Anda di halaman 1dari 8

CL102 Revision Sheet

1. If iron is burned in chlorine, it produces Iron (III) chloride: Fe + Cl2 FeCl3.


a) Balance the equation.

2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3

b) Write the reacting ratios in moles and in grams.


2Fe
+
3Cl2

2FeCl3
2 moles
3 moles
2 moles
256 = 112g
3(35.52) = 213g
2 ( 56 + 335.5) = 325g
c) How many moles of iron are required to form 4 moles of FeCl3?
Given: 4 moles of FeCl3
R.T.F: n of Fe
2Fe
+
3Cl2
2FeCl3
2 moles
2 moles
?? moles
4 moles
Number of moles of Fe needed = (42)/2 = 4 moles
d) What mass of FeCl3 is produced when 35.5 g of chlorine are consumed?
What mass of Fe is consumed in the process?
Given: m of Cl2 = 35.5 g
R.T.F: m of FeCl3 , m of Fe
3Cl2
3 moles
371=213g
35.5g

2FeCl3
2 moles
325g
?? g

Mass of FeCl3 needed is (35.5 325) / 213 = 54.2g


2Fe
2 moles
256=112g
?? g

3Cl2
3 moles
371=213g
35.5g

Mass of Fe consumed in the reaction = (35.5 112) / 213 = 18.7g


e) How many moles of Fe is used when 17.75g of chlorine (Cl2) are consumed?
Given: m of Cl2 = 17.75 g
R.T.F: n of Fe
2Fe
2 moles
2 moles
?? mole

3Cl2
3 moles
3 71=213g
17.75g

? = 0.167 mole

2. 8.40g of a certain gas, C6Hx, were found to exert a pressure of 2.0 atm when placed in a 1200 cm3 vessel at
27C. Find the value of x in C6Hx.
Given: t = 27C, P = 2.0 atm, m = 8.40g, V = 1200 cm3
R.T.F: x
PV = nRT

PV = RT

(2.0)() = (

x = 12

)(0.080)(27 + 273)

M = 84 g /mol
Molar mass = 6(12) + x = 84

3, 4. A vessel contains equal moles of SO2 and He gases. The pressure is 760 mm Hg.
a) On average, which travels faster, the He atoms or SO2 molecules? How many times as fast?
Given: A vessel containing He and SO2
R.T.F: Compare the speeds of the two gases
Method 1
At same temperature, average KE is the same
KEHe = KESO2
2
2
1
1
Mv He = Mv SO2
2
2
2
2
1
1
4 v He = 64 v SO2
2
2
2

v He = 16v SO2
v He = 16 v SO2 4 v SO2

Helium travels faster, 4 times faster than SO2.


Method 2
At same temperature, average KE is the same

= = =

Helium travels faster, 4 times faster than SO2.


b) If the SO2 was removed from the system, what will the pressure become?
Given: n of SO2 = n of He, same V and T
R.T.F: P
In the same vessel under the same temperature, P n.
Since equal number of moles are present, if we remove SO2 from the vessel, we are halving the number
of moles in the vessel so pressure halves as well. Pressure becomes 380mmHg.

5. A crystal of orange potassium dichromate was added to each of the beakers shown in the diagram.

In both beakers the orange colour of the potassium dichromate spreads out.
Where will the color spread faster and why?
The color spreads faster in hot water because particles move faster at higher temperatures.
6. Given the following diagram::

State the name of the process occuring when:


AB
BC
CD
BA
CB
AC

melting
evaporation
diffusion
solidification
condensation
sublimation

7. A certain mass of helium gas was placed in a cylinder fitted with a piston at 27C. The volume and pressure
were measured to be 3.0dm3 and 120 mmHg respectively. If the gas is heated till the volume was doubled,
while keeping the pressure constant, how much will the new temperature be?
R.T.F:
Given: V1 = 3.0 dm3, t1 = 25C, V2 = 6.0 dm3, n and P are constant

Since n and P are constant then = constant

(+)

T2 = 600K = 327C

8. What is an ideal gas?


An ideal gas is a gas that does not liquefy
The molecules of an ideal gas have zero volume
The molecules of an ideal gas have no forces of attraction between them.

9. A certain mass of helium gas was placed in a cylinder fitted with a piston at 25C. The volume and pressure
were measured to be 3.0dm3 and 120 mmHg respectively. Without changing the temperature, the piston is
slowly moved until the pressure is doubled. What is the new volume of the gas?
Given: P1 = 120 mmHg, V1 = 3.0dm3, P2 = 240atm, n and T are constant
R.T.F: =
Since n and T are constant then PV = ct
P1V1 = P2V2.

V2 = 1.5 dm3

(120)(3.0) = (240)(V2)

10. A certain mass of helium gas was placed in a cylinder fitted with a piston at 27C. The volume and
pressure were measured to be 3.0dm3 and 120 mmHg respectively. Without changing the volume, the gas is
slowly heated until the pressure doubles, find the new temperature.
R.T.F:
Given: P1 = 120 mmHg, t1 = 27C, P2 = 240atm, n and V are constant

Since n and V are constant then = ct

T2 = 600K = 327C

11. What mass of C2H5OH will exert a pressure of 3.0 atm when filled in a 2.5 dm3 vessel at 127oC?
R.T.F: m
Given: P = 3.0 atm, t = 127C, V = 2.5 dm3

PV = nRT

PV = RT

(3.0)(2.5) = (0.080)(127+273)

m = 11 g

12. 2.0g of helium gas were placed in a balloon at 25C. The volume was measured to be 5.0L. If 6.0g of He
gas were added to the container while maintaining the temperature and pressure constant, how much would the
new volume be?
Given: m1 = 2.0 g, V1 = 5.0L, m2 = 2.0 + 6.0 = 8.0g, T and P are constant
R.T.F:

Since V and T are constant then = constant

.
.

n1 =

.
.

= 0.50 mole

n2 =

.
.

= 2.0 moles

V2 = 20 L

13. Calculate density of hydrogen gas if it were found to exert a pressure of 760mmHg in a 5.0 dm 3 container at
a temperature of 127C.
Given: m = 20 g, P = 760 mmHg = 1.0 atm, V = 5.0 dm3
R.T.F: density
PM = DRT

D=

PM
(1.0)(2.0)
=
= 0.061 g.dm-3
RT (0.082)(400)

14. Find the pressure of the gas in the closed end manometer in each of the following cases.
a) If the difference between the heights of A and
B is 120 mmHg, and the atmospheric pressure
is 750mmHg. What is the pressure of gas X in
the manometer?

b) If there is no difference between the heights of


A and B, and the atmospheric pressure is 660
mmHg. What is the pressure of gas X in the
manometer?

In a closed end manometer, the pressure of the


gas is equal to the difference in height between
the two sides of the manometer
Pgas = 120 mmHg

In a closed end manometer, when there is no


difference in height between the two sides of the
manometer, this means there is no gas in the
gas bulb
Pgas = zero

15. A diagram for an open-end manometer is shown below.


If the flask is open to the atmosphere, the mercury levels are equal. For each of the following situations where a
gas is contained in the flask, calculate the pressure in the flask
a) If the difference between the b) If the difference between the c) If there is no difference
heights of A and B is 150
heights of A and B is 120
between the heights of A and
mmHg, and the atmospheric
mmHg, and the atmospheric
B, and the atmospheric
pressure is 800 mmHg. What
pressure is 700 mmHg. What
pressure is 740 mmHg. What
is the pressure of gas X in the
is the pressure of gas X in the
is the pressure of gas X in the
manometer?
manometer?
manometer?

P gas > P atm


P gas = P atm + h
= 800 + 150
= 950 mmHg

P gas < P atm


P gas = P atm - h
= 700 - 120
= 580 mmHg

P gas = P atm
= 740 mmHg

16. A sample of air was found to contain 0.32 g oxygen, 0.10 g of hydrogen and 1.12 g nitrogen. Find the
partial pressure of each of oxygen and nitrogen in the sample; knowing that the sample of air was exerting a
pressure of 755 mmHg.
Given : m O2 = 0.32 g , m N2 = 1.12 g, m H2 = 10g, Ptotal = 755 mm Hg
R.T.F: P of each gas
Total number of moles = number of moles of O2 + number of moles of H2 + number of moles of N2
.
.
.
Total number of moles = + + = 0.010 + 0.050 + 0.040 = 0.100 mole
= =
= =
= =

=
=
=

.
.
.
.
.
.

() = 75.5 mm Hg
() = 377.5 mm Hg
() = 302 mm Hg

17. Two gases, O2 and H2, were put at the same temperature in two identical vessels.
Find the ratio of the average molecular kinetic energy of O2 to that of H2.
At the same temperature, the average molecular kinetic energy of all gases is the same The ratio of the

average molecular kinetic energy of O2 to that of H2 is 1 to 1 ()


18. A 5 dm3 cylinder is filled with a mixture of NH3 and N2 gases at a total pressure of 5.0atm. The partial
pressure of N2 is 0.50atm. What is the mole fraction of each gas in the flask?
Given : P N2 = 0.50 g , Ptotal = 5.0atm,
R.T.F: X of each gas
= Ptotal

.
.

= 0.10

= 1 0.10 = 0.90

19. A sealed vessel contains 100g of a gas at 20C. What is the volume of the gas?
Gases always occupy the entire container they are placed in Vgas = Vcontainer
20. What is the molar mass of a gas if at 27C and 2.00 atm, 1.00 liter of the gas weighs 5.00g?
R.T.F: M
Given: t = 27C, P = 2.00 atm, V = 1.00 dm3, m = 5.00g
PV = nRT

PV = RT

M=

(.)(.)(+)
(.)(.)

= 60 g/mol

21. If 4.0 moles iron is burned in 5.0 moles chlorine, what is the maximum mass of iron (III) chloride that will
form? 2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3.
Given: 4 moles of Fe, 5.0 moles of Cl2
R.T.F: m of FeCl3
Quantities of two reactants are given This is an excess exercise
Step 1: Find limiting reagent
2Fe
+
3Cl2
4.0 moles
5.0 moles
Divide by coefficients
.
.
=2
>
= 1.7

Cl2 is the limiting reagent

3Cl2
3 moles
5.0 moles

2FeCl3
2(162.5)g
?g

?=

(.)()(.)

= 542g

22. Ethane has the formula C2H6. Its combustion products are carbon dioxide and water.
2C2H6 (g) + 7O2 (g) 6H2O (l) + 4CO2 (g)
4.00 moles of ethane combine with what volume of oxygen at STP?
Given: n of C2H6 = 4 moles
R.T.F: V of O2 at STP
2C2H6 (g)
2 moles
2 moles
4 moles

+ 7O2 (g)
7 moles
(722.4) = 156.8dm3
???dm3

Volume of O2 needed = (156.84)/2 = 313.6 dm3 = 314 dm3

23. Consider the following equation: H2 + N2 NH3.


If 33.6 dm3 of H2 react completely (measured at STP), determine the mass of N2 needed.
Step 1 balance the equation: 3H2 + N2 2NH3
Given: V of H2 = 33.6 dm3
N2
1 mole
28 g
???

3H2
+
3 moles
(3 22.4) = 67.2 dm3
33.6 dm3
m of N2 needed =

R.T.F: m of N2 needed

(.)()
.

2NH3

= 14.0g

24. Consider the following equation: H2 + N2 NH3.


If 4.48 dm3 of H2 react completely (measured at STP), determine the volume of NH3 produced.
Step 1 balance the equation: 3H2 + N2 2NH3
Given: V of H2 = 4.48 dm3
3H2

3 moles
(3 22.4) = 67.2 dm3
4.48 dm3
V of NH3 needed =

R.T.F: V of NH3 needed


2NH3
2 mole
(2 22.4) = 44.8 dm3
???

(.)(.)
.

= 2.99 dm3

25. If iron is burned in chlorine, it produces Iron (III) chloride: Fe + Cl2 FeCl3.
What mass of FeCl3 is produced when 35.5 g of chlorine are consumed?
What mass of Fe is consumed in the process?
Given: m of Cl2 = 35.5 g
R.T.F: m of FeCl3 , m of Fe
Balance the equation first:
3Cl2
3 moles
371=213g
35.5g

2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3


2FeCl3
2 moles
325g
?? g

Mass of FeCl3 needed is (35.5 325) / 213 = 54.2g


2Fe
2 moles
256=112g
?? g

3Cl2
3 moles
371=213g
35.5g

Mass of Fe consumed in the reaction = (35.5 112) / 213 = 18.7g