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Glossaryofspeedreadingterms,techniquesandconcepts
TheglossaryofSpdRdng,speedreadingandphotoreadingterms,techniquesandconceptsisconstantlybeing
updated,andtermsadded.
80/20rule(alsoknownasParetoPrinciple)
Therulestatesthat20%oftheeffortyouexpendinanyenterprisegivesyou80%oftheresultyouwanttoachieve,
whiletheremaining80%ofyoureffortgeneratesonlytheremaining20%.Soahighpercentageofeffectsinanylarge
systemarecausedbyalowpercentageofvariables.Inreading,theimplicationisthatifyouarehappywithachieving
80%ofyourpurpose,youwillgatherfivetimesasmuchinformationinthesametime.Also,inmostbooks,morethan
80%ofthemessageiscontainedinlessthan20%ofthewordshencelookingforthehotspotsofkeyinformation(cf
Stauffer).Inpractice,80%ofprogresscomesfrom20%oftheeffort.AlsonamedtheParetoPrinciplebyJosephM
Juran,aftertheItalianeconomist,VilfredoPareto,whofirstnoticedthat80%ofpeasinhisgardenwereproducedby
20%ofpeapods.
A
Audiobooks
Audiobooksarespokenaudioinformation,educationalandentertainmentbooksandprogrammes.Themostpopular
platformisAudiblewhichispartofAmazon.Youcanchoosebetweenfullunabridgedandabridged(akindofsummary)
versions.Youcansyncyouraudiobookwiththeebookaswell.Youcanspeeduptherateoftheaudiodelivery(upto
threetimes).Theavaragespeedofmostaudiobooksis150wpmdependingonthelector(andsometimesitsthe
author).
B
Backgroundreading
Aswellasfocused,purposefulreading,itisalsobeneficialtoreadasmuchaspossibleofanythingwhichinterestsyou,
sinceitisntalwayspossibletopredictwhichinformationwillbeofuse,andcreatinglinksbetweenyoursubjectand
othersiswhatleadstocreativity.
BookSummaries(alsoExecutiveBookSummariesandBusinessBookSummaries)
Acomprehensiveandusuallybriefabstractorsynthesisofthekeymessagesofabook.
Studentslearnmorefromsummariesthanentirechapters
Bookaholic
Someonewhoisaddictedtoreadingbooks.Probablyoneofthebestaddictionstohave.Stillcanbeexpensive.
BrainGym
Seriesofexerciseswhich,accordingtoitscreators,PaulandGailDennison,stimulatebothhemispheresofthebrain
andtheenergysystemofthebody(inthesamewayasacupuntureoracupressure).Recommendedduringbreaksto
quicklygetintoagoodstateforreading.
Breaks
Itisimportanttotakeregularbreaksfromreadinginordertomaintainanoptimumstateandincreasethelikelihoodof
rememberinginformation(cfprimacyandrecencyeffect).
BusinessBookSummaries(alsoExecutiveBookSummariesandBookSummaries)
Studentslearnmorefromsummariesthanentirechapters
C
Cognitivedissonance
Cognitivedissonanceisanabilityofholdingtwoverydifferentideasinyourmindatthesametime.
Comprehension
Understandingwhatyoureadisessentialifyouaretomakeuseoftheinformation.Themoreinformationyouhave,the
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easieritistounderstanditsoreadmore.Thebetteryourvocabulary,theeasieritistounderstandtexts,andthebest
waytoincreaseyourvocabularyistoreadmore.
Compressedspeech
Compressedspeech(ortimecompressedspeech)isanaudiotechnologythatallowstoincreasetheinformationdensity
ofanaudiobookoraudiofile.Forexample,a20mintalkcanbecompressedto5mintalk.Thegapsbetweenwordsare
removedandtherateofspeechisincreasedsignificantly.Thisisdifferentfromtheautomaticspeedingupofaudiobooks
whereonlytherateofspeechisincreased(usuallyuptothreetimes).Readmoreaboutcompressedspeech/time
compressedspeech
Concentrationpoint
Focusingonthispoint,about30cmaboveandbehindthetopofthehead,canincreasetheabilitytoread(egwith
dyslexia),thespeedofreading,andtheabilitytotakeininformation.
D
Difference
Consciouslylookingfordifference(ratherthansameness)whenreading,leadstolearningaboutnewthings.
Toalargeextent,ourapproachtoreadingisdrivenbydifference:peoplearedifferentandtakeinandprocess
informationindifferentways,booksaredifferentandneeddifferentapproaches,purposesforreadingaredifferent,you
needtoreaddifferentbooksatdifferentspeeds,etcwhichiswhyyouneedavarietyoftechniqueswhichoffera
flexibleapproach.
Dipping
Slowingdownbrieflytoreadmorecloselywhenyouhavefoundahotspotofkeyinformation.
Directlearning
Onepossibleeffectofdownloading,wherethedownloadedinformationisspontaneouslyavailable,eithertothe
consciousmind,ortothebodywhereitmanifestsasaskill(egbettergolfswing)orbetterphysicalhealth.
Downloading
Lookingverybriefly(onesecondperpage)ateverypageofabook,beingconfidentthattheinformationwillbetakenin
bythenonconsciousmind,evenwhenitisnotseenconsciously.Downloadingisone(key)stepinthePhotoReading
WholeMindSystem,whereitisknownasPhotoReading.Downloadingmayleadtodirectlearningcfrapid
reading(fromcovertocover)
Dyslexia
Termusedtodescribeinnatedifficultieswithreadingandwriting.Thedisabilitycanhaveanyoneofnumerouscauses.
Itcanslowdowntheinitialstagesoflearningtoread(confusingonelettershapewithanother,forexample),butonce
thishasbeenovercome,itisusuallycausesmoreproblemswithwritingandspellingthanwithreading.Mostofthe
techniquesadvocatedheremakereadingeasierforthosediagnosedasdyslexic.
E
ExecutiveBookSummaries(alsoBookSummariesandBusinessBookSummaries)
Studentslearnmorefromsummariesthanentirechapters
Expectations
Sinceactualperformancerarelymatchesuptoexpectations,ifyoulowerexpectations,performancewillalsofall.Itis
thereforeimportanttokeepexpectationshighreadmore,morequickly.
Eyeexercises
Exercisetheeyes(palming,focusingalternatelyonobjectsnearandfar,etc)inordertokeeptheminoptimumcondition
forreading.
Eyepatterns(alsospeedreadingeyepatterns)
Patternssuchassuperreading,skittering(zigzag,firstandlast,middles,random)thatpeopleusetolookforhotspots
ofkeyinformationwhentheyare(consciouslyreadingmorequicklycfFpattern
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Eyeregression(orregression)
Whenyoureyesjumpbacktotextthathasalreadybeenreadwhichcansignificantlyslowdownreading.
F
Familiarity
Howfamiliaryouarewiththetextorthesubjectmatter(howbigisyourschema)willhaveagreatinfluenceonhow
quicklyyouareabletoread.Readaboutscheme
Firstandlast
Oneoftheskitteringtechniques(aspeedreadingeyepattenr)peopleusetolookforhotspotsofkeyinformationwhen
theyare(consciously)readingmorequickly.Inthiscasepeoplelookatthebeginningsandendingsofthebook,each
chapter,eachsection,eachpageoreveneachparagraph,particularlyiftheyhaveidentifiedthatthisiswherethe
particularauthorislikelytoputkeyinformation.
Fixation
Theeyesdonotmovesmoothlyandevenlyalongalineoftextwhenreading.Theyjumpfromonepointtothenext.
Eachjumpiscalledasaccade.Eachpointwhereitstopsisafixation.Thepointoffixationisinfocus(infovealvision),
butwordstoeithersidewillbeslightlyoutoffocus(inperipheralvision).Openingyourperipheralvisionandtakingfewer
fixationslinewillhelpyoureadmorequickly.
Fixedmindset
Ithasbeenproventhatpeoplewhobelievethatintelligenceisfixedarelesseffectivelearnersthanthosewithagrowth
mindsetwhobelievethatintelligencedevelopswithexperienceandpractice
Flexibility
Effectivereadersareflexibleaboutthespeedatwhichtheyreadandinthetechniquestheyemploythemore
techniquesandapproachesyouknow,themoreflexibleyoucanbeSpdRdngisaflexible,notfixed,systembecause
youneedtousedifferentapproacheswithdifferentmaterialsandwithdifferentpurposes
Fovealvision
Onlyasmallpartofwhatyoulookatisinclearfocusatanyonetime,andthatpartissaidtobeinfovealvision.
Everythingelse,whichistoagreaterorlesserdegreeoutoffocus,isinperipheralvisioncffixation,saccades.
G
Growthmindset
Ithasbeenproventhatpeoplewhobelievethatintelligencedevelopswithexperienceandpracticearemoreeffective
learnersthanthosewhobelieveintelligenceisfixed(cffixedmindset)
H
Highlighting
Highlightingimportanttext(ormakingmarginnotes)isaneffectivewayofkeepingyourattentionwhilereadingaway
fromyourdeskandmakesiteasiertocheckbackonthosepartslater
Hotspots
Words,phrasesorsectionsoftextwhichcontainkeymeaningfulinformationalthoughinitiallyreaderstendtonotice
wordsandphrases,themostefficientreadersfocusonthekeymessage.
I
Incubation
Timeneededbythenonconsciousmindtosortouttextualmaterialwhichhasbeendownloaded.
Incunabulum[inkyooNAByuhluhm]
Abookprintedduringtheinfancyofprinting,especiallyoneproducedbefore1501
Interest
Howinterestedyouareinthesubjectofthetextwillinfluencehowquicklyyouareabletoreaditthemoreyoucan
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(evenartificially)stimulateyourinterest,theeasieritwillbetoassimilatetheinformation
J
Joker
Additionalbookonanonrelatedtopicreadduringsyntopicprocessingtohelpyouapproachthetaskmorecreatively.
K
Keywords/phrases
Essentialwords,phrasesorsectionsoftextthatareessentialtounderstanding,hotspotsthesearelikelytobenouns
andverbs,althoughitisimportanttolookoutforwordssuchashowever,although,ontheotherhand,whichindicate
thatalternativeviewsarebeingexpressed.However,itismoreimportanttoreadthemessagethanitistofocuson
specificwords.Keywordsandphrasesarealsoimportantwhenformulatingonesownnotes(cfnotetaking).
L
Learnacy
Thegreatestskilltohaveinthe21stcenturyiswhattheyrecallinglearnacy.Ontheanalogyofliteracyandnumeracy,
learnacyisknowinghowtolearn,withtheaimofdealingwiththehugeincreaseintheamountofinformationwere
bombardedwith.
Literaryhardware
Thetermliteraryhardwareusedtomeananovelasthickasyourthighandperhapsapipetogowithit.Todayit
referstoebookreadersandgizmossuchasElonexelectronicreader,KindleandSonyebookreader.Thefulllistof
ebookreaders
M
Marginnotes
Makingnotesinthemargin,orhighlightingtext,canbeaneffectivewayofkeepingyourattentionwhilereadingaway
fromyourdeskandmakesiteasiertocheckbackonthosepartslater
Memory
Memoryisanactive,constructivesystem(neuralnetwork)thatreceives,organisesandstoresinformation.Memory
formationinvolvesthestrengtheningofsynapticconnectionsbetweennervecells.ReadSchemabelow.More
aboutmemory
Messagenotwords
Althoughitcanbeimportanttonoticespecifickeywordsandphrases(hotspots)whichareessentialtounderstandinga
text,itismoreimportanttoreadthemessagethanitistofocusonspecificwords.
Mindset
ChangingonesmindsetfromhowmanybookshaveIread?(quantity)tohowmuchrelevantinformationhaveIgot?
(quality)isanimportantelementinacceptingtheimportofothertechniquesinthisapproach,andtospeedingupreading
generally.
Mindmapping
TechniquefornotetakingandnotemakingdevisedbyTonyBuzan:keyideasradiateonbranchesfromthecentral
subjectofthemindmap,andsecondaryideasarewrittenonlesserbranchesradiatingfromthekeyideabranches.The
techniqueispreferabletolinearnotetaking,sinceitleadstogreatercreativityandmemorability,anditisparticularly
usefulwhenthestructureofthesubjectisknowninadvancecfrhizomapping
Mirrorneurons
Mirrorneuronsarecellsdevotedpurelytomirroringthebehaviourofothers(forthefirsttimemirrorcellsfoundin
humans).Itismirrorneuronsthatallowustofeelempathywithotherstomakeuscrywhenyourbestfriendcries.When
somebodytellsyouthathefeelsyourpain,itsthemirrorneuronsthataredoingthework.Moreonmirrorneurons.
Mnemonics
Mnemonicsarememorydevicestohelpustoremember.Therearedifferenttypesofmnemonicssuchasmusic
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mnemonics(songs),namemnemonics(SpdRdngisalsoamnemonicseeSpdRdng),expressionorword
mnemonics,modelmnemonics,odemnemonics,noteorganisationmnemonics(mindmapsandrhizomapssee
mindmappingandrhizomapping),imagemnemonics(infographics),connectionmnemonics(neuralnetworks)andspelling
mnemonics.
N
NLP
NeurolinguisticProgramming(NLP)isadisciplinethatamongotherthingsattemptstoinfluencethesubconsciousmind
andaffectpositivechangebyconsciouslyusingpositivewordstorefocusonthethingswithinonescontrol.
Notemaking
Generatingyourownideasinnoteformratherthantakingnotesfromotherpeople,books,lectures,etc(notetaking)we
recommendrhizomappingandmindmappingratherthantakinglinearnotes.
Notetaking
Takingnotesfromotherpeople,books,lectures,etc,ratherthangeneratingyourownideasinnoteform(notemaking)
werecommendrhizomappingandmindmappingratherthantakinglinearnotes.
O
Online
Manyofthetechniquespeoplealreadyuseforreadingonlineareincludedinthisbookbecausetheyareeffectiveand
efficientsimilarlyalmostallthetechniquesinthisbookapplytoonlinereading.SeealsoFpattern
Overview
Thebigpicture,understandingofthekeyareasencompassedbyasubject(oratext),cfpreview.
P
ParetoPrinciple(alsoknownasthe80/20rule)
Therulestatesthat20%oftheeffortyouexpendinanyenterprisegivesyou80%oftheresultyouwanttoachieve,
whiletheremaining80%ofyoureffortgeneratesonlytheremaining20%.Inreading,theimplicationisthatifyouare
happywithachieving80%ofyourpurpose,youwillgatherfivetimesasmuchinformationinthesametime.Also,in
mostbooks,morethan80%ofthemessageiscontainedinlesthan20%ofthewordshencelookingforthehot
spotsofkeyinformation(cfStauffer).NamedbyJosephMJuranaftertheItalianeconomist,VilfredoPareto,whofirst
noticedthat80%ofpeasinhisgardenwereproducedby20%ofpeapods.
ParkinsonsLaw
Thelawstatesthatworkexpandstofillthetimeavailable.Conversely,settingtimeframesforworksessionscanspeed
uptheprocess,sinceyoudonotallowyourselfexcesstimetobefilled.
Peripheralvision
Onlyasmallpartofwhatyoulookatisinclearfocusatanyonetime,andthatpartissaidtobeinfovealvision.
Everythingelse,whichistoagreaterorlesserdegreeoutoffocus,isinperipheralvisioncffixation,saccades
PhotoReading
One(key)stepinthePhotoreadingWholeMindSystemalsoknownasdownloading
PhotoReadingWholeMindSystem
AspeedreadingsystemdevelopedbyPaulScheelewhichinvolvespreviewing,settingapurpose,gettingintoagood
stateforreading,PhotoReading(downloading),followedbyarangeofotheractivationtechniquesdesignedtobringthe
informationtoconsciousawareness
Physicalfactors
Thephysicalsituationasyouread,eglighting,beingcomfortable,crossingyourankles,whereyouholdthebook,etc,
cangreatlyaffectyourabilitytounderstandandtakeininformation.

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Prediction
Predictingorguessingwhatwillcomenextinatexthelpskeepthemindalertandengagedanimportantpartofyour
state
Preview
Lookingquicklythroughabook(egatchapterheadings,index,coverblurb,etc)togetanunderstandingofwhatit
contains,oftentodecidewhetherornottoworkwithitandtodeterminewhatpurposetheinformationitcontainsmight
fulfillcfoverview.
Primacyeffect
Researchhasshownthatyouremembermorefromthebeginnings(primacyeffect)andendings(recencyeffect)ofwork
sessionsthanyoudofromthemiddleitthereforemakessensetotakefrequentbreaksandhavemorebeginningsand
endings.
Purpose
Havingaclearpurposeforreadingabook(eginordertofulfilatask,orimproveanaspectofyourlife)isoneofthekey
techniquesforidentifyingwhatinformationisimportantagoodpurposeshouldbeSMART(specific,measureable,
achieveable,real,timebound).Purposeisnottobeconfusedwithyourlifegoal(egpassinganexam,gettingajob).
Q
Questioning
Askingquestionsaboutwhatyourereadingisoneelementofkeepingyourmindactiveandinanoptimalstatefortaking
ininformation.
R
Random
Oneoftheskitteringtechniques(aspeedreadingeyepattern)peopleusetolookforhotspotsofkeyinformationwhen
theyare(consciously)readingmorequickly.Asthenameimplies,inthiscasethereisnoclearpatternassuch.
Rapidreading(fromcovertocover)
Lookingbrieflyateverypageofabook,frequentlyafteraworksession,asameansofconsciouslypickingup
informationonemighthavemissed,whilebeingconfidentthatalltheinformationisbeingabsorbednonconsciously(see
downloading)
Reading
Decipheringsymbols(letters)inordertounderstandthewordsandsentenceswhichexpresstheauthorsthoughtsor
message.Whereaswritingdemandsthatthoughtsareexpressedletterbyletter,effectivereadingisamuchfaster
processsinceitispossibletomoveontothenextword,sentenceorideaassoonasonehasunderstoodtheprevious
one.Unfortunately,readingandwritingarefrequentlytaughttogetherasiftheyaresimilarskillsandmanypeopledonot
progressbeyondthebasicabilitytoreadwordsoneatatime,possiblyvocalisingorsubvocalising(sayingtheindividual
wordstothemselves)astheyread.
Readingrate
Speedatwhichapersonreadswithcomprehension,usuallymeasuredinwordsperminute.
Recall
Activelybringingbacktoyourmindoneelementofremembering.Itismucheasiertorecognisesomethingyouhave
seenbeforethanitistorecallitwithoutprompting
Recencyeffect
Researchhasshownthatyouremembermorefromthebeginnings(primacyeffect)andendings(recencyeffect)ofwork
sessionsthanyoudofromthemiddleitthereforemakessensetotakefrequentbreaksandhavemorebeginningsand
endings.
Recognition
Oneelementofremembering.Itismucheasiertorecognisesomethingyouhaveseenbeforethanitistorecallitwithout
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prompting
Regression
Whenyoureyesjumpbacktotextthathasalreadybeenreadwhichcansignificantlyslowdownreading.
Remembering
Understandingwhatyouread(comprehension)isjustthefirststepoftheprocess.Itisalsoimportanttohavestrategies
suchasnotetaking,talkingtoyourself,etc,inordertorememberandbeabletorecallimportantinformationwhenitis
needed.
Review
Inordertofixnewinformationinmemory,itishelpfultoreviewitatfixedintervals:after1day,1week,1month.
Rhizomapping/Rhizomap
(ProceduredevisedbyJanCisekandSusanNorman,termcoinedbyHughLEstrange)Randomwayofmakingand
takingnotes.Arhizomeisaplant(likegrass)whichspreadsthroughitsrootsystemandspringsupinmanydifferent
places.Itdoesnthaveacentralstemanditisveryrobust.(Theinternetworkskindofrhizomatically.)Theconceptof
rhizomewasoriginallydevelopedbyaFrenchphilosopher,GillesDeleuze.
Makeortakenoteshaphazardlyonthepage.Afterwards,lookbackatthenotesandmakelinksbetweenthem,by
circlingorunderliningthingsindifferentcolours,ordrawinglinesbetweenthem.Itisofteneasiertomakearhizomap
whenyouarenotsureinadvancewhatthekeyideasaregoingtobe.Onceyouhavemadeyourrhizomap,youmight
finditsatisfyingtoreorganiseyournotesintoamorecoherentmindmaporyoumightnot!(Thisideaiscurrently
uniquetoSpdRdng.)
Notetakingisanimportantstepinhelpingyourememberwhatitisyouveread.Whetherornotyoureferbacktothe
notes,theactivityitselfinvolvesmakingdecisionsaboutwhatitimportant,andrephrasingtheideasintoashorterform
whichhelpstheideascrystalise.Thesecrystalsstickinthebrainmuchmorethanideasyouhavejustunderstood
receptivelyasyouhavereadthem.Readmoreaboutrhizomappingandrhizomaps
S
Saccades
Theeyesdonotmovesmoothlyandevenlyalongalineoftextwhenreading.Theyjumpfromonepointtothenext.
Eachjumpiscalledasaccade.Eachpointwhereitstopsisafixation.Thepointoffixationisinfocus(infovealvision),
butwordstoeithersidewillbeslightlyoutoffocus(inperipheralvision).
Sameness
Itisbeneficialconsciouslytolookforsamenessanddifferencewhenreading.Samenessleadstogreaterunderstanding,
whiledifferenceleadstonewlearning.
Scanning
Lookingquicklythroughatextinordertofindspecificinformationyouthinkitcontains(thetechniqueissimilar
toskimmingandrapidreading,butyourpurposeistofindspecificinformation).
Scheme
Inshort,schemeisaneuralnetworkoranarchiveofthetotalknowledgeaboutsomethingthatyoupersonallyhave.So
peoplewillhavedifferentschemes(intheirheads/minds)fordifferentthings,dependingontheirexperiencesand
knowledge.Thebiggeryourschema,thefasteryouregoingtoreadbecausethingswillmakesensefastertoyou
becauseyoualreadyknowthem.Themoreyoureadandseethebiggeryoumakeyourschemaandsoon.Thebigger
yourschema(memory)themoreresources(knowledgeandwisdom)youhavetodealwiththepresentmoment.Speed
readingisoneofthebestwaystobuildyourschema.Byspeedreadingorjustreading,seeingmore,experiencingmore
fromothersandyourselfyoubecomeatransindividualbenefitingfromknowledgeandwisdomofpeoplewhocame
beforeyouaswellassimulationsofthefutureandpeopletocome.
Skimming
Lookingquicklythroughatextinordertodiscoveritsmessage(thetechniqueissimilartoscanningandrapidreading,
butyourpurposeistogetageneralunderstandingofwhatthetextisabout).
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Skittering
(TermcoinedbyDrMichaelBennettfor)someofthemorerandomspeedreadingeyepatternsusedwhenskimmingor
scanningtolookforhotspotsofkeyinformation.Skitteringpatternsincludezigzag,firstandlast,middlesandrandom
cfsuperreading
SMART
Awayofevaluatinganeffectivepurposeforreading.Theacronymstandsfor:Specific,Measureable,Achievable,Real,
Timebound
Smiling
Partofgettingintoanoptimalstateforreadingsmilinghasbeenproventohelppeopletakeininformation.Itreleases
endorphins.Researchsuggeststhatyoureadfasterwhenyourefeelinggood.Alsooptimismwillstrengthenyour
immunesystem
SpdRdng
Namecoinedbytheauthorsfortheflexibleapproachtoreadingdescribedonthiswebsitewhichnotonlyinvolves
readingmorequickly(speedreading),butalsoincludesusingthenonconsciousmind(egdownloading)andapplying
strategiesforidentifying,rememberingandapplyinginformationtomaterialsfromavarietyofsourcesforavarietyof
purposes.
SpdRdngisalsoamnemonic:StatepurposedownloadpReviewdetailsnotesgist
Speedreading
Speedreadinginvolvestakingfewerfixationsand/orusingspeedreadingeyepatternsinordertoreadmorequickly.Itis
basicallyaspeedierversionoftraditionalreading(whereasthewholeSpdRdngapproachdescribedonthiswebsitealso
involvesstrategiesforidentifying,rememberingandapplyingtheinformation).
Speedreadingeyepatterns(alsoeyepatterns)
Patternssuchassuperreading,skittering(zigzag,firstandlast,middles,random)thatpeopleusetolookforhotspots
ofkeyinformationwhentheyare(consciously)readingmorequicklycfFpattern
State
Beingintherightstatewhileyouarereadingcanenhanceyourabilitytotakeinandretaininformationtheidealstateis
toberelaxed,alertandquestioning.Beforeyoustartreading,takeadeepbreathandrelax,smile,andfocusonthe
concentrationpointtoopenyourperipheralvision.cfeyeexercises,braingym,breaks.
Stauffer,DrRussell
StaufferstatesinhisbookTeachingReadingAsAThinkingProcess(1969)thatinmostbooksthemeaningisactually
carriedby411%ofthewords,hencethebenefitoflookingforhotspotsofkeyinformation.
Subvocalisation
Sayingwords(silently)toyourselfasyouread,whichmayalsoinvolvemovingyourlips.Mostpeoplesubvocaliseto
someextent,andwhenusedappropriately,subvocalisingisusefulwhenthepronunciationofthewordisimportant,and
itcanhelpwithprocessingcomplexinformation,orinformationwritteninacomplexwayhowever,itisalsolikelytoslow
downthereadingprocesssinceitisonlypossibletospeak(inEnglish)atbetweenabout70240wordsperminute*.
Strategiestoreducewordforwordsubvocalisingincludeplacingthetipofthetongueontheroofofthemouth,and/or
mentallytalkingtoyourselfaboutwhatyourereadingbyquestioningorsummarizingcfvocalising(sayingthewords
aloud)*Somepeoplecanspeakandreadfasterthan240wordsperminute.StevenSteveWoodmoreisable
toarticulate637wordsperminute(wpm)andcurrentlytryingtoslowdownthespeedofhisspeech,soastohavea
normalconversationwithother.Tachylaliaisatermforextremelyrapidspeech.FranCapoisthefastestfemalespeaker.

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StevenSteveWoodmoretalkingat637words/minute
Summaries
Summariesareprobablythebestwaytogetinformationquickly.Alwayslookforbookswithsummaries.Research
suggeststhatpeoplewhoreadsummariesremembermoreandforlongerthanpeoplewhoreadthewholebooks.Read
moreaboutsummaries
Superduperreading
(TermcoinedbyJanCisekandSusanNormanfor)lookingquicklydownthecentreofpagesorcolumnsoftextinorder
tospeedupthebrainsothatsubsequentreadingisquicker(thisisthesameprocessassuperreading,butthepurpose
isdifferent)
Superreading
Lookingquicklydownthecentreofapageorcolumnforhotspotsofkeyinformationoneofthespeedreadingeye
patternsusedforlookingsequentiallythroughatext(thisisthesameprocessassuperduperreading,butthepurposeis
different)cfskittering
Syntopicprocessing
Workingwithseveral(24)booksatonetime(usually75minutessession)inordertofulfillonepurpose(syntopic
readingwasbrieflydescribedbyMortimerAdlerinhisbookHowtoReadaBook)theproceduregivesan
unprecedentedopportunityforcomparingandcontrastingtheideasofdifferentauthors,orforgettinganoverviewofa
newsubject.Itisanidealtechniqueforgettinganoverviewofasubjectorfindingspecificinformationfromseveral
sources.SpdRdngoffersonedaythematiccoursesforexampleSpeedreadingforPROSPERITY2010
T
Talking
Talkingaboutwhatyoureadisaneffectivetechnique(a)whileyourereadingforreducingsubvocalisationand(b)after
yourereadforincreasingretention
TimeframesSettingtimeframesforworksessions(20minutes),previewing(25minutes)andsyntopicprocessing(75
minutes)canmaketheprocessofretrievinginformationmuchmoreefficient.
Triggerwords
Wordswhichinitiallyjumpoutatyouwhenyoulookquicklythroughatext.Theymaybekeywordsforunderstanding
meaning(hotspots),ortheymayjustbethingswhicharefamiliartoyou.
Trust
Themoreyouputthesetechniquesintopractice,themoreyoucometotrustthattheywork.Similarly,themoreyou
trustthattheywillwork,thebettertheywork.
V
Vocabulary
Thelargeryourvocabulary(andyourschema),thequickeryouwillbeabletoread.Readaboutschema
Vocalising
Mouthing/sayingwordstoyourself(aloud)whilereadingthemonebyone.Thisisoftenaremnantfromwhenonelearnt
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toreadinchildhoodandisanextremelyinefficientwayoftakingininformationwhenreadingcfsubvocalising(saying
thewordssilently)
W
WIIFM
Acronymstandingfor:Whatsinitforme?Itisbeneficialtoaskthisquestionwhenformulatingyourpurposeforreading
abook.
Wpm(wordsperminute)
Wpm=numberofpagesreadmultipliedbynumberofwordsperaveragepagedividedbynumberofminutesspent
reading.Moreonwordperminuterecords
Howtocalculateyourreadingspeed
Numberofpagesread.(thisisenoughformostpeople,butifyouwanttobemoreaccurate,thendotheremaining
calculationstoo)
Averagenumberoflinesonapage.(choosethreerepresentativepages,countthenumberoflinesoneach,add
themtogetheranddividebythree)
Averagenumberofwordsinaline.(choosethreefulllines,countthenumberofwordsineach,addthemtogether
anddividebythree)
Numberofwordsreadinfiveminutes.(multiplytogetherthethreepreviouscalculations)
Readingspeedinwordsperminute.(dividethenumberofwordsreadinfiveminutesbyfive)
Writing
(1)Writingfornotetakingisveryhelpfulforhelpingyourememberwhatyouread.(2)Althoughreadingandwritingshare
manycharacteristics,itisnothelpfultoteachthemasiftheyaretwosidesofthesameskill.Youalwaysneedtowrite
letterbyletterandwordbyword,butitisusuallymoreeffectivetoreadchunksofwordsfortheirmeaning.
Z
Zigzag
Oneoftheskitteringtechniques(aspeedreadingeyepattern)peopleusetolookforhotspotsofkeyinformationwhen
theyare(consciously)readingmorequickly.Inthiscasepeoplelooksequentiallyina(wideornarrow)zigzagpattern
downthepageorcolumnoftext.

http://spdrdng.com/glossary

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