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Title page



Photovoltaic (PV) is a technical name in which radiant (photon) energy from the sun is
converted to direct current (dc) Electrical Energy. PV power output is still low, continuous
efforts are taken to develop the PV converter and controller for maximum power extracting
efficiency and reduced cost factor. The maximum power point tracking
(MPPT) is a process which tracks one maximum power point from array input, varying the
ratio between the voltage and current delivered to get the most power it can. A number of
algorithms have been developed for extracting maximum power. This paper details the study
of incremental conductance MPPT algorithm. And it can be experimentally verified by
modelling the PV system with MPPT algorithm in Matlab/Simulink Software. Think about
distinctive renewable energies, particularly sun powered vitality, conveyance of sun based
radiation. The nitty gritty working as to the PV cell has been madenatural. The configuration
of support converter, the interfacing of the PV show alongside the converter has been
secured. Yield of the converter is changed and the change in the information voltage and
present into the support converter is checked. The current situation of sun oriented force,
definitions and essential wordings have been secured. Working hypotheses have been
comprehended and numerical representation for current and Fermi vitality have been found.
Renewable energy sources plays an important role in electricity generation.
Various renewable energy sources like wind, solar, geothermal, ocean thermal, and biomass
can be used for generation of electricity and for meeting our daily energy needs. Energy from
the sun is the best option for electricity generation as it is available everywhere and is free to
harness. On an average the sunshine hour in India is about 6hrs annually also the sun shine
shines in India for about 9 months in a year. Electricity from the sun can be generated through
the solar photovoltaic modules (SPV). The SPV comes in various power output to meet the
load requirement.
Maximization of power from a solar photo voltaic module (SPV) is of special interest as the
efficiency of the SPV module is very low. A peak power tracker is used for extracting the
maximum power from the SPV module .The present work describes the maximum power
point tracker (MPPT) for the SPV module connected to a resistive load. A Personal Computer
(PC) is used for control of the MPPT algorithm. The power tracker is developed and tested
successfully in the laboratory. The simulation studies are carried out in MATLABR
/SIMULINK. The measured parameters such as panel voltage, current and power are

displayed on the monitor of the pc. The MPPT system has been tested on Solar PV Module
rated 38Wpeak at 16.6V and 2.2
A and at 25 degree Celsius and 1000W/m2 of TATA BP Solar INDIA
Nitty gritty investigation of waveforms and circuit dissection and working of both boost and
buck converter and its utilization for PV show has been carried out and compared also. Most
of the world's energy sources originated from tried and conventional sources-fossil fills, for
example, coal, regular gasses and oil. These powers are frequently term non-renewable
energy sources. However, the accessible measure of these powers are to a great degree huge,
yet because of diminishing in level of fossil fuel and oil level step by step after a couple of
years it will end. Thus renewable energy source interest builds as it is ecological inviting and
contamination free which decreases the harmful impact on environment as in case of fossil
fuel based energy.

1. Introduction
2. Modelling of PV Cell
3. Work of Summary
4. Solar Energy
5. Photovoltaic Cell
6. Material used in PV Cell
6.1 Single-Crystal Cell
6.2 Poly-Crystalline Silicon
7. Modelling of a Solar Cell
8. MPPT Algorithm
8.1 Need for MPPT
9. Methods for MPPT
9.1 Perturb and Observe Method
9.2 Increment Conductance Method
9.3 Increment Conductance Algorithm
10. Simulink Model for MPPT Techniques
11. Boost Converter
11.1 Working Theory
11.2 Circuit Analysis
12. Buck Converter
13. Mode of Operation
13.1 Continuous Mode
13.2 Discontinuous Mode





Solar Energy is the ultimate source of energy, which is naturally replenished in a short time
period of time, for this reason it is called Renewable Energy or Sustainable Energy. Due
to the severity of the global energy crisis and environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV)
system has become one kind of important renewable energy source. Solar energy has the
advantages of maximum reserve, inexhaustibleness, and is free from geographical
restrictions, thus making PV technology a popular research topic. In this world 80 % of the
green houses gases are released due to the usage of fossil fuel based. The world primary
energy demand will have increased almost 60% between 2002 and 2030, averaging 1.7%
increase annually, increasing still further the Green House Gases. Oil reserves would have
been exhausted by 2040, natural gas by 2060, and coal by 2300.
This causes issues of high per KW installation cost but low efficiency in PV generators.
Currently more research works has been focussed on how to extract more power effectively
from the PV cells. There are two ways such as solar tracking system and Maximum Power
Point Tracking (MPPT). In the literature survey show that there will be an increasing
percentage of 30-40 % of energy will be extracted compared to the PV system without solar
tracking system. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is usually used as online
control strategy to track the maximum output power operating point of the Photovoltaic
generation (PVG) for different operating condition of insolation and temperature of the PVG.
The author compares and evaluates the percentage of power extraction with MPPT and
without MPPT. It clearly shows that when we use MPPT with the PV system, the power
extraction efficiency is increase to 97%. The study of developing a PV charging system for
Li-ion batteries by integrating MPPT and charging control for the battery is reviewed. The
author reviews the various types of non-isolated Dc-Dc converters for the photo voltaic
system. Optimal operating performances by different converter topologies are one of the main
points which can be summarized in this research work. It concludes that the best type of
converter for PV system is the buck-boost Dc/Dc converter.
The late upsurge in the interest of PV frameworks is because of the way that they deliver
electric force without hampering the earth by specifically changing over the sun powered
radiation into electric force. However the sun oriented radiation never stays consistent. It
continues shifting for the duration of the day. The need of great importance is to convey a

consistent voltage to the framework regardless of the variety in temperatures and sun based
insolation. PV clusters utilized with help converters might be a response to that. Support
converters might be utilized to make a consistent ventures up DC voltage. In spite of the fact
that the exchange of the demonstrating of PV cluster utilizing a support converter will remain
our principle point, we will likewise administer the current situation and patterns of sun
oriented vitality in India and around the globe. A thorough study and understanding of the
working of a sunlight based cell and support converter will be carried out. A Simulink model
utilizing MATLAB codes for scientific interpretations of created current and voltage will be
carried out. Re-enactments for different levels of radiation and waveforms for circuit utilizing
help converter will be shown. Hypothetical perspectives will be overall investigated and point
of interest dissection will be carried out to further edify the subject.
This report reviews the basic characteristics of the PV cell and the simulation model of the
circuit with the help of Matlabsimulink software. The MPPT Controller is necessary for any
solar systems need to extract maximum power from PV module. It forces PV module to
operate at close to maximum power operation point to draw maximum available power. The
MPPT algorithm used in this paper is of variable step size
Incremental Conductance (IC) Method. But the optimal performance of the PV system
mainly depends on the power converter. The simulation model of the PV based system with
MPPT algorithm will be implemented in the Matlab/Simulink.

The solar cell is the basic unit of a PV system. An individual solar cell produces direct current
and power typically between 1 and 2 W, hardly enough to power most applications. Solar
Cell or Photovoltaic (PV) cell is a device that is made up of semiconductor materials such as
silicon, gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride, etc. that converts sunlight directly into
electricity. The voltage of a solar cell does not depend strongly on the solar irradiance but
depends primarily on the cell temperature. PV modules can be designed to operate at different
voltages by connecting solar cells in series. When solar cells absorb sunlight, free electrons
and holes are created at positive/negative junctions. If the positive and negative junctions of
solar cell are connected to DC electrical equipment, current is delivered to operate the
electrical equipment.

The objective of the project was to find a solution to the power and voltage fluctuations in the
PV systems. The work done here includes modelling of PV array and interfacing it with both
boost and buck converter. We have tried to find which converter works best for the PV array
and gives optimum performance. Various literature work on the subject has been done and
understood and comprehensive modelling based on Simulink has been done pertaining to this
theoretical knowledge.
Sun powered vitality, a non-ordinary kind of vitality. Sun powered vitality has been utilized
by human race since long times utilizing a heaps of innovations. Sun oriented radiation and
optional sun powered fueled asset like tidal and wind power, hydroelectric and biomass, are
in charge of a large portion of the promptly accessible non-expected sorts of energies on
earth. Just a little divide of the trappable sunlight based vitality is utilized. Sun oriented
fueled power era relies on upon photovoltaic setup alongside hotness motors. Sunlight based
vitality's provision are huge and imaginative speculation is required to unleash undiscovered
requisition of sun powered cell. To produce sun based vitality, common path is to utilize
photograph voltaic exhibits which get vitality from sun and converts it to electrical vitality.
Heavenly bodies are partitioned into either aloof sun powered or dynamic sun oriented which
relies on upon the way they trap, change over and appropriate sunlight based vitality.

Sun based cells are built by semiconductor material, usually silicon based. For PV cells, a
more slender semiconductor sheet is uniquely made to structure an electric field, positive
extremity on one side and negative on other. At the point when photons strike a sun powered
cell, electrons are accumulated detached from iotas the semiconductor material. In the event
that current conduits are appended to the both the sides, structuring a current exchanging
circuit, the electrons move to manifestation of a current i.e., power for fulfilling different
power needs.

photovoltaic cell


The materials used in PV cells are as follows:
6.1 Single-crystal silicon
Single-gem silicon cells are the most widely recognized in the PV business. The primary
method for delivering single-precious stone silicon pertaining to the Czochralski strategy.
Highimmaculateness polycrystalline is dissolved in quartz pot. A solitary gem silicon seed is
dunked into this liquid heap of polycrystalline. The seed is brought out gradually from the
molten liquid, a solitary precious stone ingot is shaped. The ingots are cut into slim wafers

something like two hundred micrometers thick. The slight wafers then cleaned, covered, and
amassed into modules and shows.
6.2 Polycrystalline silicon
Comprising of little grains of single-gem silicon, polycrystalline PV cells are less vitality
effective than single-crystalline silicon PV cells. The grain limits in polycrystalline silicon
block the stream of electrons and lessen the force yield of the cell. A typical methodology to
deliver polycrystalline silicon PV cells is to cut dainty wafers from pieces of cast


A sunlight based cell is the key working unit of a daylight based board. A photovoltaic
display is surrounded by making a relationship of various PV cells in course of action and
parallel. Considering simply a lone PV cell; it could be shown by using a current source, a
diode and resistors. This model is the single diode model of PV cell. Two diode models are
similarly used however simply single diode model is considered.
The characteristic equation for a photovoltaic cell is given by,
Iph = Iscr + ki(T 298)*
k:Boltzmann's constant, 1.38 *10-23 J/K;
q: Electron charge, 1.6*10-19 C;
Ki: Short circuit current temperature coefficient at Iscr;
: Solar irradiation in W/m2;
Iscr : Short circuit current at 25 degree Celsius;
Iph : Light-generated current;
Ego : Band gap for silicon;
Tr : Reference temperature;
Ior : Cell saturation current at Tr;
Rsh : Shunt resistance;

Rs : Series resistance;
The trademark articulation of a PV module relies on number of cells in parallel and number
of cells in series in the arrangement. It is inspected from comes about that the variety in
present is not as much subject to the parallel resistance and is reliant on the series resistance.
I = Np * Iph Np * Io * (e q*( Vpv+IpvRs)/NsAKT 1)
I-V and P-V curves for a solar cell are shown in the following figure. It can be seen that the
cell operates as a constant current source at lesser values of operating voltages and a constant
voltage source at lesser values of input current.

8. Simulink model of pv module


Renewable energy sources play an important role in electric power generation.

Various renewable sources such as solar energy, wind energy, geothermal etc. are harness for
electric power generation. Solar Energy is a good choice for electric power generation. The
solar energy is directly converted into electrical energy by solar photovoltaic module.
The photovoltaic modules are made up of silicon cells. The silicon solar cells which give
output voltage of around 0.7V under open circuit condition. When many such cells are
connected in series we get a solar PV module. Normally in a module there are 36 cells which
amount for a open circuit voltage of about 20V. The current rating of the modules depends on
the area of the individual cells. Higher the cell area high is the current output of the cell. For
obtaining higher power output the solar PV modules are connected in series and parallel
combinations froming solar PV arrays. A typical characteristic curve of the called current (I)
and voltage (V) curve and power (W) and voltage (V) curve of the module is shown is shown
in figure.

Fig.2 Characteristics of a typical solar PV module.

Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play a main role in photovoltaic (PV) power
systems because they maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of
conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency. Thus, an MPPT can minimize the
overall system cost. There are many MPPT methods available the most widely-used

technique is incremental conductance method described in the following sections. They also
vary in complexity, sensor requirement, speed of convergence, cost, range of operation,
popularity, ability to detect multiple local maxima and their applications. Specifically the
Power Point Tracker is a high frequency
DC to DC converter. They take the DC input from the solar panels, change it to high
frequency AC, and convert it back down to a different DC voltage and current to exactly
match the panels to the loads. MPPT's operate at very high audio frequencies, usually in the
20-80 kHz range. The advantage of high frequency circuits is that they can be designed with
very high efficiency transformers and small components.
Some MPPTs are more rapid and accurate and thus more impressive which need special
design and familiarity with specific subjects such as fuzzy logic or neural network methods.
MPPT fuzzy logic controllers have good performance under varying atmospheric conditions
and exhibits better performance in contrast with P&O control method; however the main
disadvantage of this method is that its effectiveness is highly dependent on the technical
knowledge of the engineer in computing the error and coming up with the rule base table. It is
greatly dependant on the how designer arranges the system which requires skill and
8.1 Need for maximum power point tracking
Power output of a Solar PV module changes with change in direction of sun, changes in solar
insolation level and with varying temperature. We know that the efficiency of the solar PV
module is low about 13%. Since the module efficiency is low it is desirable to operate the
module at the peak power point so that the maximum power can be delivered to the load
under varying temperature and insolation conditions. Hence maximization of power improves
the utilization of the solar PV module. A maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is used for
extracting the maximum power from the solar pv module and transferring that power to the
load. A dc/dc converter(step up/step down) serves the purpose of transferring maximum
power from the solar PV module to the load. By changing the duty cycle the load impedance
as seen by the source is varied and matched at the point of the peak power with the source so
as to transfer the maximum power.


The following two methods used most for MPPT are given below:
Perturb and Observe Controller
Incremental Conductance Controller
9.1 Perturb and Observe method:
This strategy is exceptionally normal. In this systems few number of sensors are utilized.
Examples of the working voltage is taken and the calculation shifts the working voltage as
coordinated and specimens dp/dv. On the off chance that dp/dv is sure, then the calculation
increases the voltage esteem towards the MPP till dp/dv is negative. This cycle will proceed
till the calculation achieves the most extreme force. This calculation is not adapted for
managing progressions of the sun based light at high values. The voltage really never
achieves a faultless esteem however sways around the MPP.

9.2 Incremental Conductance method:

The disadvantage of the perturb and observe method to track the peak power under fast
varying atmospheric condition is overcome by Incremental conductance method. The
algorithm makes use of the equation
(where P= module power,V=module voltage, I=module current);
Depending on this equation the algorithm works. at peak power point

fig.3-Incremental conductance method.

If the operating point is to the right of the Power curve then we have
If operating point is to the left of the power curve then we have
The incremental conductance can determine that the MPPT has reached the MPP and stop
perturbing the operating point. If this condition is not met, the direction in which theMPPT
operating point must be perturbed can be calculated using the relationship betweendl/dV and
I/V This relationship is derived from the fact that dP/dV isnegative when the MPPT is to the
right of the MPP and positive when it is to the left ofthe MPP. This algorithm has advantages
over perturb and observe in that it can determinewhen the MPPT has reached the MPP, where
perturb and observe oscillates around theMPP. Also, incremental conductance can track
rapidly increasing and decreasingirradiance conditions with higher accuracy than perturb and
observe. One disadvantage ofthis algorithm is the increased complexity when compared to
perturb and observe.
This technique utilizes the sun powered show's incremental conductance to assess the
indication determines that that the greatest force point is accomplished and along these lines

it stops and furnishes a proportional payback benefit of working voltage for most extreme
force point. This technique checks for rapidly changing light conditions more exactly than
P&O. Only weakness of this strategy is that its use of numerous sensors for working and
henceforth is monetarily less effective.
Differentiating w.r.t voltage gives;
=I +V
When the maximum power point is reached the slope dP/dV =0.
9.3 Incremental Conduction Algorithm
The Incremental Conductance method offers good performance under rapidly changing
atmospheric conditions.
The derivative of output power P with respective to panel voltage V is equal to zero at
Maximum Power Point(MPP). The solar panel P-V characteristics as shown in Fig.7 Further
that derivative is greater than zero is the left of the MPP and less than to the right of MPP.
The basic equations of this method are as follows.


for V=Vmp


for V<Vmp


for V>Vmp

The Incremental Conductance MPPT method works with two sensors measuring panels
operating voltage V and current I. The necessary incremental changes dV and dI
approximated by comparing the most recent measured values for V and I with those
measured in previous values.
dV(k) = V(k) - V(k-1)
dI = I(k) - I(k-1)

Flowchart of MPPT (Incremental conductance method)



11.1 Working Theory:
A boost converter or a voltage stepped up converter is a DC-DC converter with yield voltage
enhanced contrasted with enter. It is sort of exchanged mode power supplied or SMPS that
holds at any rate a diode and a transistor and in any event a vitality putting away component
like capacitor, inductor, or the two together. Channels developed utilizing capacitors which in
some cases are utilized within synthesis with inductors have been added to converter yield to
lessen yield voltage swell.

Fig.6-Boost Converter Schematics

11.2 Circuit Analysis:

The important standard that works the boost converter has been the propensity of the inductor
to oppose variations in present by making and pulverizing an attractive field. In this
converter, the yield voltage is constantly greater than the voltage inputted. A circuit of boost
force stage is demonstrated.
(a) If switch is shut, electric current courses from the inductor in direction of clock is course
and the inductor acts a store to some vitality in producing an attractive field. Extremity in the
lifter side of the inductor is sure.
(b) If switch is in open position, current shall be lessened due to higher impedance. The
attractive field at one time made will be devastated to keep up current stream towards the
heap. Subsequently the extremity would be switched (means inductor will have negative
polarity on the side) subsequently sources would be in arrangement creating more voltage.
On an off chance that the switch is cycled quick enough, the inductor won't release
completely in the middle of charge stages, the heap would dependably have a voltage more
prominent than pertaining to only the source if the switch is open. Likewise if the switch is
open, the capacitor parallel to the heap is charged to joined potential. At this point when the
switch is shut and the right side is short circuited from left side, capacitor is subsequently fit
in giving potential difference and vitality to the heap. Throughout this time, the blocker diode
keeps the capacitor against releasing from the switch. The switch should obviously be opened
and quickly to keep the capacitor to release excessively.
The fundamental guideline of boost converter comprises of two unique states. The On-state,
in which the switch is shut, bringing about an expand in the current through inductor. Switch
is non- conducting in off state and the main way leading to current in inductor from the diode,
and capacitor and the heap. This leads to exchanging of the vitality amassed in the capacitor.
12. Buck Converter:
The fundamental operation of the buck converter has the current being controlled in inductor
controlled by switches, two in number. The ideal converter, the segments are taken to be
ideal. Particularly, the switch and the diode deal with zero voltage dropping when in on state
and no current stream when in off and the inductor has no series resistance. Furthermore, it is
accepted that data and yield voltages don't vary throughout the span of a cycle (this would
infer the yield capacitance as being limitless).

Fig.7-Buck Converter Schematics

At the point when the switch is initially shut, the current will start to expand, and the inductor
will deliver a restricting voltage over its terminals in light of the evolving current. This
voltage drop checks the voltage of the source and thusly diminishes the net voltage over the
heap. About whether, the rate of progress of current reductions, and the voltage over the
inductor likewise then abatements, expanding the voltage at the heap. Throughout this time,
the inductor is putting away vitality as an attractive field. On the off chance that the switch is
opened while the current is as of now changing, then there will dependably be a voltage drop
over the inductor, so the net voltage at the heap will dependably be short of what the data
voltage source.
At the point when the switch is opened once more, the voltage source will be expelled from
the circuit, and the current will diminish. The changing current will deliver a change in
voltage over the inductor, now supporting the source voltage. The put away vitality in the
inductor's field.

13.Modes of Operation:
13.1 Continuous Mode:This converter works in nonstop mode if the current flowing from the inductor never tumbles
to null throughout the commutation. At the point when the switch as shown above in
previouspage is shut. The current flowing from the inductor climbs straight. As the diode is
converse predisposition by the source voltage V, no current courses from it. [14]
At the point when the switch is off, the diode is biased in forward direction.

13.2 Discontinuous Mode:In some circumstances, the measure of energy needed is excessively little. For this situation,
the current flowing from the inductor tumbles to nothing throughout a piece of time period.
The main distinction in the standard depicted is that inductor is totally released at the ending
ofcommutation. This has, be that as it may, some impact on the past mathematical statements.
If converter works in relentless state, the energy in the inductor is the same at the start and at
ending of the cycle (on account of intermittent mode, it is zero). This implies that the normal
estimation is zero for inductor voltage.

Simulink model of buck boost converter

Output charateristics of buck boost converter

Simulik model of buck boost converter for photovoltaic cell


Pv characteristic of pv module:

I-v characteristic of pv module

Output characteristic of MPPT block:

Current waveform of model

Voltage waveform

Output Power waveform of model :

1)Safari, A; Mekhilef, S "Simulation and Hardware Implementation ofIncremental
Conductance MPPT with Direct Control Method Using CukConverter," Industrial
Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol.PP, no.99,pp.1-1, 0doi: 10.1109/TIE.2010.2048834.
2) International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology (ISSN : 2277-1581)
Volume No.2, Issue No.7, pp : 681-685