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WHEN FLOURISHES

HAZELNUTS, IT IS SLEEPING ?
GROWING HAZELNUT

DRAFT
HAKI KOLA
TIRANA JUNE 2009- REVIEWED 2016

Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................. 3
Consumption, sales ............................................................................................................. 3
Market access and prices ........................................................................................... 3
Heritage cultural practices on harvest and use ................................................................... 4
After harvesting .................................................................................................................. 4
Harvest. ............................................................................................................................... 4
Improvements on natural hazelnut stands ........................................................................... 5
Where natural hazelnuts live:.............................................................................................. 5
Demonstrations: Rehabilitation, improvements and cultivation ........................................ 5
Main implementation activities : ....................................................................................... 5
When hazelnut flourish it is sleeping ? ............................................................................... 7
........................................................................................................................................... 12
Methods of PROPAGATION ........................................................................................... 13
Cuttings ............................................................................................................................. 13
Seeds ................................................................................................................................. 13
Grafting ............................................................................................................................. 13
Whip and tongue graft ...................................................................................................... 13
Layering ............................................................................................................................ 14
Micro-propagation ............................................................................................................ 14
Establishment of plantation with cultivated hazelnuts...................................................... 15
Selection of soil......................................................................................................... 15
Land form.......................................................................................................................... 15
Proximity to neighbors and wandering animals................................................................ 15
Orchard layout .................................................................................................................. 16
Planting techniques ........................................................................................................... 16
Management of young trees .............................................................................................. 16
Table 1: Analyze costs profits for establishment, maintenance, production lek /ha...... 17
Experiment today-Save tomorrow .................................................................................... 17
How to apply this principles to prove the hazelnut cultivation? ...................................... 18
How to implement principles on experiments during the preparatory phase: .................. 18
Grafting experiment .................................................................................................. 19

Introduction
There are more than 11000 hectare of natural hazelnuts stands in Albanian Forest Fund,
from Shkreli in North to Skrapari and Kolonja in South of the country. The most of them
is transferred in the ownership of communes. Covering the slopes around villages,
hazelnut stands are used mainly for grazing. Interest of farmers to treat degraded shrubs
and get income from them is increasing. In plain west zone there are about 50 000
hazelnut trees, cultivated in orchards.
Guidelines aims to advice farmers on design projects to establish new small scale family
base hazelnut plantations, as well as to get revenues through assessment, protection and
treat natural hazelnuts stands actually owned by communes. There are some orientaton
data on consume, sales, needs, demands and offer for hazelnut on actual market.

Consumption, sales
Our market deal mainly in shell with shelled hazelnuts, and consume is lower than 200
Mt per year. Fruit used by deserts industry, as well as in cooking. Other food industries
using edible nuts as ingredients include the confectionery companies and the liquor
industries. There are about 15 confectionery companies in the country producing biscuits,
Buon dolce cakes, and other cookies with chocolate. These operators mainly use
hazelnuts for the production of chocolates. For example, Insika shpk, based in Durres,
uses on average 100 kg of shelled hazelnuts per month in the production of cookies with
chocolate. The company sometimes imported this quantity from Turkey together with
other inputs, and sometimes was supplied from others.

Market access and prices


Among the nuts , hazelnuts are those ones with the highest international prices per kg.
Such a situation is not reflected by the Albanian market, where prices of hazelnuts are
lower than those ones of walnuts. The weak demand, the concentration of production in a
single district and the lack of competition between buyers contribute to keep low the
market price of domestic production, imported walnuts are paid more than twice as much
(about 2 eur/kg) and the average unit price of the little quantity of imported hazelnuts is
much higher (421 ALL/kg in 2006).
Hazelnuts prices at different stages of food chain
Stage in the food chain
Domestic product - price to producer
Wholesale price in shell
Retail price in shell
Wholesale price shelled

Hazelnuts
Estimate: 70- 80
National 100
National 150
Imported 90
Not roasted 960-1,200

Roasted 1,020-1,300

Imported hazelnuts now are scoring to 30-40 Mton in year.

Heritage cultural practices on harvest and use


Historically people have harvested hazelnuts from chestnut groves around villages for
thousand years. Main harvesters from total village population were shepherds and
children. Generally the harvest time coincided with the oak fodder production, and
hazelnut fruits were very welcomed for tired hard workers. Although was clear cut time
after time for hurdles, or for fuel wood, hazelnut survived without any maintenance as
weed control, digging, fertilizing or irrigation. Cultivation was practiced for the first time
in Albania in the years 1930, when the first plantation were established in Visoka village,
Mallakastra district. This plantation beside the production was in the same time the
mother of thousands of seedlings for many state farms during centralized economy.

After harvesting
If the producers have decided to sell, it is anticipated to sell it as soon as the harvest is
gathered, thus eliminating any storage concerns. If necessary it is dried in natural
conditions after being washed and sorted by size. With the exception of Fier, Gijokaster
and Lezha (all together produce 86% of total) where the output largely exceeds estimated
demand, and beside needs they can sale, for other districts sales of these products are
quite occasional and production is kept for self consumption or local trade.

Harvest.
One good managed in optimal conditions hazelnut plantation has a yield of approx 2500
kilograms a hectare, this would mean half of walnut
plantations. Hazelnuts are hand harvested, methods little
changed over the past 2000 years Fruits are harvested
in late summer and early autumn when the nuts fall to
the ground within a short period. The splitting and
opening of the burrs is a sign that the nuts inside are
matured. It is advised to avoid pre-mature fruits.
Hazelnuts add much of their final height during last two
weeks on the tree. For farmers who use mechanical
collection it is advised to do it as late as possible, or
with other word not before natural nut fall begins.
According to the data of MAFCP the hazelnut
production in 2006 scored 184 Mton. Highly
experienced farmers recommend: during production

period plants must be daily checked, but it is better to collect only the nuts which are
spontaneously falling on the ground. When working in a sufficiently large cultivation,
one person can collect about 50 kg per day.

Improvements on natural hazelnut stands


As a lot of other natural resources, hazelnut is one of forgotten properties, treated as
without owner assets, a gift of nature, where the poor rural people can gather fruits,
hurdles or leaves. Forest administration judge it as short manikins without timber value,
fruit tree sciences accept it under the shadow of plums, walnut or cherry tree.

Where natural hazelnuts live:


The natural growth habit of our common hazelnut is a bush. As matter of fact two
species of Corryllis gender are actually present in natural conditions in Albania, Coryllis
Avellana L classified as common hazelnut, and Corylis colurna, classified as wild or
turkey hazelnut. Second one is seldom met in rocky mountain slopes between oak and
beech zones. It is higher than common hazelnut, varies from 10-12 meter high up to 2030 meter, with pyramidal crone. It is preferred as rootstock, when grafting is applied

Demonstrations: Rehabilitation, improvements and


cultivation
Generally the natural hazelnut stands have more than 10000 stems per hectare. High
density is defined as main reason for the low yield accompanied by the difficulties in
harvest. Forest Service in cooperation with Regional Federations of CFPU, and CFPUA
can establish demonstrative areas for rehabilitation and cultivation natural hazelnut
stands.
First step: Site selection. The main selection criteria is the necessary number of trees for
unit area, interest of village to participate and agreements to close the area and protect
area
Second step: design of the improvement project. Based on actual situation project define
interventions as fencing, coppicing, thinning, grafting maintenance, analyze cost-profit.
Selected technology will be presented discussed and adjusted with the users, finally the
agreement for implementation of intervention will be achieved. Extension service
specialist will be part of preparation and decision making on establishment and monitor
of demonstrations

Main implementation activities :

a) Preparation of natural stand : Three intervention can be considered as preparatory:


fencing on agreed boundaries; regenerative cutting in all area, intensive thinning,
keeping the agreed number of shoots in area as the future trees, one part of them
will be used as rootstocks. For better fertilization, it is advised to combine grafted
with non grafted trees. Different shape crones of the hazel nut with only one, two
or more stems with different form and height can be experimented.
b) preparation of rootstocks: the half of remaining shoots can be used as rootstocks
for grafting. It is advised to get high experience worker for rootstock and scion
preparation and contract them.
c) Selection of scions. There are limited studies and surveys for selections of
available mother trees. Three looks the sources:
1. existing plantations;
2. the Spanish collection of cultivars in Qenami nursery (Nako 2009),
3. import and test the main cultivars in USA Barcelona Ennis, Lewis and
Casina, as well as other recommended cultivars.

Trees to be grafted or remaining for fertilizer, will be defined as well as the


number of the stems for each tree (with one stem only, two or three side stem
with the main one in center or many stems), height of crone beginning from e
60 cm to one meter height.

One farmer from Dibra is user of 1000 m2 of natural hazelnut. He explain that he
knows how to treat apples, or plum trees, but he does not know if I he can and how to
prune or thin hazelnuts. His hazelnut stand is very degraded. There are not any
specific recommendation for hazelnut stands in CFMP, the only advise for next ten
years is: leave it as it is. As matter of fact he want to prune and thin, with other words
to transform it in a orchard. What is the best time to do pruning and thinning. Do you
recommend me heavy thinning, what about pruning?
Before pruning a good advice is to know in details the actual situation in your stand,
according to the number of shoots, density of them, vegetative situation and annual
growth. It is better to do this survey together with extension service specialist. Its
good to inform him in details, what you have in mind for the future of your trees, it
can help him to give you advices on future treatments. It is not easy to get through
your question how you want your trees look in the future . Generally in degraded
shrubs clear cut of existing shrubs is recommended. It can help regeneration, followed
in the next spring by a lot of young shoots. It is called coppicing and it is applied by
farmers to produce hurdles for fencing, baskets, etc. Another intervention can be
thinning, to select and support only the trees of the future. The second step can be
pruning of the future trees. There are different kind of pruning, coming from you
decision on number of trunks, and height of the crone. If you decide to have only one
stem, you will cut it in the 120-140 cm high, and leave only the 5 highest buds. All
other need to be removed, and controlled time after time to keep the stem clean. It
looks nice, with special combination of colors between stem and leaves, flowers, and
changes in seasons. For two three years it can give you first fruits. Keep in mind,
hazelnut produce in the young parts of crone. If you decide to thin and prune, do it in
January - February.

When hazelnut flourish it is sleeping ?:


Hazelnut trees are monoecious self-sterile, with separate male and female flowers
produces in the same tree. Pollen produced by catkins on one variety does not fertilise the
female flowers of the same variety. The male flowers or catkins emerge in winter, often
several to a bunch, and they gradually elongate and release pollen. The female flowers
emerge in a cluster on bare branches and are tiny and deep red in color and topped with
two curved stigmas. The female flowers are wind pollinated during winter and early
spring but pollination is long complex process. The pollen grain of a compatible variety
grows to the base of the style on the female flower within 4-7 days of pollination but
development is suspended and remain quiescent for 5-6 months. By early summer the
shell (or ovary) enlarges and a green husk forms around it. When the shell is about half
its eventual size, the ovule develops inside and fertilization can take place. If the
fertilization is successful, the kernel develops inside the shell and a nut is formed. Nuts
are enclosed in a leafy husk and after the end of summer the husk turn from green to

brown, the leaves turn golden brown and nuts begin to fall. While the trees lose their
leaves in winter, flowering during winter indicates that while the trees are deciduous,
they are not completely dormant.
Photo Rafet Elezi, November 2016

Flowering of hazelnut (October 23, 2016, Vokshi village Kosovo) Photo Kukalaj

PrRistina December 6, 2016

November 3, Dermjak Han Elez Kosovo

December 8, 2016, Qyqavice, hazelnut flower

Methods of PROPAGATION
Decision of the farmer on plantation or graft natural hazelnut, need to be followed by
selection of Pollinators, which should be available in the nurseries or orchards as peak
periods of male and female flowering may not coincide for any one variety. This will
ensure cross-pollination Whilst it is recommend at least 20% of pollinators to the main
cultivar, it is advisable to use 15 - 20 meters as the maximum distance of any main
cultivar to a pollinators.

Cuttings
The use of leafy cuttings with bottom heat in a coarse rooting medium and indole butyric
acid (IBA) hormone treatment has had limited success. High humidity ventilated fog has
been found to increase the rooting percentage of hazelnut leafy cuttings; however, they
are also more susceptible to basal necrosis with this method.

Seeds
Hazelnuts do not reproduce true to type from seed. Generally it is not applied because by
layering method, can produce cheaper hazelnut seedlings

Grafting
Common natural hazelnut is recommended as useful rootstock on grafting, because it is
considered as it is non suckering. Its deep taproot results in increased drought tolerance.
However, seeds of this species are difficult to germinate and, because of the taproot,
seedlings are difficult to transplant. Natural stands prepared preliminary looks to be
appropriate. The common factor among all grafts is that the cambium, the narrow ring of
cells that generate the plants sap-pumping vascular tubes, of the scion and rootstock
must line up perfectly with each other.

Whip and tongue graft


A whip and tongue graft may be performed in mid-winter. Care is taken to insure that the
rootstock and scion are completely dormant prior to grafting. If the rootstock has sap
moving upwards in the phloem, a successful callus bridge will not form between the
stock and scion. After the graft union is knit, we get water and nutrient transfer so the
root and buds can function normally. The surface areas of the stock and scion must be cut
cleanly. It is essential to make sure that the blade is not dull when cutting either the
rootstock or the scion. A budding rubber or budding tape, is wrapped securely but not
tightly at the union. The graft is placed in a warm greenhouse for several weeks while

the graft union becomes secure. Later the plant is slowly introduced to harsher conditions
and finally planted in its natural environment.

Layering
The main method for propagation is by the use of stool beds to
produce trees on their own roots. The mound of mulch is kept
moist and the mother plant is irrigated and fertilized to ensure
optimum growth. Where conditions are favorable, roots grow
from the base of suckers into the mulch and each sucker may
grow two meters in height. During winter dormancy, the
mound of mulch is carefully removed and each sucker and its
new root system is severed from the mother plant. The new
trees are then ready for planting

Micro-propagation
This ensures uniformity and reduced management needs. Plus the micro propagation
method cuts years off of the time is takes to grow a traditional layering bed

This method is performed in a laboratory situation n using in vitro techniques. It is used


to propagate rootstock, particularly hybrid rootstock, and own -rooted trees where very
large numbers are required. Pieces of plant tissue, usually of tip growth, are taken from
parent plants that have been grown under controlled conditions. These pieces are called
explants. Explants are surface-sterilised before placing in a nutrition medium. The
balance of nutrients and plant hormones in this medium determines the type of explants
growth. During the first stage, the medium promoters shoot tip growth and than is
transferred to a multiplication medium where numbers increase rapidly. The explants are
then divided, treated with a root promoting substance and planted in a propagation

medium. The growing plants are gradually hardened to a green house environment and
finally outside conditions.

Establishment of plantation with cultivated hazelnuts


Selection of soil
While natural hazelnuts will grow on wide range of soils, for commercial production the
preferred soil is a sandy loam with a pH of 6-7. Although hazelnuts produce a deep tap
root, feeder roots are relatively shallow. Trees will grow and crop on shallow soils but
trees planted on deep soils will grow significantly larger and produce greater yields. Soil
should be well- drained and contain a good amount of organic matter. Light sands and
clay loams should be improved with the addition of organic mulch, and hard set of soils
or soil reduced in depth by a hard layer should be deep reeped in both directions prior to
planting

Land form
The more level an orchard site is, the easer is to carry out all the mechanical operations
required on a nut orchard. It is related to the cost of operations as maintenance and
collection of fruits. Polluted industrial zones have negative impact on quality of fruits.
Aspect can be an important consideration where mountains are in close proximity to an
orchard site, because they can cause shading that reduces valuable sunlight hours. Valley
areas are often prone to fog and poor air movement that can increase disease problems
and valleys are also prone to frost that can reduce or eliminate nut set. It is important to
check the previous land use because the soil may have been contaminated by chemical
residues. The previous vegetation need to be studied. Land that has been used previously
for orchard use, may have root residue in the soil and the presence of the root rooting
fungus, Armillaria. This may affect the orchard trees in the future

Proximity to neighbors and wandering animals


If neighbors use their land for grazing, especially when they breed ruminant livestock,
rabbits, different birds, the decision to establish orchard need to be think carefully. If
there is not any agreement to change the actual land use, it is better to get another site for
plantation. In most situations it is necessary to fence orchard and protect from wandering
animals. Generally in winters farmer in some part of the country applying the free
grazing for cows, sheep, pigs, goats, and horses with first legs belt, it can be
troublesome, especially to young trees, or flowered hazelnuts. This need to be considered
before plantation.

Orchard layout
Tree spacing and direction of row should take into account the direction of prevailing
winds, sunlight interception, drainage and indented method of harvest. It is suggested to
plant about 20% of total trees as fertilizers, mixed every sixths position in every third row
or another schemes. Orchard rows are planted in a north-south directions where possible
to optimize sunlight. Tree spacing is an individual decision based on site, climate and
management. Trees planted on 4.5 meter grid equate to 493 trees per hectare while trees
planted on a 6 meter grid equate to 277 trees per hectare. Many growers find a 5.5 m grid
is adequate for machinery access down the rows and allows for tree growth. However,
while the trees are young, this spacing results in vacant orchard space. Double density
planting is initially expensive, but it is preferred form some farmers, because it makes
better use of the area throughout the life of orchard. In double density plantings trees are
planted approximately 3.5-4 m apart and alternate trees down the row are removed when
they start to become crowded after 10-12 years. Tree rows are usually 5.5-6 m apart.

Planting techniques
Before planting all weed need to be removed. In general, fertilizers should not be applied
to newly planted trees. Some farmers incorporate super phosphate into planting area
before planting. When is possible irrigation system is need to be installed prior to
planting. Both drip systems and micro sprinklers are suitable in hazelnut orchards.
Hazelnut trees are planted during winter dormancy. Trees usually arrive from nursery as
bared-rooted whips, and roots are kept moist by covering with moist mulch. After the tree
lines are marked out, the planting holes can be dug. Diameter of holes recommended not
less than 30 cm, to keep the roots spread out over the mound, before filling the hole with
soil. Because the combination of hazelnut cultivars is so important to pollination it is
wise to permanently label each tree row or individual trees where the main plant is
interplanted with pollinisers. This saves problems should a tree die and need replacing .
To encourage a single trunk rather than a
multi-stemmed bush, the top of the tree can be
trimmed off at planting. About five good buds
are left at the top of whip and the lower buds
can be removed carefully with the fingers. To
protect the trunk from sunburn, it can be
painted with a white plastic paint that is diluted
with water 1:1, or it can be covered and bend with ray straw.

Management of young trees

Most growers control weeds in the tree line by mulchiring around the
base of the tree. However some hand weeding is inevitable around the
tree trunk and sucker removal is usually done at the same time.
For optimal growth, the oil must be kept moist during the growing
season. Mulch will help retain moisture but irrigation is essential
during dry weather. Trees are usually fertilized with a high nitrogen
fertilizer son after bud burst in spring. There are three methods of tree shaping: single
trunk trees; multiple (2-4) trunk trees and multi stemmed bushes. The most desirable of
these in commercial orchards is the single trunk tree. To establish single trunk trees, all
sucker growth is continually removed. To establish multiple trunk trees allow two or
three robust well placed suckers to grow and allow these to form trunks beside the main
trunk. Having more than one trunk forms a strong tree for windy sites however, multiple
trunks must be kept free of low branches, to allow development of regular crones and
high quality of fruits. Hazelnut trees should be in commercial production when they are
about 6 years old, and a well managed orchard should remain active for 40 years or more

Table 1: Analyze costs profits for establishment,


maintenance, production lek /ha
Activities
Trees (500 trees hectare)
Establishment
Maintenance of young trees for
5 years
Expenses for trees in production
from 5-10 years old
Expenses for trees in production
from 11-1 5 years old

Expenses
/lek
25000
15000
50000

Profits

Balance

0
0
0

-25000
-15000
-50000

50000

100000

50000

60000

200000

140000

100000

Experiment today-Save tomorrow


Key of a new business success is the scientific safety. Cultivation of hazelnut is
horticulture project, in this sense the scientific research is of extension nature.
There is not experience on how to rehabilitate, and cultivate natural hazelnut. It make
necessary to establish comparative demonstration, easy to be monitored through ongoing
measurements. It is important to be based in some principles, implementation of which
require one minimum additional work as follows:
All comparative demonstrations must be done with references with testimony
stand
It is advised to avoid the factors of complicate variations, to keep samples as
simple as possible to facilitate the interpretation.
If we are convinced in some of variants, it is advised to have as much as possible
replications with the same treatments. It can help in verity of results.

Each demonstration must have the minimum of 100 trees with the same
conditions and treatments. It enable the interpretations of results can
Demonstration area need to be circled by a buffer area with the same trees and
same treatments to avoid the edge impact.

How to apply this principles to prove the hazelnut


cultivation?
First of all, we need to agree that before starting the hazelnut grafting, it is very important
to know in details the technology and test it in different conditions. Second is to have the
tested sources for scions productions.
Preparatory activities:
Define criteria and procedures on selection demonstration area
Selection of the demonstration area
Identify the availability of hazelnuts cultivars and disponibility of farmers to
produce scions for grafting
Get agreements between the hazelnut growers and the candidates to start
demonstration grafting
Close area through fencing and prepare the demonstration areas through
silvicultural interventions
Select the shooting with regular dimensions on different grafting methods
Start first grafting in different methods with the existing genetic sources on
hazelnut cultivars
Based on above prepare small applications, accompanied by the financial calculations .
Discuss and submit the applications to the NRDP project; MADA; in Ministry of
Agriculture Food and Consumer Protection.For actual stage the priority will be fencing
and rehabilitation of vegetation on existing hazelnut stands

How to implement principles on experiments during the


preparatory phase:
1. Needs for testimony: In each demonstrative area keep in mind the principle: the
demonstration area need to be doubled compared with the area used for
demonstration, this can help to compare the treated and non treated trees
2. The needs to follow the same treatments; This predicate that all demonstration
will be implemented doing only one intervention. For example; thinning:- the
distance between the trees of future will be uniform, the number of stems more or
less the same; the same fertilization per each tree, the same grafting technology
and time, with other word the same treatments for each tree in sample.
3. Principle three and four: the possibilities for replication the minimum two times
the same variant with a minimum hundred trees can be a little flexible in case of
testing different methods on grafting, to keep less number of tress on term of

appropriate time. In this case it is advised to keep the same rootstock, and the
same cultivars scions, and reduce number of the trees grafted in each decided
date.
4. Necessity of isolation zone, is related to the different sunshine and light in
different parts of stand, in edge of stand more sunshine and light, as well as the
aggressively of wild animals in different positions where sample is situated in
stand. Being in middle looks more isolated and less deviations in results
The following pictures indicate the recommended schemes in establishments of
demonstrative areas to compare different thinning rates, the shape and form of crone,
different grafting materials and methods
Recommended silvicultures treatments :
Study of coppicing impact, testimony without thinning, minimum area 1000 m2
Different thinning schemes with the futures trees in grids 1 m; 1,5, 2,3,4, 5 meter;
minimum area for each decide variant 1000 m2; number of stems will keep the
same, as well as the same
Study of number of stems with one, two, three, four or more
The arrangements to be monitored for a ten year period is a minimum
Establishment and schemes of experiments

Grafting experiment
Methods to be compared:
Grafting methods: A number of considerations must be addressed before attempting grafting;
the grafting (scion) wood, the rootstock and the grafting method

a. summer silent bud grafting in three forms: T form; ringed and window. Time
depend on weather conditions from July 15 to august 20;

Spring scions grafting: Scions are prepared in January, and are stored based on
standards.; rootstock are prepared in the end of April first days of may . Two methods of
spring grafting will be compared depend from rootstock dimensions: (1) Inlay Bark
Grafting (2) grafting by cutting in middle of stem. Cut of rootstock will be realized in two
levels: first cut will be realized 5 days before grafting; second cut will be realized 5
centimeter under the first one, in the grafting day. It is expected to avoid the suckering
during grafting process