuate in
halogens, after which the the filament. direct proportion to the
cycle starts again. There is In contrast to conventional changes. This basically
thus no “lamp blackening” 230 Volt and low-voltage light fittings, LEDs emit amounts to dimming and is
due to tungsten deposits lamps are available in monochromatic radiation. used primarily for lighting
on the bulb, so the lumi- designs with cool-beam White light is produced by effects.
nous flux is not reduced. reflector. These have a luminescence conversion,
faceted reflector (cool- which involves directing the Further information is con-
Halogen lamps with bases beam specular reflector) light of a monochrome tained in FGL booklet 17
at one or both ends are which reduces the radiant blue LED through a con- “LED – Light from the Light
available in a wide range heat of the beam by two verter such as phosphor. Emitting Diode” (see page
of shapes and power rat- thirds; the retained radiant 45).
ings. A basic distinction is heat is conducted back- The light produced by
made between halogen wards by the reflector. LEDs contains no ultravio-
lamps for 230 Volt line let (UV) or infrared (IR)
voltage (16–20) – also radiation. So LEDs can be
known as high-voltage a good choice where light-
halogen lamps – and low- ing is needed for light- and
voltage halogen lamps heat-sensitive exhibits.
(21–25) – mostly designed
for 12 Volt operation but
also available for 6 or 24


The term “luminaire” refers to the entire electric light fit-

ting, including all the components needed to mount and
operate the lamp. Luminaires protect lamps, distribute
their light and prevent them causing glare.

The stylized images on this double page, which are not

to scale, show a selection of typical interior (Figs. 17–40)
and exterior luminaires (Figs. 41–44). The next double
page shows the basic range of spotlights and acces-
sories available for them.

Selection criteria
Lighting quality, cost-efficiency, dependability, ease of Figs. 21 + 22
installation and user-friendliness are important aspects Recessed wallwashers with asymmetrical beam spread, the one
of luminaire design. And with luminaires which are on the right with a specular “kick reflector” for also directing light
made to high technical standards, functional features are onto the edge of the ceiling.
matched by aesthetic ones, such as shape of housing,
finish and colour.

Operational reliability and conformity to standards are

documented for luminaires by the VDE symbol and the
equivalent European mark of conformity ENEC. Both are
awarded in Germany by the Offenbach Institute of the
Verband der Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstech-
nik (formerly Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker), the
ENEC symbol with the identification number 10.

Luminaire selection is also dependent on the choice of

lamps. Furthermore, the decision is crucially influenced
by the architecture of the room, its furnishings and the Figs. 23 + 24
design concept. Luminous ceiling

Figs. 17 + 18 Figs. 25 + 26
Spots for power track (left) and swivel-mounted recessed downlight Cove luminaire with a housing that forms the coving (left), and light
with spotlighting characteristics (right); power track is also suitable from a coving formed by architectural elements (right).
for recessed ceiling mounting.

Figs. 19 + 20 Figs. 27 + 28
Downlights with symmetrical beam spread (left) and asymmetrical Lighting channels with clear (left) and opal (right) enclosure
beam spread (right)

Figs. 29 + 30 Figs. 37 + 38
Indirect luminaire with fluorescent lamps for power track, operated Light for working: pendant luminaire for tubular fluorescent lamp
by a power track phase in the ceiling guide with direct/indirect light distribution

Figs. 31 + 32 Figs. 39 + 40
Gimbal-mounted spot as recessed downlight with spotlighting Escape sign luminaire
characteristics (left) and as power track spot (right); power track is
also suitable for recessed ceiling mounting.

Figs. 33 + 34 Figs. 41 + 42
Fibre-optic lighting system for display cabinets: the light guides Recessed floor floods (left) for illumination and accentuating light,
are inside curved tubes. An optical connector at the end of the and orientation luminaires for recessed wall mounting (right)
fibre/tube distributes the light.

Figs. 35 + 36 Figs. 43 + 44
Miniature LED luminaire, installed here in the ceiling of a display Projectors for illumination, with reflectors for spotlighting (left) and
cabinet for showcase lighting floodlighting (right) beam spread


Spots and luminaires with

spotlighting characteristics
are crucially important for Accessories for spots
exhibit lighting in museums Numerous accessories are
galleries and exhibitions. available for spot lights.
The simplest spotlight Attachments, lenses and
models do not require a filters are often borrowed
reflector because there is from the world of theatrical
one integrated in the lamp. Figs. 45 + 46 lighting for use in not just
8° spot with filament shield, which prevents the filament being
In all others, a reflector in exhibition rooms but also
visible beyond the spotlight opening angle: symmetrical, extremely
the spotlight housing di- shop windows and
narrow-angle spot up to max. 8° with very high luminous intensity;
rects the main beam. The salesrooms. The acces-
lamps: low-voltage halogen lamp Ø111 mm
lighting quality of a spot or sories are positioned
luminaire with spotlighting directly in front of the light
characteristics depends emission aperture of the
crucially on the minimisa- spot with the help of
tion of stray light, which mounting devices.
can cause annoying patch-
es of brightness or even Attachments
glare at a distance. The most important attach-
ments are for anti-glare
Types of spots shielding. These prevent
Figures 45, 47, 49 and 51 Figs. 47 + 48 stray light and shield the
12° to 24° spot with lamp shield, which prevents stray light and
show the five main types of face of the luminaire: anti-
glare beyond the spotlight opening angle: symmetrical, narrow-angle
spots and their beam char- glare cylinders or barn
spot with half the luminous intensity of the 8° spot; lamps: low-
acteristics, figures 46, 48, doors. Honeycomb
voltage halogen lamp Ø111 mm or other low-voltage lamps, incl.
50 and 52 the correspond- screens also guard against
models with cool-beam reflector
ing intensity distribution glare. Other attachments
curves. The boundaries be- include cross-baffles,
tween these generic framing attachments, gobo
groups are fluid, however, holders and other projec-
because of overlaps due to tion accessories. Attach-
the reflectors and lamps ment rings – e.g. with
used. filters – for screw or plug
attachment are also
included in this group.
Figs. 49 + 50 Lenses
24° to 38° accent spot: symmetrical spot with less clearly defined
The most widely used
beam than the narrower-angle spots, with increasingly soft contours
lenses are diffusers, flood
due to the stray light content but the beam itself with a tendency
lenses and sculpting
to have a hard centre; lamps: various low-voltage halogen lamps
lenses. They are used to
change beam characteris-
tics. Stepped Fresnel
lenses enable beam
spread to be adjusted and
focusing aids are avail-
able to facilitate alignment
with the lamp.

The most important filters
Figs. 51 + 52 for exhibitions are safelight
60° wide-angle spot: symmetrical, very wide-angle beam with very
filters (“Light protection”,
soft contours and soft centre, almost floodlighting characteristics;
see page 30) such as UV
lamps: various low-voltage halogen lamps
barrier filters, IR absorbers
or combinations of the two.
Colour filters are also avail-
able; where filters are used
in exhibitions at all, they
Flood with wide rectangular are used for subtle colour
beam: rectangular housing with changes. Filter holders
scoop reflectors for linear lamps, or filter cartridges enable
very wide-angled beam for several filters to be kept
uniform vertical illuminance; ready for use.
lamps: tubular fluorescent lamps
Figs. 53 + 54

86 90 94
anti-glare cylinder gobo holder UV/IR filter

87 91 95
barn doors projection attachment daylight conversion filter

88 92 96
honeycomb screen flood lens skin-tone filter

89 93 97
cross-baffle sculpting lens filter cassette

Standards and literature

DIN EN 12464-1 Light and lighting – Lighting of work

places, Part 1: Indoor work places

DIN EN 1838 Lighting applications – Emergency lighting

DIN 4844 Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety

signs - Parts 1-3

DIN VDE 0108-100 Emergency escape lighting systems

Handbuch der Lichtplanung, Rüdiger Ganslandt and

Harald Hofmann, Lüdenscheid and Braunschweig/Wies-
baden 1992 (download at

Museumsbeleuchtung: Strahlung und ihr Schädigungs-

potenzial – Konservatorische Maßnahmen, Grundlagen
zur Berechnung, special publication by Fördergemein-
schaft Gutes Licht (FGL), Frankfurt am Main 2006 (down-
load at
Control of damage to museum objects by optical radi-
ation, CIE publication 157, Vienna 2004 (

Sammlungsgut in Sicherheit, Günter S. Hilbert (ed.),

Berlin 2002 (3rd edition)

Zur Beleuchtung musealer Exponate, Günter S. Hilbert,

Sirri Aydinli and Jürgen Krochmann, Fachzeitschrift für
Kunsttechniken, Restaurierung und Museumsfragen
“Restauro”, Munich 1991 (5), pages 313–321


Photos 98–100: There are more than 6,000 museums in Germany.

Hosting exhibitions from the worlds of art, science, technology and
history, they attract over 100 million visitors a year.
They all present different exhibits and thus differ in the type of
exhibitions they stage. What they all have in common, however, is a
desire to enthral their audience. And that is where lighting plays
an important role. Creating visual experiences and modulating and
accentuating the visual landscape, it makes a key contribution to
the success of any exhibition.





Marquardt, Wiesbaden

Figs. 6, 7 FGL members

84, 85 Blitzwerk, Mühltal
26 Chris Korner, Marbach

Numbering of photos on back

38 Jürgen Tauchert, Wuppertal

80, 81 Andreas Kelm, Darmstadt

Acknowledgements for

44 JARO Medien, Mönchengladbach

Fig. 1 Designergruppe Schloss+Hof, Ute

Additional information about photographs

82 Fachgebiet Lichttechnik an der TU Berlin

Figs. 16–44 JARO Medien, Mönchengladbach

Figs. 2–5, 8–15, 45–54 Kugelstadt MedienDesign,
Cover, 1–79, 83, 86 to 109 – all made available by
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Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht publications

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes
Licht (FGL) provides infor-
mation on the advantages Die Beleuchtung Gutes Licht für Schulen Gutes Licht für Sicherheit
of good lighting and offers mit künstlichem Licht 1 und Bildungsstätten 2 auf Straßen, Wegen, Plätzen 3 Gutes Licht für Büros
und Verwaltungsgebäude 4
extensive material on every
aspect of artificial lighting
and its correct usage. FGL
information is impartial and
based on current DIN stan-
dards and VDE stipulations.

Information on lighting
The booklets 1 to 18 in this
series of publications are
designed to help anyone Gutes Licht für Gutes Licht für Verkauf Gutes Licht im Gutes Licht für
who becomes involved Handwerk und Industrie 5 und Präsentation 6 Gesundheitswesen 7 Sport und Freizeit 8
with lighting – planners,
decision-makers, investors
– to acquire a basic knowl-
edge of the subject. This
facilitates cooperation with
lighting and electrical
specialists. The lighting
information contained in all
these booklets is of a
general nature.

Lichtforum Repräsentative Notbeleuchtung Gutes Licht für Hotellerie Beleuchtungsqualität

Lichtforum is a specialist Lichtgestaltung 9 Sicherheitsbeleuchtung 10 und Gastronomie 11 mit Elektronik 12
periodical focusing on
topical lighting issues and
trends. It is published at
irregular intervals.
Lichtforum is available only
in German.
On the Internet, FGL offers
tips on correct lighting for
a variety of domestic and
commercial “Lighting Gutes Licht für kommunale Ideen für Gutes Licht Gutes Licht

Applications”. In a Private
Bauten und Anlagen 13 zum Wohnen 14 am Haus und im Garten 15 Stadtmarketing mit Licht 16
Portal and a Pro Portal at,
numerous examples of
applications are presented.
Explanations of technical
terms are also available at
the click of a mouse on
the buttons “About Light”
and “Lighting Technology”.
Databases containing a
wealth of product data,
a product/supplier matrix LED – Licht Gutes Licht für Museen,

and the addresses of FGL

aus der Leuchtdiode 17 Galerien, Ausstellungen 18
members provide a direct
route to manufacturers.
“Publications” in an online
shop and “Links” for further
information round off the
broad spectrum of the FGL
light portal.

Booklets 13 and 15 are out of print.

on lighting applications
Booklet 18

Good Lighting for Museums, Galleries and Exhibitions

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht