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Old NCERT World History Ch13: African Independence

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[Old NCERT World History ch13] After WW2: African


Independence: Egypt, French Guniea, Mau Mau rebellion,
Apartheid (Part 4 of 4)

History (http://mrunal.org/category/history) / 3 years Ago /


24 Comments (http://mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch13-after-ww2-african-independence-egypt-frenc
1. West Asia
2. Syria and Lebanon
3. Israel
4. African Independence

For Indian History, I recommend


Spectrum- Rajiv Ahir (http://amzn.to
/2gLcwAZ )

- (http://amzn.to
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5. Egypt: Naseer
6. Libya: Gadda
7. Algeria: De Gaulle
8. Gold Coast = GHANA: Nkrumah
9. Guinea
10. Kenya: Mau Mau rebellion
11. Portuguese Colonies

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Old NCERT World History Ch13: African Independence

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12. South Africa: apartheid


13. Nelson Mandela
14. Namibia
15. AFRICA Renaming of Places
16. World@1990
17. EXERCISES

West Asia
Syria and Lebanon
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As in other parts of Asia, there was an upsurge for freedom in West Asia also immediately after the Second World
War. You have read in the previous chapter about the movement of the people of Syria against the French rule.
After the war, the French tried to restore their authority over Syria and Lebanon but, in the face of opposition

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35 :IES
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62 :GATE

from the people of these countries and the world opinion, they were forced to withdraw. Both Syria and
Lebanon became independent by the end of 1946.
There was an upsurge in all the Arab countries at this time and the 1950s saw their emergence as independent
nations. Some countries which had been nominally free asserted their independence. There were also
movements to overthrow the outdated political systems which existed in some countries. All these led to con icts
and, in some cases, prolonged wars between the Arab countries and the imperialist powers. The period saw the

63 :CDS-I

growing power of Arab nationalism which led to e orts by the Arab people and governments to come together

84 :APFC'17

to face and solve common problems. The Arab League was formed comprising all the Arab states.

196 :Prelim'17
231 :CAPF

However, before many of the Arab countries could gain their independence, a development took place in West

328 :Mains'17

Asia which was to become a source of tension and lead to many wars in the years to come. This was the creation

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of the state of Israel.

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Israel
Mrunal: Israel-Palestine has been discussed in detail in a separate article: click me (http://mrunal.org/2012/11
/diplomacy-israel-palestine-hamas-gaza-strip-west-bank-plo-con ict-origin-explained.html)
Palestine, as has been mentioned before, had become a British mandate in 1919. The British troops again
occupied the country in 1945. Palestine was inhabited by Arabs and Jews. A movement called the Zionist
movement claimed that Palestine was the homeland of all the Jews, wherever they may be living, and should be
restored to them. The persecution which the Jews in Europe had su ered for centuries had culminated in the
Nazi Germanys policy of exterminating them. Millions of Jews were killed in Germany and in those countries of
Europe which had been occupied by Germany. The terrible tragedy had won them the sympathy and support of
the world.
The British in Palestine had permitted some Jews from outside Palestine to settle there. The Zionists had,
meanwhile, been campaigning for a Jewish state there. This had complicated the freedom movement in Palestine
the majority of whose inhabitants were Arabs. In 1947 the United Nations passed a resolution according to
which Palestine was to be divided into an Arab state and a Jewish state. However, in 1948, the British withdrew
their troops from Palestine and soon after the state of Israel was proclaimed. This led to a war between the Arab
states and Israel. The Arab states were defeated in the war.
The creation of Israel became a source of tension in West Asia. The Arab states refused to recognize her as a
legitimate state, The policies pursued by the government of Israel further added to the bitterness. About 900,000
Arabs were forced to leave their homes and lands in Palestine and were rendered homeless. They found shelter
in various refugee camps in Arab states. Most countries of Asia and Africa condemned the Israeli governments
treatment of the Arabs of Palestine and for following racist policies. In 1956, Israel joined Britain and France in

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invading Egypt. Later there were other wars between Israel and the Arab states as a result of which Israel
occupied large parts of the territories of other Arab states.

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development
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These territories include the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights and the West Bank. More than a million Palestinians
live in the occupied territories. In spite of the resolutions of the United Nations, Israel refuse to vacate Arab
territories and restore the rights of the Palestinian Arabs, many of whom live as refugees in various Arab states.
In 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed to ght for the establishment of a Palestinian
state. It enjoys the status of a member-state of the Non-Aligned Movement. Recently an agreement was signed
between the government of Israel and the PLO. Under this agreement, the PLO recognized the state of Israel and
the government of Israel agreed to give the Palestinians autonomy in some areas presently under Israeli
occupation.

African Independence
You have seen in the [World History] Colonization of Africa article, that with the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia,
almost every part of Africa had been conquered by European imperialist powers by the end of the nineteenth
century. After the First World War, the only change that took place there was the transfer of the former German
colonies in Africa to the victorious Allied powers. However, the period after the First World War saw, as in Asia, a

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resurgence of nationalist movements in Africa. After the Second World War, the disintegration of the colonial rule
in Africa began. The achievement of independence by North African countries has been mentioned already. The
countries of southern Africa began to gain their independence after the mid1950s. Within two decades, almost
every country in Africa, with the exception of South Africa and South-West Africa (Namibia), became
independent.
The freedom movements in Africa, as in other parts of the world, were the consequence of the growth of
nationalism and the increasing resentment against the exploitation and oppression by the colonial countries.
The international situation further strengthened these movements. The Second World War had resulted in the
general weakening of imperialism. It had also shattered the myth of the invincibility of some major colonial
powers in Africa such as France and Belgium which had su ered defeat in Europe during the war. The collapse
of colonialism in Asia within a few years after the war also had a tremendous impact on freedom movements in
Africa. The question of Africas freedom gradually became one of the major issues in the world.

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409924)

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Egypt: Naseer

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colonization-africa-scramble-for-colonies-paper-partitions-slave-trade-boer-war.html/comment-page-1#suez)
article. After the First World War, Egypt had become a British mandate. However, under the pressure of the
nationalist movement, Egypt had been declared independent in 1922, though British troops continued to
remain there. After the Second World War, the demand for the withdrawal of British troops gained strength.
There were serious clashes between the Egyptians and the British soldiers in which hundreds of Egyptians were
killed. The discontent was also directed against the king of Egypt who had been installed by the British. The
discontent against the British and the king led to a revolution in 1952 when the Egyptian army under the
leadership of Lt.Colonel Gamal Abdal Naseer and General Muhammad Naguib overthrew the monarchy and
declared Egypt a republic. The new Egyptian government demanded the withdrawal of British troops and they
were withdrawn in June 1956.
The government of Egypt under the leadership of Col Nasser began the economic reconstruction of the country.
Egypt refused to be aligned with the United States and the latter stopped the sale of arms to Egypt. Egypt,
however, began to receive military and economic aid from the Soviet Union. In 1956, Egypt announced the
nationalization to the Suez Canal which had been under the control of Britain and France. Three months later,
Israel, Britain and France, according to a plan, invaded Egypt. The aggression committed against Egypt led to
worldwide protests. The countries of Asia voiced their vehement condemnation of the invasion. There were
massive protest demonstrations against the British government inside Britain also. The Soviet Union warned the

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aggressor countries that unless they withdrew from Egypt, she would send her forces to crush the aggressors.
Almost every country in the world, including the United States, denounced Britain, France and Israel in the
United Nations. The universal condemnation of aggression led to the withdrawal of British and French forces
from Egypt. The ending of aggression strengthened further the unity of Asian and African countries in general
and of Arab countries in particular. It also showed the growing strength of the countries which had won their
independence only a few years ago. The Suez War also added to the prestige and in uence of the Soviet Union

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as a friend of the peoples who were trying to assert their independence.

Libya: Gaddafi
In [World History] Colonization of Africa article, we saw that Libya had come under Italian rule in 1911. During
the Second World War, some of the most ferocious battles between German and British troops were fought in
Libya. At the end of the war, the country was occupied by Britain and France. In 1951, Libya became
independent with a monarchical form of government. From 1960 she became one of the largest petroleum
producing countries in the world and as a result some sections of Libyan society grew very rich while the
majority of the population remained extremely backward. The king did not permit any opposition to his rule.

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The United States built one of its strongest air bases on Libyan territory. In 1969, a group of army o cers
captured power and soon after abolished the monarchy. The new government proclaimed that it would give
primacy to the unity and solidarity of the Arab people

Algeria: De Gaulle
The 1950s saw the emergence of a number of independent nations in North Africa. However, the independence
was preceded by years of struggle against the imperialist countries which wanted to retain their colonial
possessions. As in Indo China, the French returned to Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria. However, in 1956 Tunisia
and Morocco won their independence.
The North African country which had to wage the longest and the hardest battle for freedom was Algeria. She
had been conquered by France as early as 1830 though it had taken France another four decades to fully
establish her rule there. As in Indo China, the struggle against French rule in Algeria had a long history behind it.
In 1954 the nationalist organisation of the people of Algeria called the FLN (National Liberation Front) gave a call
for an armed struggle against the French rule Armed clashes resulted in thousands of casualties on both sides.
By 1958, the Algerian nationalists had organized a large army of their own and proclaimed the formation of a
government of the republic of Algeria. The war in Algeria had serious consequences inside France. It created

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political instability in France. The Communist Party of France along with many other French leaders had been
supporting the cause of Algerian independence. However, many sections in the French army were under the
in uence of the French settlers in Algeria who were opposed to any negotiations with the Algerian leaders over
the question of independence. In 1958, General de Gaulle became the President of France. He conceded the

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right of the Algerian people to self-determination and opened negotiations with the leaders of the FLN.
This policy was opposed by some sections of the French army in Algeria, who revolted against de Gaulle and
even made attempts to assassinate him. However, the revolt was suppressed. On 1 July 1962, a referendum was
held in Algeria and the people of Algeria voted almost unanimously for independence. On 4 July 1962 Algeria
became an independent republic. The independence of Algeria had been won at the cost of over 140,000
Algerian lives.

Gold Coast = GHANA: Nkrumah


The rst country in southern Africa to gain independence was Ghana. There was a powerful kingdom of Ghana
in West Africa during the eighth to the twelfth centuries. The British had conquered a part of this region to which
they gave the name Gold Coast. The most prominent leader of the people of the Gold Coast colony was Kwame
Nkrumah, who in 1949 had organized the Convention Peoples Party. A strong trade union movement had also

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emerged in Gold Coast. The Convention Peoples Party and the trade unions joined together to demand
independence from Britain. However, most of their leaders were arrested and attempts were made to suppress
the demand for freedom. After 1950, the British government started introducing certain constitutional reforms.
Under pressure from the Peoples Party which had won a resounding victory in elections, the British government
agreed to the independence of Gold Coast. The new independent state which came into being on 6 March 1957
called itself Ghana, after the name of the old West African kingdom. The part of Togoland which had been under
British control also joined Ghana.

Guinea

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The next country to achieve her independence was the French colony of Guinea in West Africa. In 1958, while
embroiled in the war in Algeria, France held a referendum in her colonies which had been grouped together as
French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa. The people of Guinea voted for complete independence and
Guinea was proclaimed a republic on 2 October 1958.
The achievement of independence by Ghana and Guinea gave additional con dence to the freedom movements
in other parts of Africa and accelerated the pace of achievement of independence by other nations. The

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won her independence. Indias struggle for freedom had also been a source of inspiration to African nationalists.
The year 1960 is generally regarded as the Africa Year. In that year, seventeen countries in Africa gained their
independence. These included all the French colonies in French West Africa and Equatorial Africa, Nigeria and
Congo (formerly Belgian Congo, now called Zaire).
Between 1961 and 1964, a number of countries in East and Central Africa also became independent. These were
Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika, Zanzibar, Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia, Rwanda and Burundi.
Sierra Leone, Gambia, Lesotho (formerly Basutoland) and Botswana (formerly Bechuanaland) also gained their
independence.

Kenya: Mau Mau rebellion


The freedom movement in Kenya was led by Jomo Kenyatta, leader of the Kenya African Union. In 1952, a revolt
by peasants had broken out. This is known as the Mau Mau rebellion. It was directed against the seizure of land
by the British colonial authorities. To suppress the rebellion, 15,000 Kenyans were killed and about 80,000 sent
to concentration camps. Jomo Kenyatta was imprisoned in 1953 on the charge of supporting the Mau Mau
rebellion. Having failed to suppress the freedom movement, Britain had to give in and Kenya became
independent in 1963.

GAURAV {

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Many of the newly independent countries of Africa faced serious problems during the years following their
independence. The imperialist powers tried their best hi maintain their hold over their former colonies by direct
intervention and by creating dissensions. In Congo, for instance, Belgium, with the help of some other countries
and the mercenaries from various countries, brought about the secession of the rich province of Katanga. On the
appeal of Patrice Lumumba, Prime Minister of Congo, United Nations troops were sent to bring about the
withdrawal of foreign troops and mercenaries. However, Patrice Lumumba was assassinated and the country
thrown into chaos for a number of years.

Portuguese Colonies
Before the end of the 1960s, almost entire Africa, with the exception of Portuguese colonies of Angola,
Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Islands, and South Africa, SouthWest Africa and Rhodesia, had
become free. Powerful freedom movements had started in the Portuguese colonies. They had organized their
liberation forces and had secured the help of many countries in their struggle for freedom. In April 1974, the
Portuguese army, which had been mainly used to suppress the freedom struggles in the colonies, overthrew the

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50 year old dictatorship in Portugal with the support of the people. The communists, socialists and other radical

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elements in the armed forces and the new government of Portugal were opposed to the continuation of the
Portuguese rule in Africa. They entered into negotiations with the freedom movements in the Portuguese
colonies and by 1975 all the former Portuguese colonies in Africa became independent. Zimbabwe (formerly
Southern Rhodesia) became independent in April 1980.

South Africa: apartheid


South Africa Union of South Africa since 1910 and Republic of South Africa since 1961 has been an

(http://www.alexa.com

independent country in the sense that she was not ruled from another country. The government of South Africa

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was, however, among the most oppressive regimes in the world in the twentieth century. It was under the
exclusive control of the white minority practicing the worst form of racism. Under the system of apartheid
established in South Africa, all people were classi ed and separated on the basis of race. Each group had to live

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in a separate area. There were separate schools and universities, separate theatres, separate shopping centres,
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/siteinfo

separate coaches in trains for whites and blacks and others. The teams for sports also were formed on the basis

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of race. Marriage between persons belonging to di erent races was a criminal o ence. There were restrictions

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on movement from one, place to another. The best lands in the country were under the control of the whites
who had all the economic and Political power. The non-whites had no vote and no say in the governance of the
country. The system of apartheid was used to maintain the rule of the white minority over about 80 per cent of
the population which comprised black and coloured people as well as people of Indian origin. This system, in the
name of separation of the races, denied human rights to the majority of the population.
It may be recalled that Mahatma Gandhi had started the ght against racial discrimination in South Africa long
before he became a leader of the freedom movement in India.
Demonstrators protesting against apartheid laws were massacred at Sharpeville in South Africa, 22 March 1960.
The main organization of the South African people which led the movement for ending the rule of the white
minority and establishing a nonracist democratic South Africa was the African National Congress (ANC). It was
set up in 1910. The movement against the obnoxious system of apartheid was intensi ed in the 1950s. The
government depended on the use of terror to maintain its rule. There were incidents of massacres of peaceful
protestors. In 1960, the African National Congress was banned and most of its leaders were arrested The ANC
then organized its own army to ght .against the racist regime.
South Africa was increasingly isolated from the rest of the world. India had been from the beginning in the
forefront in support of the struggle to dismantle the apartheid regime. She was the rst country in the world to
sever relations with South Africa and to extend her full support to the people of South Africa Many other
countries followed the suit. The United Nations also condemned the policies of South Africa. In the 1980s some
Western countries which had maintained military and economic relations with South Africa also imposed
sanctions against her. By the end of the 1980s, the international isolation of the South African regime was
complete.

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Nelson Mandela
From the end of the 1980s, the process of ending the system of apartheid began. The ban on the African
National Congress was lifted and its leaders released. Among them was Nelson Mandela who had been in prison
for 26 years and had became a symbol of the struggle against apartheid Many apartheid laws were abolished
and negotiations were started between the ANC and the South African government for framing a new
constitution which would give all South Africans the right to vote. Elections in which all South Africans for the rst
time were given the light to vote, was held in April 1994. After these elections, a new non racist and democratic
government came to power in South Africa, Nelson Mandela was elected president of the country.
Thus within the last three decades, most of Africa has become independent and the independence of the
remaining parts cannot be deferred for long.

Namibia
The last country in Africa to become independent was Namibia, formerly South West Africa. It was a German
colony before the First World War and was handed over to South-Africa as a mandate after the defeat of
Germany in that war. South Africa treated South West Africa as her colony and refused to withdraw from there is
spite of the resolutions of the United Nations. The freedom movement there was led by the SouthWest Africa
Peoples Organization (SWAPO) which was formed in 1960. It gained momentum when SWAPO started a war
with the help of its guerilla forces to liberate the country. It was made a member of the Non Aligned Movement.
The Non Aligned Movement, the African governments and the United Nations played an important role in the
success of the freedom movement in Namibia. The war in Namibia came to an end in 1989 when South Africa
agreed to a plan for the independence of the country. SWAPO won a majority of seats in the elections which
were held in November 1989 and on 21 March 1990 Namibia became independent.

AFRICA Renaming Places


Many African countries have changed their names. The colonial powers had given them names which had little

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to do with their past history and culture. Some countries and cities had been named after colonial adventurers,
for example, Rhodesia, Leopoldville, Stanleyville, etc. The African peoples are trying to overcome the damage
caused to them during the colonial rule. Renaming their countries and cities after their original names is a part of
their e ort to reestablish and assert their independence and national identity. The need to unite in the face of
common tasks and for achieving common aims led to the emergence of the unity of all African states These aims
included the safeguarding of their independence and to help the liberation movements in those countries in
Africa which were still ghting for their independence. The most signi cant step taken in this direction was the
formation of the Organdation of African Unity (OAU) in 1963.

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World@1990
In spite of the many positive changes that have taken place in recent years, the world in the 1990s is not without

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tensions and con icts. While the danger of war involving the use of nuclear weapons has ended, or at least
receded, there has been no reduction in the arsenals of weapons of mass destruction. Their very existence is a
source of threat to the survival of humankind. Similarly, with the end of the Cold War, whether the world has
moved, irreversibly, to a period of detente and, much more importantly, cooperation is still to be seen. With the
collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States became the only super power in the world. While the Warsaw Pact
has been dissolved, NATO, the military bloc headed by the United States, has continued to exist. There have
been misgivings that the present situation would make it possible for the United States, the only super power
now, to dictate to others.
The world in the 1990s, with all its problems, is a very di erent place to live in compared with any preceding age
People the world over have a much greater say in shaping their destiny than ever before. For the rst time in
human history, the creation of One World has become a possibility in which all peoples would cooperate with
one another and would contribute their best to enrich their own lives and of the entire humankind.

EXERCISES
1. What were the immediate consequences of the Second World War in Europe?
2. How was the political map of Europe after the war di erent from the prewar days?
3. What is meant by Cold War 7 What were the factors which gave rise to it?
4. Trace the history of the freedom movements in Asian countries.
5. What were the main aims of the foreign policy of the United States? What was the reason for the military
intervention of the United States in Vietnam? What were its consequences?
6. What was the impact of the Portuguese revolution of 1974 on the Portuguese colonies in Africa?
7. What are the countries in Africa in which the struggle for liberation is still going on ?
8. What is meant by nonalignment? Why did most of the newly independent countries follow this policy?
9. Trace the history of the freedom movements in Africa
10. Describe the changes which have taken place in South Africa after 1989
11. Trace the developments that led to the collapse of the Soviet Union.

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12. Describe the mainchanges which have occurred in Germany and the countries of Southern Europe since
1989
13. On an outline map of Europe, show the countries which came to have communist governments after the
Second World War
14. Collect information on the African countries which gained their independence after 1960, Show these
countries on a map
15. Try to get a copy of the declaration issued by the summit of the Non-Aligned Movement held at Jakarta in
1992 Display it in the classroom
16. Prepare a list of countries where summits of the Non-Aligned Movement have b een held as well as a list of
participating countries
17. Collect information about developments which have taken place in South Africa after 1993 and prepare a
report
18. Collect information about the situation in Yugoslavia and the steps taken to implement the agreement
between Israel and PLO since 1993.
19. Discuss the factors which led to the weakening of imperialism after the Second World War
20. Do you think the Cold War has nally ended?
21. Some countries of Asia had become members of military alliances. Do you think it helped in strengthening
their independence? Why ? Or why not ? Give arguments with examples
22. Discuss the impact of the emergence of Asian and African countries as independent nations on the world.
23. What, in your view, led to the collapse of the Soviet Union and of the communist governments there and
mother countries of Europe? Do you think this collapse means that ideas of socialism are no longer relevant?
Discuss.
24. Do you think the post-Cold War world is a safer place to live in and there is no danger of any country
dominating over other countries?
For archive of all World history related articles visit Mrunal.org/history (http://www.Mrunal.org/history)

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Mrunal
recommends
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UPSC Civil Service

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Decolonization; Revolutions: French, American, Russian;


Uni cation: Italy, Germany, World Wars & More
(http://mrunal.org/2013/10/world-history-550-mockquestions-on-colonization-decolonization-revolutionsfrench-american-russian-uni cation-italy-germany-worldwars-more.html)
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So far 24 Comments posted

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 3 3 6 2 # RESPOND )

Anup
Sir, Could you post the link for uni cation Italy article ?

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sameer
thank you sir by this old NCERT series and Capt. Jack Sparrow series you have
covered great part of World History for Optional Subject too apart from GS

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 3 3 7 3 # RESPOND )

karaan
check out your economy articles plz images are not visible!!!

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 3 4 2 3 # RESPOND )

manoj kr.
thanks a lot sir, provided new world history article related to old NCRT books. How
cut-o of pre.exam this year.

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 3 4 5 9 # RESPOND )

Niranjan
Guys..
Can anyone please provide me old ncert book.. I dont have access as am non-delhi
guy..

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niranjan.sk@gmail.com (mailto:niranjan.sk@gmail.com)

R EPLY ( HT T P:/ / MR U NAL.O R G / 2 0 1 3 /0 7 / O LD - NC ER T - W O R LD - HI S T O R Y- C H1 3 - A FT ER - W W 2 - AF R I C ANIND EPEN D ENC E- EG YPT - FR EN C H- G UNI EA- M AU- MAU- R EB ELLI O N- APAR T HEI D - PAR T - 4 O F - 4 . HT M L? R EPLYT O C O M= 7 4 2 2 8 # R ES PO N D )

Bapina
Hi niranjan,
i do have some of OLD NCERT books with me . Plz contact me on
bapuetc@gmail.com (mailto:bapuetc@gmail.com)

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 3 4 8 1 # RESPOND )

ashish
mrunal sir the link which u provided to download world histor old ncert its the
book name is STORY OF CIVILIZATION.. but i am also seeing COMTEMPORARY
WORLD HISTORY (same OLD NCERT) so can u tell me the di erence between both
the book?
CONTEMPORARY WORLD HISTORY AND STORY OF CIVILIZATION ?

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 3 5 7 0 # RESPOND )

Aditi
sir, are these topics relevant from the prelims point-of-view ?

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I am preparing for Prelim14 .

R EPLY ( HT T P:/ / MR U NAL.O R G / 2 0 1 3 /0 7 / O LD - NC ER T - W O R LD - HI S T O R Y- C H1 3 - A FT ER - W W 2 - AF R I C ANIND EPEN D ENC E- EG YPT - FR EN C H- G UNI EA- M AU- MAU- R EB ELLI O N- APAR T HEI D - PAR T - 4 O F - 4 . HT M L? R EPLYT O C O M= 7 3 7 4 8 # R ES PO N D )

Samir
World History is not included in Prelims.

R EPLY ( HT T P:/ / MR U NAL.O R G / 2 0 1 3 /0 7 / O LD - NC ER T - W O R LD - HI S T O R Y- C H1 3 - A FT ER - W W 2 - AF R I C ANIND EPEN D ENC E- EG YPT - FR EN C H- G UNI EA- M AU- MAU- R EB ELLI O N- APAR T HEI D - PAR T - 4 O F - 4 . HT M L? R EPLYT O C O M= 7 3 7 8 2 # R ES PO N D )

BUNTY
No, bcoz UPSC pre syllabus doesnt cover world history.

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 3 5 8 9 # RESPOND )

oastm
Mrunal,
plz post d philosophy analysis,material,strategy.
Eagerly,waiting 4 tht.
amanast17@gmail.com (mailto:amanast17@gmail.com)

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robin
mrunal sir.. any idea abt UPSC cutof?? bit tensed regrding cuto s..pls help..

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 3 6 5 6 # RESPOND )

Pawan Baghel
Sir there is some problem with journal no. in UP Review o cer. Whenever i enter my
journal no. with the date of its transaction and bank name, it informs me about the
mismatch of either no. or date but sir i have checked it many times and it is correct. I
dont know what to do.

R EPLY ( HT T P:/ / MR U NAL.O R G / 2 0 1 3 /0 7 / O LD - NC ER T - W O R LD - HI S T O R Y- C H1 3 - A FT ER - W W 2 - AF R I C ANIND EPEN D ENC E- EG YPT - FR EN C H- G UNI EA- M AU- MAU- R EB ELLI O N- APAR T HEI D - PAR T - 4 O F - 4 . HT M L? R EPLYT O C O M= 7 3 6 6 0 # R ES PO N D )

Pragya
I think u didnt read this note,it might be a reason
Detailed Application Form Submission will be allowed only after 2:00 PM on
the next working Day since from the Fee deposition date either through
E-Challan or I-Collect mode of the selected Bank

R EPLY ( HT T P:/ / MR U NAL.O R G / 2 0 1 3 /0 7 / O LD - NC ER T - W O R LD - HI S T O R Y- C H1 3 - A FT ER - W W 2 - AF R I C AN-

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IND EPEN D ENC E- EG YPT - FR EN C H- G UNI EA- M AU- MAU- R EB ELLI O N- APAR T HEI D - PAR T - 4 O F - 4 . HT M L? R EPLYT O C O M= 7 3 6 8 7 # R ES PO N D )

While entering jornal no /transaction no remove all charactersand initial zeros


.i.e. trancartion no is DU005467 then enter only 5467.

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shobhit
pawan can u pls post the link for form .. i could not nd it. pls..

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Pawan Baghel
http://uppsc.up.nic.in/ (http://uppsc.up.nic.in/)

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happy
sir have u copied each and every line from the ncert???
2ndly, after ncert which buk should we refer for the world history that clears all the
concepts required

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Happy ka friend
Are Happy, jara dimag lagao. Sir ne to purani NCERT ke book chapters hi
hamare liye upload kiye hai. And he has mentioned it so many times. Still
Happy is happy in considering it as copy!!!!!!!!!!

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 3 8 0 6 # RESPOND )

Varsha Vajpayee
Sir thanx for this article. May you plz plz upload IGNOUs BA, MA material for
ECONOMICS?

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C E-

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EGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 4 1 3 1 # RESPOND )

tarunendu singh
THANK YOU VERY MUCH

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 4 6 7 9 # RESPOND )

happy singh
sir, after ncerts which book should i read for world history

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 7 4 8 9 7 # RESPOND )

siddarth
Guys how about referring the book HISTORY OF MODERN WORLD by JAIN and
MATHUR..
reviews please..
`

REPLY (HT T P://M RUNAL.ORG/2 0 1 3 /0 7 /OLD- NC ERT - W ORLD -HIST ORY- C H1 3 - AFT ER- W W 2 -AFRIC AN- INDEPENDEN C EEGYPT - FRENC H- GUNIEA- MAU- MAU-REBELLION- APART HEID- PART - 4 -O F-4 .HT ML?REPLYT OC O M= 1 1 7 7 4 0 # RESPOND )

anjali
which book is best for world history mains oR ANY OTHER SOURCE

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/View/Index.aspx)

09-Dec: Sikkim University

/exam_ les.php?id=36)

(http://www.ncscm.res.in

12-Dec: Rites Ltd.

(http://www.cus.ac.in)

01-Dec: UPSC

/cms/careers/careers.php)

(http://rites.com/vacancy/ )

30-Nov: IIT Indore

(http://upsconline.nic.in

10-Dec: CDAC

(http://www.iiti.ac.in

/ora/VacancyNoticePub.php)

(http://www.cdac.in

/Careers/careers.php)

01-Dec: Centre Sust. Coas.

29-Nov: Pondicherry
/index.aspx?id=ca_advtno_04_Nov_2016)
University
09-Dec: Sikkim University

05-Dec: CSIR

05-Dec: NTPC

(http://puda.gov.in)

Deskjobs

Mgt.

15-Dec: Indian Rare Earths

(http://www.ncscm.res.in

Ltd (http://www.irel.gov.in

/cms/careers/careers.php)

/scripts

07-Dec: UPPSC Med.

01-Dec: SAI

/advertisement.html )

(http://uppsc.up.nic.in.)
07-Dec: UP Jal Nigam

12-Dec: Rites Ltd.


(http://www.sportsauthorityo ndia.nic.in
/show le.asp?link_temp_id=1894)(http://rites.com/vacancy/ )

(http://www.upjn.org )

30-Nov: Hindustan Copper

12-Dec: National Small

06-Dec: Central Silk Board

Ltd.

Ind.Ltd.

(http://www.csb.gov.in )

(http://www.nsic.co.in
(http://www.hindustancopper.com
/careers.asp)
/career.asp )

(http://www.cus.ac.in)

05-Dec: IOCL
26 of 29

(http://www.pondiuni.edu.in)

12-Dec: Power Fin.Corp

12/4/2016 9:14 PM

Old NCERT World History Ch13: African Independence

http://mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch13-after-ww2-african-independence-egypt-...

(https://www.iocl.com

30-Nov: IIT Indore

(http://www.pfcindia.com

/PeopleCareers/job.aspx)

(http://www.iiti.ac.in

/Career_View.aspx )

03-Dec: NALCO

/Careers/careers.php)

30-Nov: UK Infra. Devt.

(http://www.nalcoindia.com

29-Nov: Pondicherry Univ.

Corp.

/Careers.aspx)

(http://www.pondiuni.edu.in)

(http://www.usidcl.gov.in)

02-Dec: CRIS
(https://www.digialm.com
/EForms/html/form50435

Faculty

/Instruction.html.)

15-Jan: Garhwal University

02-Dec: Punjab U. Dev.

(http://www.recruitmenthnbgu.co.in)

(http://puda.gov.in)

05-Jan: PGI Noida

01-Dec: Centre Sust. Coas.

(http://www.ssphpgtinoida.com)

Mgt.

31-Dec: Delhi Cantonment

(http://www.ncscm.res.in

(http://www.cbdelhi.in)

/cms/careers/careers.php)

21-Dec: Nat. Inst. of Yoga

30-Nov: Hindustan Copper

(http://www.yogamdniy.nic.in

Ltd.

/Contents.aspx?lsid=392&

(http://www.hindustancopper.com

lev=2&lid=286&langid=1)

/career.asp )

20-Dec: KG med. Univ.

29-Nov: Chennai Metro

(https://kgmu.org

(http://chennaimetrorail.org

/job-opportunities.php)

/job-noti cations/ )

15-Dec: Uni.of Medical Sci.

27 of 29

(http://recruitment.rimsnr.ac.in)
12-Dec: Nat.Inst. of Unani
(http://www.nium.in
/careers.html)
11-Dec: AIIMS Jodhpur
(http://www.aiimsjodhpur.edu.in
/facultyrecruitment.php)

12/4/2016 9:14 PM

Old NCERT World History Ch13: African Independence

http://mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch13-after-ww2-african-independence-egypt-...

10-Dec: Anand Agri. Uni.


(http://www.aau.in
/careers-list)
07-Dec: UPPSC Med.
(http://uppsc.up.nic.in.)
05-Dec: NTPC
(http://www.ntpccareers.net)
01-Dec: UPSC
(http://upsconline.nic.in
/ora/VacancyNoticePub.php)
30-Nov: Odisha Natl Law
Uni. (http://nluo.ac.in
/career/ )

1. Online Form Part-I stops few days before deadline, so don't wait till last date. Dont forget reg.id & roll no.Note'em in Google
Drive (https://www.google.com/drive/)
2. I usually update vacancies every Monday.Purple link= newly added,Blue= existing.Last updated 28th Nov, at 10:30PM

[/column]

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Old NCERT World History Ch13: African Independence

29 of 29

http://mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch13-after-ww2-african-independence-egypt-...

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