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CH.

10 POWER AND INFLUENCE IN THE WORKPLACE


1. The Meaning of Power
Kemampuan
seseorang,

team,

atau

organisasi

untuk

mempengaruhi yang lain.


Countervailing Power
Kapasitas seseorang, team, atau organisasi untuk menjaga orang
yang sudah powerful sebagai timbal balik suatu hubungan.
Contoh: Seorang bawahan memiliki countervailing power karena dia
memiliki skill dan pengetahuan untuk membuat customer senang,
yang mana tidak bisa dilakukan oleh para eksekutif.
2. Source of Power:
a. Legitimate: Kesepakatan antar anggota organisasi bahwa orang pada
peran tertentu dapat meminta behaviour tertentu dari orang lain.
Contoh: Jika diminta untuk lembur (tergantung kesepakatan).
b. Reward:

Kemampuan

sesorang

untuk

mengontrol

alokasi

penghargaan dari orang lain dan menghilangkan sanksi (-)


Contoh: Karyawan memiliki reward power terhadap supervisornya,
karena kinerja supervisor juga tergantung bawahannya.
c. Coercive: Kemampuan untuk menentukan hukuman.
d. Expert: Kemampuan sesorang untuk mempengaruhi
skill/knowledge.
e. Referent: Kapasitas

mempengaruhi

orang

lain

dengan

karena
dasar

identifikasi dan menghargai pemegang power.


3. Information and Power: Orang memiliki information power jika punya
kontrol atas info untuk orang lain (legitimate power).
Tiga strategi umum untuk mengatasi ketidakpastian:
a. Prevention: Mencegah perubahan lingkungan.
Contoh: Financial expert punya power untuk mencegah kebangkrutan.
b. Forecasting: Memprediksi perubahan/ variasi lingkungan.
Contoh:
Marketing
memprediksi
customer
preference

untuk

mendapatkan power.
c. Absorption: Orang memiliki power dengan menetralisir dampak dari
perubahan lingkungan.
Contoh: Maintenance crew membetulkan mesin yang rusak agar
produksi tetap jalan.
4. Contigencies of Power
a. Substitutability: Adanya alternatif power.
b. Centrality: Level and nature ketergantungan antara yang punya
power dengan pihak lain.

Contoh: Jika kita punya centrality yang tinggi, ketidakadilan kita di


tempat kerja akan mempengaruhi orang lain dengan cepat.
c. Discretion: Keleluasaan untu menilai, exercise judgement untuk
mengambil keputusan.
d. Visibility: Ketika orang lain aware akan seseorang yang memiliki
power/knowledge.
5. Types of Influencing Tactis:
a. Silent authority: Influencing through legitimate power without
explicitly refering to that power base.
b. Assertiveness: Actively applying legitimate power by pressuring or
threatening.
c. Information control: Explicitly manipulating someone elses access
of information for some purposes.
d. Coalition formation: Forming a group that attempts to influence
others.
e. Upward appeal: Relying on people with higher authority to support
our position.
f. Persuasion: Using logical arguments, factual evidence, and emotional
appeals to convice people of the value of a request.
g. Impression management
h. Excharge: Promising benefits or resources in exchangr for the target
persons complience.
6. Concequences

of

influence

tactis:

resistance,

compliance,

and

commitment.
7. Organizational Politics
Beberapa kondisi yang mendorong terjadinya politik organisasi: scarce
resources, complex & ambigous decisions, organizational change, and
tolerance of politics.
Untuk meminimalisasi perilaku politik:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Introduce clear rules for scarce resources


Effective organizational change practices.
Suppress norms that support or tolerate self-serving behaviour.
Leaders role model organizational citizenship.
Give employees more control over their work.
Keep employees informed.

CH. 12 LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONAL SETTINGS


1. What is leadership?
Adalah mempengaruhi,

memotivasi,

dan

memungkinkan

yang

lain

berkontribusi menuju keefektifitasan dan keberhasilan dari organisasi


dimana mereka berada.

2. Competency leadership (perspective)


a. Personality: higher conscientiousness, effective leaders set higher
goals and more motivated to achieve those goals.
b. Self concept: Leaders self-believe ability to achieve objectives.
c. Drive: Leaders inner motivation to persue goals.
d. Integrity: Leaders thruthfulness and tendency to translate words into
deeds.
e. Leadership motivation: The leaders need for socialzed power to
accomplish organization goals.
f. Knowledge the business:

Knowledge

about

the

companys

environment.
g. Cognitive practical intelligence: Ability to analyze variety of
complex alternatives and opportunities.
h. Emotional intelligence: Ability to recognize and regulate emotions in
themselves and in other people.
3. Behavioral perspective of leadership
a. Task oriented behaviour
Assign specific tasks
Ensure employees follow the rules
Set stretch goals to achieve perf capacity
b. People oriented behaviour
Showing mutual trust and respect
Concern for employee needs
Looks out for employees well-being
c. Contigency perspective of leadership
Situational leadership
Leadership subtitutes

4. Path goal leadership theory


Teori kepemimpinan yang menyatakan bahwa pemimpin yang efektif
memiliki gaya kepemimpinan yang efektif berdasarkan karyawan dan
situasi untuk mempengaruhi ekspektasi atas hasil yang diinginkan.
5. Four leadership styles
a. Directive (task-oriented): Menjelaskan performance goals.
b. Supportive (people-oriented): Leader is friendly and approachable
c. Participative: Perilaku menganjurkan dan memfasilitasi dalam
keputusan, diluar kegiatan normal kerja.
d. Achievement oriented:
- Menekankan perilaku yang mendorong karyawan untuk mencapai
-

performa terbaik mereka.


Menentukan challenge goals.
Mengharapkan employees performing their highest level.

6. Contigencies of path goal theory: skill and experience, lacks of control,


task structure, team dynamics.
7. Leadership subtitutes
Mengidentifikasi kondisi yang mungkin membatasi kemampuan pemimpin
untuk mempengaruhi bawahan atau membuat gaya kepemimpinan
tertentu yang tidak perlu.

8. Transformational perspective of leadership


Melihat pemimpin sebagai agen perubahan strategi dan budaya
organisasi.
Trasactional leadership
Disebut sebagai managing atau doing things right karena
pemimpin

berkonsentrasi

pada

peningkatan

kinerja

dan

kesejahteraan karyawan.
Charismatic leadership
Transformational leadership memotivasi pengikut melalui perilaku
yang mengajak, sedangkan charismatic leadership memotivasi
pengikut secara langsung melalui kekuatan yang melekat pada
pemimpin.
Implisit leadership perspective

Prototype of effective leaders


Create what effective leader in each person mind
Allowing other people to influence us as a leader
Exist in most culture, people want to believe that leaders make a
different

9. Cross-cultural and gender issues in leadership


Culture shapes the leaders values and norms, which influence his or
her decisions and actions.
Charismatic visionary is a universally recognized concept of
effective leader.
Real jobs required similar behaviour from male and female
incumbent.

CH. 15 ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE


1. Lewins force field analysis model
Model to help us understand how the change process works.
Involves unfreezing the current situation and refreezing the system in the
desired state.
Unfreezing involves producing disequilibrium between the driving
and restraining forces.
Stability occurs when the driving and restraining forces are roughly
in equilibrium.
Driving forces
Forces for change.
External forces include information technology and a changing
workforce.
Internal forces

include

cross-departmental

competition

and

encouraging new practices and values.


Restraining forces -- resistance to change
Employee behaviours that block the change process.
Takes many forms e.g. complaints, absenteeism,

passive

noncompliance etc.
Some concerned with change outcomes, others concerned with
change process.
2. The main resons people resist change:
a. Direct costs: Believe changes will have higher costs or lower
benefits -- e.g. lower wages, reduced job security, lost power.

b. Saving face: Proving that anothers decision is wrong or that the


change agent is incompetent because your preference was not
implemented.
c. Fear of the unknown: People worry that they cannot adopt the
new behaviours.
d. Breaking routines: People want to stay in their comfort zones and
maintain existing routines.
e. Incongruent Organizational Systems: Organizational control
systems (selection, training, rewards etc.) maintain status quo
Need to alter systems to fit the desired change.
f. Incongruent Team Dynamics: Team norms may reinforce status
quo, resist change.
3. Creating an Urgency for Change
Inform employees about

driving

forces

e.g.

competitors,

changing consumer trends, etc.


Avoid creating false drivers for change -- must be real.
Customer-Driven Change
Dissatisfied customers are powerful force for change:
-have adverse consequences for organizations survival
-human element further energizes employees
Involves listening directly to customers, monitoring their
satisfaction

and

behaviour,

engaging

them

in

company

practices.
4. Dealing with Resistance to Change -- Reducing the Restraining Forces
a. Communication: Improves urgency to change and reduces fear of
the unknown
b. Training: Learn new knowledge and skills.
c. Employee involvement: Employees participate in change effort.
d. Stress management: Helps employees cope with change and
useful when previous strategies do not reduce stress.
e. Negotiation: Promise of benefits or resources in exchange for
compliance with request.
f. Coercion: Assertive influence tactics e.g. monitoring behaviours to
ensure compliance, confronting, threats of sanctions etc.
g. Refreezing desired condition: Realigning organizational systems
and team dynamics with the desired changes; feedback systems.
5. Three approaches to change:
a. Action research approach
Data-based, participative, problem-oriented process; change needs
both action and research focus.
b. Appreciative inquiry approach

Directs the groups attention away from its own problems and
focuses participants on the groups potential and positive elements.
Four Stages of Appreciative Inquiry Process
Discovery -- discovering positive elements of the observed
organization (may involve interviewing, documenting positive
events and elements).
Dreaming -- considering what might be possible in an ideal
organization -- safer revealing aspirations about an ideal than
their own situation.
Designing -- participants listen to each others' models and
assumptions, and eventually form a collective model for thinking
within the team.
Delivering -- participants establish specific objectives and
direction for their own organization based on their model of what
should be.
c. Parallel learning structures
Social structure alongside the formal hierarchy with the purpose of
increasing the organizations learning and highly participative
arrangements.
6. Cross-cultural and ethical concerns
a. Cross cultural concerns
Techniques mainly from North America and may conflict with
cultural values in some other countries.
Linear and open conflict assumptions about change -- not held
in cultures that try to minimize conflict to respect others and
save face.
Needs a more contingency-oriented perspective.
b. Ethical concerns
May threaten the individuals privacy rights.
May increase managements power.
May undermine the individuals self-esteem.
Consultants role in the client relationship.

CH. 16 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE


1. Organizational culture
The basic pattern of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs considered to
be the correct way of thinking about and acting upon problems and
opportunities facing the organization.
2. Elements of organizational culture
a. Assumptions
Deepest part of organizational culture.
Shared mental models.
b. Values
Stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important.
Need to focus on enacted values (foundation of our actions), not
espoused values (what people say they believe).
c. Beliefs
Individuals perceptions of reality.
3. Four strategies of merging corporate cultures
a. Assimilation
Acquired company employees willingly embrace cultural values
of acquiring firm.
Occurs when acquired company has dysfunctional culture and
acquiring companys culture is strong with clearly defined
values.
Culture clashes are rare, but mergers rarely have assimilation
situation.
b. Deculturation
Acquiring firm imposes its culture and business practices on
acquired firm.
Necessary when

acquired

firms

culture

ineffective

and

employees not convinced.


Potentially most destructive increases socio-emotional conflict.
c. Integration
Forming a new composite culture -- preserves best of the
previous cultures.
Slow and potentially risky -- many forces preserving the existing
cultures.
Best when companies have relatively weak cultures, cultural
values overlap, or employees are motivated to adopt a new set
of dominant values.
d. Separation
Merged firms keep their own corporate cultures and practices.

Best when merging firms are in unrelated industries or different


countries.
4. Cara memperkuat kultur dalam organisasi
a. Actions of founders and leaders
Founders establish org. culture; provide role models.
Transformational leaders can alter and strengthen
organizational culture by communicating and enacting their
vision.
b. Introducing culturally-consistent rewards
Rewards reinforce behaviours that are consistent with cultural
values.
c. Maintaining a stable work force
Org. culture embedded in minds of employees.
High turnover, rapid expansion weaken org. culture.
Need stable work force to communicate and reinforce the
dominant culture.
d. Managing the cultural network
Tribal storytellers --communicate org. stories.
Organizational grapevine is important for culture.
Opportunities to share stories and re-enact rituals.
Senior managers need to tap in to cultural network.
Organizational media may help transmit culture.
e. Selecting and socializing employees
Hire people whose beliefs and values are consistent with
organizational culture -- better person-organization fit.
Improves loyalty and workplace adjustment.
Communicate culture to job candidates through recruiting,
orientation, etc.
Applicants must pay attention to cultural artifacts.
Socialization
- process by which individuals learn the values, expected
behaviours, and social knowledge necessary to assume their
-

roles in the organization.


helps employees internalize cultural values.