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NOTE:..

Greg Anderson
Bates College
How to Make Simple Solutions and Dilutions

click here
!

!
Unit Definitions
milligram "
" #$
#%%%
gram "
kilogram "
" #%%%
#%'
)'
mole " (%)' !#%
molarity "
molar " "

#%&'

eg

)*

millimole " #$
#%%%
millimolar "
"
)%$
#%%%" %%)
$"
$"

)*

eg

)%

1. Simple Dilution (Dilution Factor Method)..


simple dilution

unit volume
solvent +

factor

+
,
!

#.
*

0
#
12

*0

dilution
,

#
#1 2" *"

#.,

#.
'%%

!#

)33

!
-

0
50

!
)%5

667
,

8
0
50

). #5
)%5 667

667
#3

)%5 667

2. Mixing parts or volumes..


!

'
'

0
9

!
!

!#

'
!

7
!

.4

#.
'
!

#.
'

!
7

0
# 4

:4

3. Serial Dilution..
serial dilution
+

;<

total dilution factor

product

;- " ;-#=;-)=;-' etc

+
etc
,
4

.4

>4
? ?@9 )%#
,
33%A " #.
#%%
33

33
the 1:100 dilution
#.
#%%=#%%" #.
#%%%% B
= #%%%% " #.
#%%%%%%
less

three step #.
#%%
#% A
of

#
4

#.
#%%
,

4. Making fixed volumes of specific concentrations from liquid reagents: V1C1=V2C2..


C

D
+
+

!
eg

V = volume C = concentration;
V1C1=V2C2
!

#.6
V1

V1 "
C1 " #%%
V2 "
C2 "

'
)%% A " C2

)*
)%%A

#%%
$

$
" V2

This is your unknown.

D
$

>
C#" C)!7) $7#
C#" %)
!)*
$

" )%%A " %)


" )*

.
$#%%

" C1
9

" %%*
6
A

" *%A
*%A

)*

#*%A

)%%

5. Molar solutions (unit = M = moles/L)..


molarity
# formula weight -E
-

6
#

#%
#%

#%
$

molecular weight
!

#.To prepare a liter of a simple molar solution from a dry reagent:


formula weight
.

-E " #32' $

#32' $
!

=%#*

%#*

$ " )3#2* $

).To prepare a specific volume of a specific molar solution from a dry reagent:
-E

"

#G% $

)*

%%)*

%#*
)*

:
H

"

>
H
H

"
" %%)* =%#*

" %(I*

)*

$ =-E

=
$ =#G% $

$ =-E

%#*

%(I*
)*

6. Percent Solutions (= parts per hundred)..

!
percent concentrations. E
dry mass (g) per volume
H $
#%%
"
+
#%
#%%
>

#%J < 7
<7

#%J
!

#.4

'J
+

$ <7

$ <7

'%

<7

#%%

#%%
#J

#%%
!

).,

#) = '*%
6

'*%
$
#%%

2)

$ <7

" #) !' *" 2)

<7

'.

%%*= #*

#)J

'*%

#*
$
#%%

%%%I*

%%*J

" %%%I*

<?'

I*

<?'

#*
volume per volume i e

liquid reagents

$
#%%
!

2.4

I%J

! I%

#%%J

'%
#%%

*.,

)#*

= 3#)

! #3(#

3#)
$
#%%
,

)#*J

$,

5&#%%

" #3(#
5&#%%

I#*3

)#*J

7. Conversions from % to molarity and from molarity to %..


To convert from % solution to molarity
$

#%

Molarity = (% solution) * 10
Xxxxx
FW
!

(.,

K(* $
#%%

(*J

-E " ')*(

=#%L$')*( $ " %#33(

To convert from molarity to percent solution


#%.

-E

% solution = molarity * FW
xxxxxxxxxx10
!

I. 7
.

%%%2*

-E #IGI

K
%%%2*

$ =#IGI $

L$#%" %%GJ