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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

1 TITLE
CNC Milling (Non Traditional Machining )

2 Objective
a To design a basic NC program for CNC Milling.
b To machine a product using the CNC Milling.

3 Introduction
Non-traditional manufacturing processes is defined as a group of processes that
remove excess material by various techniques involving mechanical, thermal,
electrical or chemical energy or combinations of these energies but do not use a
sharp cutting tools as it needs to be used for traditional manufacturing processes.
Extremely hard and brittle materials are difficult to machine by traditional machining
processes such as turning, drilling, shaping and milling. Non- traditional machining
processes, also called advanced manufacturing processes, are employed where
traditional machining processes are not feasible, satisfactory or economical due to
special reasons as outlined below.
CNC milling is a specific form of computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining.
Milling is a machining process similar to both drilling and cutting, and able to achieve
many of the operations performed by cutting and drilling machines. Like drilling,
milling uses a rotating cylindrical cutting tool. However, the cutter in a milling
machine is able to move along multiple axes, and can create a variety of shapes,
slots and holes. In addition, the work-piece is often moved across the milling tool in
different directions, unlike the single axis motion of a drill.

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

Figure 3.1: Picture how the CNC milling process was done

Generally CNC milling process has 3-axes to find it coordinate. It represent by the
alphabet X,Y and Z. These devices are extremely useful because they are able to
produce shapes that would be nearly impossible using manual tooling methods.
Some advantages of this type of machine are that it is automatically cool down. It is
also very precise with typically 0.0001 inch. It is also easy to multiply copies, easy to
create similar object and need fewer worker to handle it.

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

4.0

Apparatus

cutting tool

Rough Stock

work holding
devices

Figure 4.1: CNC milling machine and NC Program

Cutting oil

Figure 4.2: Apparatus User

4.1

Industrial Apparatus
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Machine Controller

Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

Figure 4.3: KX3016 CNC milling machines


Features:
1. large workbench ensure more machining space
2.with good quality and reasonable price
3.high precision and more reliable
Specification:

Table 4.1: Item In KX3016 CNC Milling Machines

Item

KX-3016
Spindle taper

BT50

Spindle diameter

190

mm

Spindle motor

22kw Generalized motor ;


X:40Nm;Y:30Nm;
Z:30Nm(brake)

kw

Gear box spindle

Max. speed 3000

rpm

Spindle

Drive motor

unit

Max. speed 6000,Transmission


ZF gear reducer +direct connected ratio
1:1;4;1

mm/min

Direct connected

Max. speed 6000

mm/min

Transmission way and ratio of


X,Y,Z Axis servo motor

transmission
X:2.5:1;Y:2:1;Z:2:1

kw

Guide Way X,Y,Z guide way form

heavy-duty linear roller guide


way

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

Figure 4.4: Vertical Milling Machines


MBB - long length precision machined extrusions, such as for 50'+ truck bed side
channels. MBB, CMS' moving gantry CNC machining center, is perfectly adapted for
precision long length aluminum extrusion machining. This MBB has been specially
equipped for long length precision extrusion machining such as that needed for
semi-truck beds, which provide not only structural support for the bed, but also the
various necessary "chinch" points along the bed length where straps tighten down
and hold the loads being transported securely, and which must also be precisely
machined and chamfered so that straps aren't damaged. Long length extruded
components can easily reach lengths of over 50'.

As extruded components, they have some slight straightness variations from one
component to another, making it absolutely necessary to know the facts about each
specific component's linearity before machining so that adjustments to the machining
program can be made based on the "real-world" component, with the result that slots
with chamfers come out exactly as expected, without sharp edges which can
damage straps.

CMS provides a wide range of standard and specialized CNC machining centers
which tackle the need for flexible, "just-in-time" production, machining of linear or
non-linear components, incorporating automated setup, high speed performance and
accuracy, along with integrated waste removal capabilities.

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

Figure 4.5: CNC milling machine / 3-axis / horizontal / traveling-column


RONIN is a horizontal travelling column milling machine able to accomplish a wide
range of machining requirements for die & mound making, aerospace applications
and general machining. These factors are decisive in order to achieve high speed
machining and acceleration, together with high accuracy in finishing and contouring.
The RONIN structure is entirely made of special cast iron and distinguishes itself
from other products by the symmetry of the guiding systems as to the moving axes
and the thermo symmetry on the cross - vertical plane.
The monolithic column with lowered trim and the rectangular ram with variable
section together with the 4 guide way system, both for the vertical axis and the ram,
ensure the highest optimization of the stiffness. The wide range of product
configurations combined with the numerous milling accessories and rotary tables
made by FPT, allow us to satisfy the specific market demands and the most
particular machining requirements.
Characteristics:
1.

Control type

-CNC
2.

Number of Axis

-3-axis
3.

Performance

-high speed, high accuracy


4.

Application

-suite for aerospace


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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

Figure 4.6: CMS' moving bridge class CNC machining center


ANTARES, CMS' moving bridge class CNC machining center, is a small footprint, 5axis, laterally enclosed structure for safety with controlled opening of its doors,
perfectly adapted for machining composite parts, providing important options for dust
control.
Antares comes with machine strokes of:
2600 mm (102.4") X axis,
1500 mm (59.1") Y axis,
1200 mm (47.2") Z axis
+/- 135 B axis, and +/- 270 C axis. Antares' well sized working envelop and
powerful 5-axis working unit makes it an ideal beginning point for composites
machining requirements with
spindle power of 12 kW (16.1 hp) power at 12,000 rpm, 24,000 rpm
maximum, S1 rating, optional 6 kW (8 hp) working unit available,
full perimeter safety enclosure with automatic opening and closing door
system,
optional linear and rotary scales
optional dust hood for 5-axis working unit (as seen in the photo to the
bottom) optional carbon fiber/composite dust protection kit for
composites machining work
For fast nonstop work cycles, as seen in the bottom to the photo, Antares can be
equipped with CMS' TR system (Table Rotating), by which the operator can be
loading and unloading the table in complete safety, while work is being carried on
within the machine.
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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

PROCEDURE

5.0

A demonstration was carried on by our lecturer. Machine setting and specification also was done
by our lecturer on side. The below procedure was the simplified procedure:
1. Firstly, measured the work piece of perspex by using vernier caliper. Usually
the size of work piece given was 60mm length x 60mm width x 15mm height.
2. Turn ON the computer machine. Check the programs to ensure that the
machinery will function properly and that the output will meet specifications.
3. Inserted the NC Program into the CNC Milling Machine.
4. Clean all work surfaces such as rough stock and work holding device.
5. Before the machining started, the tool layout must be check so that we got the desired
shape of work piece.
6. Work piece must setting properly and operator loaded the proper cutting tools into the tool
holder and positions the work piece that is piece of perspex that is being shaped on the
CNC machine tool.
7. In machining process, after operator load work pieces and cutting tools into a machine,
then start button was pressed.
8. Finally, the final product has been produced that is steering. Clean all work surfaces and
then take the product from the work surfaces. The result was observed.

6.0

Results & Data Analysis


Process2_Manufacturing_Program_1

O1000
( ********************************************************************** )
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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

(*

INTELLIGENT MANUFACTORY SOFTWARE WWW.IMS-SOFTWARE.COM

*)
(*

IMSPOST VERSION : 7.4R

(*

USER VERSION : 1

*)
*)

( ********************************************************************** )
N1 G49 G64 G17 G80 G0 G90 G40 G99
( TOOL DATA : T1 END MILL D 1 )
N2 T0001 M6
N3 X11.503 S70 M3
N4 G43 Z9.1 H1
N5 G1 G94 Z-.9 F300.
N6 X4.08 Z-2.889
N7 X0 F1000.
N8 Y14.159
N9 X.333 Y13.455
N10 X.398 Y13.34
N11 X2.757 Y9.697
N12 X2.841 Y9.585
N13 X5.628 Y6.377
N14 X6.639 Y5.319
N15 X6.774 Y5.201
N16 X9.156 Y3.473
N17 X9.395 Y3.345
N18 X12.177 Y2.312
N19 X12.411 Y2.256
N20 X14.782 Y1.983
N21 X15.091 Y1.97
N22 X20.053 Y1.997
N23 X45.291 Y1.972
N24 X45.43 Y1.982
N25 X48.393 Y2.396
N26 X48.675 Y2.479
N27 X51.854 Y3.952
N28 X52.056 Y4.077
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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

N29 X53.533 Y5.252


N30 X53.648 Y5.358
N31 X56.724 Y8.711
N32 X56.809 Y8.817
N33 X59.374 Y12.515
N34 X59.444 Y12.633
N35 X60.121 Y13.967
N36 Y0
N37 X4.08
N38 Y.95
N39 Y1.9
N40 X1.971
N41 X1.707 Y1.707
N42 X1.9 Y1.971
N43 Y7.717
N44 X1.871 Y7.707
N45 X1.219 Y9.594
N46 X1.964 Y7.742
N47 X1.935 Y7.731
N48 X4.193 Y5.131
N49 X4.254 Y5.064
N50 X5.266 Y4.006
N51 X5.39 Y3.887
N52 X5.525 Y3.769
N53 X5.659 Y3.663
N54 X8.04 Y1.935
N55 X8.047 Y1.931
N56 X8.055 Y1.961
N57 X13.771 Y.405
N58 X8.029 Y1.864
N59 X8.039 Y1.9
N60 X4.08
N61 Y2.585
N62 Y3.269
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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

N63 X3.658 Y3.393


N64 X3.669 Y3.42
N65 X3.42
N66 Y3.684
N67 X3.391 Y3.672
N68 X3.256 Y4.16
N69 X3.485 Y3.709
N70 X3.457 Y3.698
N71 X3.686 Y3.459
N72 X3.697 Y3.486
N73 X4.08 Y3.269
N74 Z7.111
N75 G0 Z9.1
N76 X58.221 Y6.754
N77 G1 Z-.9 F300.
N78 Y1.971 Z-2.182
N79 X58.414 Y1.707 Z-2.269
N80 X58.15 Y1.9 Z-2.357
N81 X56.164 Z-2.889
N82 X51.996 F1000.
N83 X52.004 Y1.862
N84 X46.588 Y.719
N85 X51.983 Y1.96
N86 X51.991 Y1.922
N87 X52.653 Y2.229
N88 X52.852 Y2.336
N89 X53.054 Y2.46
N90 X53.239 Y2.59
N91 X54.716 Y3.765
.
.
.
N3167 Y4.688 F1000.
N3168 Y4.709 Z-5.481
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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

N3169 Y4.805 Z-4.96


N3170 Y4.971 Z-4.435
N3171 Y5.216 Z-3.909
N3172 Y5.552 Z-3.383
N3173 Y5.645 Z-3.262
N3174 Y5.986 Z-2.874
N3175 Y6.523 Z-2.397
N3176 Y7.007 Z-2.065
N3177 Y7.245 Z-1.927
N3178 Y7.723 Z-1.691
N3179 Y8.11 Z-1.536
N3180 Y8.475 Z-1.412
N3181 Y8.676 Z-1.352
N3182 Y9.339 Z-1.192
N3183 Y9.728 Z-1.127
N3184 Y10.597 Z-1.025
N3185 Y11.041 Z-1.004
N3186 Y11.34 Z-1.
N3187 X9.103 Y26.503
N3188 Y26.046 Z-1.006
N3189 Y24.923 Z-1.036
N3190 Y23.54 Z-1.042
N3191 Y21.407 Z-1.
N3192 Y11.569
N3193 Y10.858 Z-1.022
N3194 Y10.704 Z-1.033
N3195 Y9.686 Z-1.164
N3196 Y9.14 Z-1.287
N3197 Y8.779 Z-1.379
N3198 Y8.279 Z-1.544
N3199 Y8.068 Z-1.625
N3200 Y7.687 Z-1.79
N3201 Y7.213 Z-2.04
N3202 Y6.757 Z-2.338
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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

N3203 Y6.609 Z-2.449


N3204 Y6.131 Z-2.872
N3205 Y5.689 Z-3.381
N3206 Y5.348 Z-3.908
N3207 Y5.098 Z-4.437
N3208 Y4.93 Z-4.96
N3209 Y4.832 Z-5.481
N3210 Y4.8 Z-6.
N3211 Y.001
N3212 X8.903
N3213 Y4.93
N3214 Y4.962 Z-5.481
N3215 Y5.062 Z-4.958
N3216 Y5.232 Z-4.437
N3217 Y5.485 Z-3.909
N3218 Y5.834 Z-3.38
N3219 Y6.28 Z-2.874
N3220 Y6.507 Z-2.669
N3221 Y6.839 Z-2.398
N3222 Y6.971 Z-2.305
N3223 Y7.303 Z-2.09
N3224 Y7.688 Z-1.88
N3225 Y7.965 Z-1.749
N3226 Y8.176 Z-1.659
N3227 Y8.802 Z-1.433
N3228 Y8.941 Z-1.391
N3229 Y9.896 Z-1.164
N3230 Y10.676 Z-1.058
N3231 Y11.033 Z-1.025
N3232 Y11.355 Z-1.008
N3233 Y11.797 Z-1.
N3234 X8.703 Y25.565
N3235 Y24.497 Z-1.009
N3236 Y22.664 Z-1.
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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

N3237 Y11.957
N3238 Y11.261 Z-1.025
N3239 Y10.493 Z-1.107
N3240 Y10.106 Z-1.165
N3241 Y9.531 Z-1.296
N3242 Y9.072 Z-1.412
N3243 Y8.742 Z-1.523
N3244 Y8.286 Z-1.695
N3245 Y7.809 Z-1.916
N3246 Y7.395 Z-2.145
N3247 Y7.013 Z-2.397
N3248 Y6.872 Z-2.502
N3249 Y6.488 Z-2.829
N3250 Y6.258 Z-3.066
N3251 Y5.984 Z-3.381
N3252 Y5.63 Z-3.908
N3253 Y5.373 Z-4.436
N3254 Y5.199 Z-4.96
N3255 Y5.098 Z-5.481
N3256 Y5.065 Z-6.
N3257 Y0
N3258 Z0
N3259 G0 Z4.
N3260 M5
N3261 M30
N3262 M2
N3263 M30
%

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

Figure 6.1: Process steering model through CATIA software

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

Not smooth
surface

Cutting not
perfect curve

Figure 6.2: Final Product


Based on the result observation, our final result not perfect surface because
two defect that occurs on our product. The effect is not smooth surface, this is
because of the spindle speed and feed rate was slow. So, this will be chatter to occur
at surface. A commonly used method for avoiding chatter vibrations in machining is
to select low spindle speed. The other effect is the rough stock of the work piece is
not exactly cut into a perfect curve. This defect occurs because we not accurate
setting the dimension and tolerance of cutting for machining. To prevent it we must
calculate all dimension and tolerance accurately for cutting tool to cut the work piece
exactly as we design.

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

7.0

Discussion of Results
For our experiment, our aims are to learn and understand the use and

capabilities of computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine. First stage to


proceed this experiment, we start with Computer Aided Design (CAD). CAD is used
to make a design of a product. In CAD, it involves a special symbolic programming
languages or codes that determine the coordinate points of corner, edges and
surfaces of the work piece. Once the design is completed, we supposedly transfer
the coding that we made using ISO NC programmed to the CNC milling machine. All
the data about the process from the beginning to the end is included in those codes
and wrong coding will damage the work piece. After finish the design by using CAD,
our technician told us that the system to transfer the coding to the CNC milling
machine was corrupt and they need to service. So that, we are manually coding our
design by referring ISO NC programmed.
In order to prevent damage, we need to view the simulation on the CNC
screen and do some final editing so that the milling machine is operating in a good
condition as we will obtain perfect work piece. Any errors or mistakes will affect the
work piece as well as the machine. The machines cutting tool might break. We have
to set up cutting tool, cutting fed, cutting speed , spindle speed that is suitable with
the specimen to avoid error occur during the process.
From the experiment, we can say that our product is not perfect and thus our
experiment is 90% success. The products are not follows the original design but the
surfaces are completely smooth. This is because the work piece is not in perfect
square and not accurate measurement. In this experiment, shape and the coordinate
system plays an important role to make sure the product is not defected. While CNC
machines are expensive and complicated, they have a lot of advantages.

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

These are some advantages of CNC machine such as it improves


automation, removing the need of an operator for all but a few parts of the work.
CNC machines can be left unattended for hours or even days if necessary, allowing
operators to focus on other tasks. Secondly, CNC machines can be used
continuously 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and only need to be switched off for
occasional maintenance. Next, CNC machines can be updated by improving the
software used to drive the machines. Furthermore, training in the use of CNCs is
available through the use of virtual software, this software that allows the operator
to practice using the CNC machine on the screen of a computer. Design changes are
almost easier to amend because it can be done by make simple adjustment at the
CNC program. Finally, this machine is easy to operate which key in the coding to
operate.

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

8.0

CONCLUSION

From the experiment, all objective that we coincide before doing the
experiment are achieved. The objective is to design a basic NC program for CNC
milling and to machine a product using the CNC milling. We consider that both of the
NC programming and CNC Milling Machine were used to produce the desired
products. We know that before producing the product that we want, the dimensions
and the drawing of the product should be drawn by using any drawing software,
normally we used CATIA. On CATIA we design our steering, then NC program will be
used in Computer Numerical Control Machine (CNC) as the result of control program
to produce the desired product. The codes programmed will be transferred into the
machine. The machine then will be operated following the codes. Finally, the final
product or sample of steering has been produced.
CNC Machine can be used for many types of processes such as milling,
drilling and boring. This means that this machine is more versatile and capable of
doing variety types of cutting operations either small or large work piece, machining
and turning centers which are the most important developments in machine tools.
Their selection depends on factors such as part complexity, the number and types of
cutting, operations to be performed, the number of cutting tools required and lastly
the necessary dimensional accuracy and production rate. Furthermore, milling
proses will be easier and less time has been taken to complete the proses. This is an
advantage of the non-traditional machine.
Vibration and chatter in machining are important considerations for work
pieces dimensional accuracy, surface finish and tool life. Stiffness and damping
capacity of machine tools are important factors in controlling vibration and chatter.
New materials are continually being developed and used for constructing machinetool structure.

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

9.0

RECOMMENDATIONS
Good chip clearing is essential to both surface finish and tool life. It is impossible to get

good surface finish if chips are being re-cut over and over again. If chip clearance is minimum,
clumped up chips can jam the cutter to the point where it breaks. Flood coolant or an air blast
should be used to clear the chips at all times. Getting the appropriate feeds and speeds for the
work piece material, tooling and cutting conditions is the most important first step. Consistent
speeds and feeds will make a huge difference on the surface finish. Getting the right speeds and
feeds is just as important to obtain a good surface finish. Aside from cooling the tool, the coolant
cools the work piece. Sometimes this is helpful to accuracy, as a work piece that heats up is a work
piece that is moving due to thermal expansion. Another advantage of coolant is that it lubricates
the tool and work piece interface.

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Manufacturing Processes Lab MEM564

10.0

References

1) Mikell P. Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing, 4thEdition, Wiley 2011.


2) Mike Mattson, CNC Programming: Principles and Applications, Delmar, Cengage
Learning, CliftonPark, New York, 2010.
3) Kalpakjian, S., and Schmid S. R. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering
Materials, 5thed. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2007.
4) Ostwald, P. F., and J. Munoz, Manufacturing Processes and Systems, 9 th ed.
John Wiley &Sons, New York, 1997.
5) http://www.excellmetalspinning.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-cncmachining-vs-manual-lathes

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