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Lab Report

Synthesis of Tetramethylammonium Pentaiodide

Thanakorn Angkasirisan

No.2 (5861166)



No.9 (5861078)


Nawilaijaroen No.10 (5861186)




No.14 (5861123)

Thongchantra No.19 (5861132)

Advanced chemistry 1102

Ms. Patraporn Sanguansat
Mahidol University International Demonstration School
Semester 1 Academic year 2016-2017

The tetramethylammonium pentaiodide, a chemical formula of Me4N+ I5-, is
structured by I5 ions together with tetramethylammonium ions. A V-shaped I5 ions link
adjacent to another I5- ions and form a flat square mesh with four I atoms on each edge, so
that the tetramethylammonium ions are located at the centre of each square. The figure of its
structure is show below:

This tetramethylammonium pentaiodide is a product from chemical reaction of two reactants

which are tetramethylammonium and iodine. As shown in the chemical equation below:
Me4N+I- +

2I2 Me4N+ I5-

In this experiment, we synthesis the tetramethylammonium pentaiodide by using

precipitation which, in a common word, means when any forms of water fall back to the
ground after condensing in the air such as rain, snow, or hail etc. Nonetheless, in chemistry,
precipitation means the separation of solid in a solution that occur after the reaction.
Precipitation allows us to separate the product from the solution easily by forming crystal that
is insoluble in the solution and can be filtrated out by filtration. It is very useful eg. use to
create pigment, separate salt from water in water treatment etc.
As a consequence, this experiment was carried out in order to investigate synthesis of
tetramethylammonium Pentaiodide that allows us to understand mass relationship in
chemical reaction and calculate its reactants and product.


1.3 g. Iodine


12 ml. of 95% ethanal Tetramethylammonium


Laboratory Apparatus

50 ml. beaker

Stirring rod

Hot plate

Filter paper

Plastic tube

Funnel vacuum

Electronic balance


Me4N+I- +

2I2 Me4N+I5-

1. Find the limiting regent. It is the reactant that is used up first in the reaction.

molecular mass of Me4N+I- is 201.04 g

1 mole Me4N+I-

1 mole Me4N+I5-

201.04 g Me4N+I-

1 mole Me4N+I-

0.5 g Me4N+I-

= 2.488 x 10-3 moles of Me4N+I5-

molecular mass of l2 is 253.8 g

1.3 g I2

1 mole Me4N+I5-

1 mole I2
253.8 g I2

2 mole I2

= 2.561 x 10-3 moles of Me4N+I5-

The product produced by Me4N+I- is 2.488 x 10-3 which is less than product produced by I2
Therefore, Me4N+I- is the limiting regent.
2. Calculate the mass of Me4N+I5- formed
Limiting Reagent
2.488 * 10-3


molecular mass (product)

= 1.763 g of Me4N+I5-

3. Finding the percent yield

Mass of the product from weighting : 1.22 g
Theoretical mass of product : 1.763 g
Actual Yield
% Yield

x 100
Theoretical Yield
x 100 = 69.20%


As a result, the percent yield is 69.20%

Firstly, we have to find the limiting reagent by calculating which reactant give the
least value of the of the product (Me4N+I5-). We figured out that tetramethylammonium iodide
(Me4N+I-) is the limiting reagent since the reactant used up first with only 2.488 x 10-3 mole,
while iodide used up with 2.561 x 10-3 mole. After that, we calculate the mass of product by
multiplying the limiting reagent with the molar mass of the product. And that gives us the
theoretical yield which is 1.763 g. Then, we weigh the actual product which is 1.22 g. Lastly,
we substitute the number in the equation to find the percent yield [(1.22 / 1.763 ) x 100],
provided that the percent yield is equal to 69.20 %.
There are some errors that make the percent yield lower than it should be. From the
experiment, it is very difficult to accurately measure the mass of the molecules to its
theoretical calculation. There are always these kinds of errors in every single experiment. But
as the experimenters, we need to minimize the errors as much as possible by intensively
control the surroundings during the lab. The result from our experiment shows that we can
obtain only 1.22g from the number we should get 1.763g of Me4N+I5-. This mean that there
must be some molecules left out during the experiment. There are many ways the error could
occur. First, the measurement of the mass of reactants and product were not precise enough.
Second, some of the molecules did not react and did not form the crystals during the process
of crystallization. Lastly, for every surfaces that molecules touch on, there must be some of
the molecules stick to its surface such as the beaker and paper.
When the tetramethylammonium mixed with the iodine, their color became darkbrown. Then, they are filtrated, the color is changed to be dark-red. After they are left to dry
for one day, the chemical reaction is ultimately synthesized in a form of small crystal dusts,
tetramethylammonium pentaiodide, as a product. The product has the same black color as a
reactant which is the iodine. Me4N+I5-, which is the product, is in solid state. There were
some reactants that were not reacted left in a solution as well.

This lab report has discussed about the synthesis of tetramethylammonium
pentaiodide. The objective was to investigate this synthesis which then allows us to
understand the mass relationship in chemical reaction and is able to calculate the amount of
reactants and product. This objective was met. In the experiment, by precipitation and
filtration method, the crystal of the solution was formed successfully. We found out that
Me4N+I- is the limiting reagent of this chemical reaction, while the percent yield is 69.20%.
However, the actual yield wasnt equivalent to the theoretical yield due to human errors
which have already mentioned. As a result, if the experiment was to conduct again, the more
accuracy of time taken, weighing of reactants and products are thoroughly considered.

Precipitation method

Hexane is an oil solvent extracted from vegetable or seeds,
usually used as cleaning agent.
Atomic number = 53
Iodine is a non-metal, dark-gray/purple-black element. It is the
most electropositive halogen and the least reactive of the
halogens. Iodine can give a purple vapor when it is heated.

Ethanol is colorless liquid that usually used as solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical
preparations and also used in Alcohol beverage.

Filtration methods
1. Filter paper - using the appropriate size of filter paper and fold it correctly will allow you
to conduct the experiment easier and more accurate.
2. You may choose - Simple filtration/Hot filtration/Vacuum filtration
a. Simple filtration = most common way to remove solid out of solution, appropriate
for the solution that doesnt require special treatment about temperature or small
amount of solution
b. Hot filtration = this method allows us to do experiment with the solution which
cool down very fast as the heat will avoid the solution to cool down and stuck on the
funnel and doesnt allow the rest solution to be filtrated.
c. Vacuum Filtration = this method is the fastest method that allows us to do
experiment quicker with more amount of solution.

a. Simple filtration

b. Hot filtration

c. Vacuum Filtration

Crystallization is when the solid is form in homogenous solution by heating the solution until
it reaches to supersaturate rate which means, when solution contains a lot of solvent (exceed
the rate of solution that can be dissolved in normal temperature). So, because of heat, solvent
can be dissolved, cooled down, and form in many different crystal shapes.

Atomic Mass : Mass of atom in (amu) unit,

can be found in periodic table.

Molecular Mass : Sum of atomic mass in (amu) unit

Limiting Regent : The reactant that is completely used in the reaction.

How to find Limiting Regent :

1. Balance the equation
2. convert all of them into moles and calculate in moles
3. Finding % Yield

Crystallization. (n.d.). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from
Iodine. (n.d.). Retrieved November 08, 2016, from
November 9, 2016, from
Procedure method making insoluble salt by precipitation reaction from two soluble
compounds apparatus chemicals procedures equations use of barium sulfate meal gcse
chemistry KS3 KS4 Science IGCSE O level revision notes. (n.d.). Retrieved
November 08, 2016, from