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PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

LECTURE 6

Instructor:
Papa Alhajji Gora Madikay Faal

Rules of Writing

Expanding Our Vocabulary

Attenuate
verb (used with object), attenuated,
attenuating. 1. to weaken or reduce in force,
intensity, effect, quantity, or value: to attenuate
desire.
2. to make thin; make slender or fine.
3. Bacteriology, Immunology - to render less virulent,
as a strain of pathogenic virus or bacterium.
4. Electronics. to decrease the amplitude of (an
electronic signal).
attenuating - to become thin or fine; lessen.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Attenuate
Example sentences for attenuate
Even as the available endorphins attenuate, the memory
is right there.
They will attenuate rights and still call them rights.
Four separate tone controls permit you to boost or
attenuate any frequency range or combination of
ranges.
Such statements not only mean little, but also attenuate
the reader's interest in a potentially fascinating subject.
But we are fighting to eliminate, or at least attenuate,
many of them.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Misnomer
Noun
a misapplied or inappropriate nameor
designation.
an errorin naming a person or thing.
Origin:
142575; late Middle English < Anglo-French,
noun use of Middle French mesnomer to
misname, equivalent to mesmis + nomer < Latin nminre.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Misnomer

Misnomer is not a fancy, more elevated word for mistake.Nor is it


a synonym for misstatement, misconception, or misunderstanding.
As the word's Latin etymon nminre (to name) tells us, a
misnomer is a special kind of mistake: a wrong name. The
consequences of a mistake can range from trivial to catastrophic
from typos to train wrecks. But a misnomer is often just
embarrassing, like trying to impress a friend by saying download
when you should say install. Sometimes, however, what began as a
misnomer can become a standard term: the game of Chinese
checkers does not come from China; the funny bone is a nerve,
not a bone; hay fever is not caused by hay and is not a fever. Other
kinds of mistakes or misunderstandingsgiving a driver wrong
directions, thinking that the earth is flat, drawing an erroneous
conclusionare not misnomers. In fact, the word misnomerwhen
used to describe a behavioral mistake or a misperception of reality
is itself a misnomer!

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Misnomer
"Working mother" is a misnomer. . . . It implies that any
mother without a definite career is lolling around eating
bon- bons, reading novels, and watching TV. But the
word "mother" is already a synonym for some of the
hardest, most demanding work ever shouldered by any
human. . . . It is one she cannot easily give up for
several decades. It can be slavery, joy in work, a
magnificent career. It can be failure or triumph, but it
can never be insignificant or unimportant since it is one
"job" affecting the outcome of another's life.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Misnomer
Example sentences for misnomer
The reality is that the title of this book is a bit of a
misnomer, since it isn't a fad diet consisting only of rice.
The name, however, is a bit of a misnomer.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Amalgamate
verb (used with object), amalgamated,
amalgamating.
to mix or merge so as to make a combination;
blend; unite; combine: to amalgamate two
companies.
Metallurgy. to mix or alloy (a metal) with mercury.
verb (used without object), amalgamated,
amalgamating.
to combine, unite, merge, or coalesce:
The three schools decided to amalgamate.
to blend with another metal, as mercury.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Amalgamate
Example sentences for amalgamate:
To fully integrate is to eventually assimilate
and amalgamate.
Some departments grow, some shrink, some
amalgamate.
Class actions amalgamate many similar but
small complaints into one big one.
Sometimes he would amalgamate the contents
of 3 baskets in one basket.

Rules of Writing
When speaking, we can pause or change
the tone of our voices to indicate
emphasis. When writing, we use
punctuation to indicate these places of
emphases. This lecture should help to
clarify when and how to use various marks
of punctuation.

Rules of Writing
Independent clause: a clause that has a
subject and a verb and can stand alone; a
complete sentence
Dependent clause: a clause that has a
subject and a verb but cannot stand
alone; an incomplete sentence

Rules of Writing
Comma
Use a comma to join 2 independent clauses
by a comma and a coordinating
conjunction (and, but, or, for, nor, so).
Road construction can be inconvenient, but
it is necessary.
The new house has a large fenced
backyard, so I am sure our dog will enjoy
it.

Rules of Writing

Comma
Use a comma after an introductory phrase,
prepositional phrase, or dependent clause.
To get a good grade, you must complete
all your assignments.
Because Dad caught the chicken pox, we
canceled our vacation.
After the wedding, the guests attended
the reception.

Rules of Writing
Comma
Use a comma to separate elements in a series.
Although there is no set rule that requires a
comma before the last item in a series, it seems
to be a general academic convention to include
it.
The examples below demonstrate this trend.
On his vacation, Ali visited Mecca, Medina, and
Jerusalem.
In their speeches, many of the candidates
promised to help protect the environment,
bring about world peace, and end world hunger.

Rules of Writing
Comma
Use a comma to separate nonessential elements
from a sentence. More specifically, when a
sentence includes information that is not crucial
to the message or intent of the sentence,
enclose it in or separate it by commas.
Ali's truck, a red Toyota, needs new tires.
When he realized he had overslept, Ali rushed
to his car and hurried to work.

Rules of Writing
Comma
Use a comma between coordinate
adjectives (adjectives that are equal and
reversible).
The irritable, fidgety crowd waited
impatiently for the rally speeches to begin.
The sturdy, compact suitcase made a
perfect gift.

Rules of Writing
Comma
Use a comma after a transitional element
(however, therefore, nonetheless, also,
otherwise, finally, instead, thus, of course, above
all, for example, in other words, as a result, on
the other hand, in conclusion, in addition)
For example, the Red Sox, Yankees, and Indians
are popular baseball teams.
If you really want to get a good grade this
semester you must deliver an excellent
presentation, however, you must complete all
assignments, attend classes, and study your
notes.

Rules of Writing
Comma
Use a comma with quoted words.
"Yes, he promised. Ali replied, saying, "I
will be back this afternoon."

Rules of Writing
Comma
Use a comma in a date.
October 25, 1999
Monday, October 25, 1999
25 October 1999

Rules of Writing
Comma
Use a comma in a number.
15,000,000
1614 High Street

Rules of Writing
Comma
Use a comma in a personal title.
Pam Smith, MD
Mike Rose, Chief Financial Officer for
Operations, reported the quarter's
earnings.

Rules of Writing
Comma
Use a comma to separate a city name
from the state.
West Lafayette, Indiana
Dallas, Texas
Banjul, The Gambia

Rules of Writing
Comma
Avoid comma splices (two independent
clauses joined only by a comma). Instead,
separate the clauses with a period, with a
comma followed by a coordinating
conjunction, or with a semicolon.

Rules of Writing
Semicolon
Use a semicolon to join 2 independent
clauses when the second clause restates
the first or when the two clauses are of
equal emphasis.
Road construction in Dallas has hindered
travel around town; streets have become
covered with bulldozers, trucks, and
cones.

Rules of Writing
Semicolon
Use a semicolon to join 2 independent clauses
when the second clause begins with a conjunctive
adverb (however, therefore, moreover,
furthermore, thus, meanwhile, nonetheless,
otherwise) or a transition (in fact, for example,
that is, for instance, in addition, in other words,
on the other hand, even so).
Terrorism in the United States has become a
recent concern; in fact, the concern for America's
safety has led to an awareness of global terrorism.

Rules of Writing
Semicolon
Use a semicolon to join elements of a
series when individual items of the series
already include commas.
Recent sites of the Olympic Games
include Athens, Greece; Salt Lake City,
Utah; Sydney, Australia; Nagano, Japan.

Rules of Writing
Colon
Use a colon to join 2 independent clauses
when you wish to emphasize the second
clause.
Road construction in Dallas has hindered
travel around town: parts of Main, Fifth,
and West Street are closed during the
construction.

Rules of Writing
Colon
Use a colon after an independent clause
when it is followed by a list, a quotation,
appositive, or other idea directly related
to the independent clause.
Julie went to the store for some
groceries: milk, bread, coffee, and
cheese.

Rules of Writing
Colon
In his Gettysburg Address, Abraham Lincoln urges
Americans to rededicate themselves to the unfinished
work of the deceased soldiers: "It is for us the living
rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work
which they who fought here have thus far so nobly
advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the
great task remaining before us that from these
honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause
for which they gave the last full measure of devotion
that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not
have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have
a new birth of freedom, and that government of the
people, by the people, for the people shall not perish
from the earth."

Rules of Writing
Colon
I know the perfect job for her: a
politician.

Rules of Writing

Colon
Use a colon at the end of a business letter
greeting.
To Whom It May Concern:
Use a colon to separate the hour and
minute(s) in a time notation.
12:00 p.m.

Rules of Writing
Parenthesis
Parentheses are used to emphasize content.
They place more emphasis on the enclosed
content than commas. Use parentheses to set
off nonessential material, such as dates,
clarifying information, or sources, from a
sentence.
Muhammed Ali (1942-present), arguably the
greatest athlete of all time, claimed that he
could "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee."

Expanding Our Vocabulary

Attenuate
verb (used with object), attenuated,
attenuating. 1. to weaken or reduce in force,
intensity, effect, quantity, or value: to attenuate
desire.
2. to make thin; make slender or fine.
3. Bacteriology, Immunology - to render less virulent,
as a strain of pathogenic virus or bacterium.
4. Electronics. to decrease the amplitude of (an
electronic signal).
attenuating - to become thin or fine; lessen.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Attenuate
Example sentences for attenuate
Even as the available endorphins attenuate, the memory
is right there.
They will attenuate rights and still call them rights.
Four separate tone controls permit you to boost or
attenuate any frequency range or combination of
ranges.
Such statements not only mean little, but also attenuate
the reader's interest in a potentially fascinating subject.
But we are fighting to eliminate, or at least attenuate,
many of them.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Misnomer
Noun
a misapplied or inappropriate nameor
designation.
an errorin naming a person or thing.
Origin:
142575; late Middle English < Anglo-French,
noun use of Middle French mesnomer to
misname, equivalent to mesmis + nomer < Latin nminre.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Misnomer

Misnomer is not a fancy, more elevated word for mistake.Nor is it


a synonym for misstatement, misconception, or misunderstanding.
As the word's Latin etymon nminre (to name) tells us, a
misnomer is a special kind of mistake: a wrong name. The
consequences of a mistake can range from trivial to catastrophic
from typos to train wrecks. But a misnomer is often just
embarrassing, like trying to impress a friend by saying download
when you should say install. Sometimes, however, what began as a
misnomer can become a standard term: the game of Chinese
checkers does not come from China; the funny bone is a nerve,
not a bone; hay fever is not caused by hay and is not a fever. Other
kinds of mistakes or misunderstandingsgiving a driver wrong
directions, thinking that the earth is flat, drawing an erroneous
conclusionare not misnomers. In fact, the word misnomerwhen
used to describe a behavioral mistake or a misperception of reality
is itself a misnomer!

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Misnomer
"Working mother" is a misnomer. . . . It implies that any
mother without a definite career is lolling around eating
bon- bons, reading novels, and watching TV. But the
word "mother" is already a synonym for some of the
hardest, most demanding work ever shouldered by any
human. . . . It is one she cannot easily give up for
several decades. It can be slavery, joy in work, a
magnificent career. It can be failure or triumph, but it
can never be insignificant or unimportant since it is one
"job" affecting the outcome of another's life.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Misnomer
Example sentences for misnomer
The reality is that the title of this book is a bit of a
misnomer, since it isn't a fad diet consisting only of rice.
The name, however, is a bit of a misnomer.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Amalgamate
verb (used with object), amalgamated,
amalgamating.
to mix or merge so as to make a combination;
blend; unite; combine: to amalgamate two
companies.
Metallurgy. to mix or alloy (a metal) with mercury.
verb (used without object), amalgamated,
amalgamating.
to combine, unite, merge, or coalesce:
The three schools decided to amalgamate.
to blend with another metal, as mercury.

Expanding Our Vocabulary


Amalgamate
Example sentences for amalgamate:
To fully integrate is to eventually assimilate
and amalgamate.
Some departments grow, some shrink, some
amalgamate.
Class actions amalgamate many similar but
small complaints into one big one.
Sometimes he would amalgamate the contents
of 3 baskets in one basket.

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

END OF
LECTURE 6